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General Manager, Birmingham Corporation Salvage Department 








20 APR. 193; 


London : Bouverie House, Fleet Street, E.G. 4 



Richard Clay <& Sons, Ltd , Printers, Bungay, 8^lffolk 



Mimstei of Health, 

in recognition of his great task, successfully accomplished, 

for the improvement of the health services of this Country, 

and particularly so with regard to the operations of Public 





O.B E., F Inst P , F R.S Inst , A.MJnst T. } 

General Manager of the Biiininghara Corporation Salvage Department. 

IT gives me great pleasure to comply with the request of the Class designated under niy name to write 
a " foreword " on the occasion of the publication of the lectures which have been given during the past two 

It has for long been my desire to wnte a complete work dea-lmg with Cleansing problems, but calls on 
my time have been so numerous that this hope has not been fulfilled. 

The articles have been written in a simple manner in order to appeal mainly to students of Salvage and 
Public Cleansing work 

I do not suppose that the Lecturers claim that this book should be regarded as a " text-book " in the 
full sense of the term, but I am satisfied that it will in a large measure supply a long-felt want for those 
engaged in technical Cleansing 

The Class was primarily formed by me for the education of the members of the staff of the Birmingham 
Salvage Department, but as its activities became more widely known, a number of officials from other towns 
who were desirous of sitting for the examinations of the Institute of Public Cleansing, expressed a wish to 
join the Class, and it has now assumed somewhat large dimensions 

It is the intention of the Class to publish every two years a new volume which will incorporate many 
new lectures on other subjects, whilst many subjects which have already been dealt with will be treated 
in a different form. 

To students of Public Cleansing, the book should be of real service, whilst it is hoped that the publication 
will constitute a reliable reference book 

The members joining the Class will continue to receive their weekly home-work, which includes questions 
and answers on all kinds of Public Cleansing matters, but the reading of the lectures now published will 
enable such students to give a closer application to the study of the manifold problems and ramifications 
of Cleansing Work, which probably could not otherwise be obtained. 

The " Jas Jackson " Study Circle has not been formed with the intention of financial gain for its 
promoters, but with the sole object of educating and assisting those who are engaged 01 interested in the 
Cleansing Service. 


161 Corporation Street, 
May 1929 



W. H ANDREWS, A M Inst P C. 


B BREAR, M I Struct E 

J. H. CODLING, A M.I Mech.E , 

MJnst PC 
H. COOK, M Inst P C 


H. GURNEY, M Inst P C 





M.C , B So Lond., A.M I C E., 
A.M I E E. 

B. H. THOMSON, A.M.Inst P C. 

W WEAVER, B Sc., A.I.C. 


Chief Inspector, Birmingham Corpora- 
tion Salvage Department. 

Constructional Engineer, Birmingham 
Corporation Salvage Department. 

Formerly Constructional Engineer, 
Birmingham Corporation Salvage 

Chief Engineer, Birmingham Corporation 
Salvage Department. 

Cleansing Superintendent and Transport 
Officer, Cleansing Department, Roch- 
dale. (Formerly Chief Inspector, 
Birmingham Corporation Salvage 

Garage Supervisor, Birmingham Cor- 
poration Salvage Department 

Cleansing Superintendent, East Ham 
(Formerly Chief Clerk, Birmingham 
Corporation Salvage Department). 

Chief Accountant, Birmingham Cor- 
poration Salvage Department 

Salesman, Birmingham Corporation Sal- 
vage Department. 

Electrical Engineer, Birmingham Cor- 
poration Salvage Department 

Chief Clerk, Birmingham Corporation 
Salvage Department. 

Formerly Electrical Engineer, Bir- 
mingham Corporation Salvage Depart- 

Chief Cost Clerk, Birmingham Corpora- 
tion Salvage Department. 

Chief Chemist, Birmingham Corporation 
Salvage Department. 

Chief Assistant Veterinary Officer, Bir- 
mingham Corporation Veterinary 

Mechanical Engineer, Birmingham Cor- 
poration Salvage Department 

Chapter I (Parts I and III) 


VII, X, XI, and XIII. 






,, XIV (Part I). 

I (Part II). 


XIV (Part II). 


XV and XVI. 


IX and XII. 





LAW .... 1 

PART I Cleansing of Streets and removal of Refuse Definition of Earth Closets, Privies, etc Penalty for 
neglect to remove Eefuse Bights and Responsibilities of Occupieis Power to make Bye-laws Provision of 
Receptacles Penalty for Nuisances Power for cleansing certain types of conveniences only Provision of Privy 
Accommodation Public Conveniences Power to enter Premises Serving of Notices Penalty for Obstruction 
Times for Removal Propei construction of Vehicles, etc Spilling of Offensive Matter or Liquid Duties of 

PART II Local Acts and Bye-laws 

PART III Trade Refuse Definition. Legal Decisions Unsatisfactory Legal Position Manure from Mews, 
Stables, etc Garden Refuse 


ACCOUNTANCY . . .... 18 

Wages Periodical Payments Stores Requisitions Accounts Journals and Ledgers Assets and Liabilities 
Statement of Income and Expenditure 


COSTING . .... 25 

Definition of Costing Ministry of Health Costs Unit Costs Dissection Sheets Tiadesrnen's Tune Sheets 
Materials Special Charges Cost Accounts Transport Charges. 


STATISTICS . .... . 35 

PART I Definition Recording of Data Collection of Refuse Recoid of Work done by Collection Vehicles 
PART II Disposal and General Analysis and Comparison of Data Questionnaires Ministry of Health. 


PART I General Accommodation for Storage at Premises Explosives in Refuse Standard Dustbins 
Dustbin Sheds Means for obtaining Installation of Dustbins Dustbin Hire Scheme Position of Dustbins at 
Premises Waiting Time Bate of Loading Frequency of Collection 

PART II Methods of Transport Carrying Capacity of Vehicles Cleanliness of Vehicles Variation in 
Output of Refuse "Block Load" System "Continuous" System Charts 

PART III. Yield of Refuse Cinder Sifters Publicity Cesspools 






Compilation District Boundaries Site of Disposal Centre " Continuous " System Lay-out of Bounds 
Working Lists Advantages of "Continuous " System 



PART I Barging to Sea Pulverisation Action of the Pulvensei 

PART II Incineration and Salvage Utilisation Construction of Disposal Plant Chaigmg and Chnkeimg 
Mechanical improvements Refuse Conveyance and Storage 

PART III Refuse Screens Clinker Crushing and Screening Plant 

PAIIT IV Belt Conveyors Aerial Ropeways Magnetic Separation of Ferrous Metals 

PART V Hydraulic and Mechanical Bahng Plants Accumulators and Intensifies Piokmg Belts Eecoveiy 
of Salvaged Materials Utilisation of Garbage Atmospheric Pollution Grit Collectors 



Force Mattel Parallelogram of Forces Moments of Force Horse-power Laws of Motion 


HEAT . 119 

The Nature of Heat Transformation of Energy Heat and Work Effects of Heat Change of Internal 
Stress Temperature Sensible and Latent Heat Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Formation of Steam 

COMBUSTION . . . 125 

Chemical Combination Atomic Weights Union of Elements Calorific Values Theoretical Evaporative 
Power Temperature of Combustion 


Changes during Combustion Volatile Substances Burning of Carbon Colour and Temperature Table 
Cause of Smoke Prevention Oxidisation of Hydrocarbons Natural Draught Aitificial Draught 


Early types of Boilers Lancashire Boileis Water-tube Boilers Construction Evaporation Pressures 
Fuel Water Supply Boiler Fittings Loss of Heat Corrosion and Incrustation. 



Pressure Gauges Measurement of Water and Steam Charts Feed Water Recorders Temperature Gauges 
and Recorders C0 2 Recorders Draught Gauges 





PART I Elementary Electricity Magnets Laws of Magnetism Lines of Fence Elect i -.!**** u 
Generators Electrical Units 

PABT II Generation, Distribution and Utilisation of Electricity Turbines and Beciprocatmg Iimtf"" 
Direct Current Generators Switchboards Distributing Panels Cost of Geneiating BIootricity-M^^ J 
Electrical Bieakdowns Motors Type of Winding Standardisation Starting Geai Protective DOVMMM* 
PuseS Vehicle Charging Wiring Fittings Illumination Maintenance. 


* nt 
BOILER FEED WATER .......... . * ' * 

Degree of Hardness Salts causing hardness Temporary and Permanent Hardness Corrosion \\ sit in 
Softeners Colloidal Treatment 



Organic and Inorganic Fertilisers Sapomfication Value Title Free fatty acids. 

Digester System Vacuum Pan System The Benzene Process The "Iwel" Dry Rendeiing Proooas- 
Separation Slicing Machines Shme Lay-out of Plant Fat Extraction Clarifying Tanks Obnoxious gnHOH 

Steam Consumption Comparison of Treatment Laboratory Control Sale of Fertilisers Feeding 1 Moala 
Bacteriological Tests Laabs Process 


MATERIALS ............ . . - .187 

PART I Use and choice of Materials Foundation Work Concrete Making Mortar Making Typow of 
Bricks Damp-proof Courses Iron and Steel 
PAET II Selection of Timber Varieties of Timber Slates and Tiles Asphalt 



PAET I Excavations for Foundations Safe Bearing Powers of Soils English and Flemish. Bond G0i"bollin 

Air-bricks Floois Doors and Window-frames Roofs 

PAET II Drainage Construction Types of Diarns Land Drainage Surface Water and Soil Dram8--~T,i'A[)H 
for Foul Gases Gradients Ventilation Stable Drams Tests 

ELECTRIC VEHICLES .......... . . , , 201 

PART I Alkaline and Lead Plate Batteries Chemical Action and Symbols Charging and 

Cell-testing Instruments Evaporation -Battery Capacities 

PART II Methods of Charging Battenes Equalising Charges " Boosting " or Quick Charging 
Plant and Equipment Hints on Charging Batteries 

PAET III Care and Maintenance of Motors Undercutting the Commutator Mat and I>rum-lyj>Q Con- 
trollers Dnves Tipping Gears Fuses. 



PABT I The Glass of Horse required Purchase and Trial of Horses Class of Horse to Avoid Care of the 
Young Horse Stable buildings and Fittings 

PABT II. Foodstuffs Feeding and Watering Process of Digestion Digestion Co-efficient Nutritive Ratio 
Bedding Grooming, Clipping and Singeing Harness and Clothing Shoeing. 
PABT III Diseases commonly met with Care of the Sick Horse. 


PART I. Composition of Street Refuse Law relating to Street Cleansing Littering of Streets Publicity 
Types of Road Surface 

PABT II. Gritting Washing, Mushing or Swilling Sweeping The "Gang" and "Beat" Systems Street 
Orderlies Collection and Disposal of Sweepings Sprinkling and Watering Gully Cleansing. 

PART III. Effects of Weathei Tools and Implements Organisation Snow Clearance 


TIPS . 242 

Tipping of Dust from House Refuse The Bradford System Ministry of Health Suggested Precautions 
Roadways to Tips Tip Fires Prevention of Paper Nuisance Rats and Fhes Reclamation, of Land for 
Agricultural Purposes Unloading Boats Erection of Buildings on Refuse Tips Decomposition of Tipped 



Frontispiece Jas Jackson, Esq., O.B E., F.Inst.P.C., F.R.S.Inst , A.MJnst.T. General Manager, 
Birmingham Corporation Salvage Department. 

1. Ashplaces (a) Suitable, (6) Unsuitable ........... 8 

2. Diagram showing Accounting System . . . ..... 19 

3. Line and Staff System of Works Organisation . .... 27 

4. Salvage Department Staff Organisation . . .... 28 

5. Chart showing the average Daily Output of Refuse in Tons, and Atmospheric Conditions during the Year 

ended March 31st, 1927 . .42 

6. Chart showing (a) Weekly Tonnage of Refuse incinerated and (6) Wages Cost per Ton for Incineration . 43 
7 Explosives found in. Refuse .... ...... 56 

8. Part of Electric Vehicle Fleet . .... 62 

9. Fleet of " Halley " Cesspool Emptiers . . . .... 70 

10 A Gannow Pulveriser .... .... 78 

11. Lay-out of Pulverisation Plant . ... .... 79 

12. Simple Type of Incinerator . . . .... 80 

13. Chart showing Comparative Temperatures attained in a Refuse Furnace . 81 

14. View of Incinerators, Brookvale Rd Depot, Birmingham .... . 82 
15 Refuse Incinerator Cell and Mechanical Chnkermg Grate ......... 83 

16. Woodhall-Duckham Refuse Disposal Plant ... ....... 84 

17. Refuse-receiving Hoppers and Conveyors ........... 85 

18. Types of Screen .... 87 

19. Gannow Patent Screen. ...... . . 89 

20. Clinker Crushing, Screening and Storage Plant ... .... 90 

21. Conveyor Belts and Idlers . . .... .... 93 

22. Aerial Ropeway . . . . ........ 96 

23, 24. Principles of Magnetic Separation ... ........ 97 

25 " Rapid " Patent Screen Type Electro-Magnetic Separator . . 97 

26. Arrangement of Switchboard for Electro-Magnetic Separator .... ... 98 

27. Diagram of Patent Improved 5M8E Potentiometer Controller for Highly Induced Currents ... 98 
28 " Rapid " Patent Electro-Magnetic Separator Pulley . ... ... 98 

29. Outline of Shunt Break Switch and Pilot Lamp 98 

30. Diagram of Switch Connections . . ... 98 

31. Principle of the Hydraulic Press 99 

32. Simple Type of Scrap Baling Plant . .... . .100 

33. Hydraulic Accumulator for Baling Plant . . ...... 100 

34. Scrap Metal Baling Press . 100 

35. Scrap Metal Baling Plant ... 101 

36. Combined Paper and Scrap Baling Plant . . . 102 

37. Vertical Pumps ' . .103 

38 Hydraulic Intensifier for Baling Plant . ........ 103 

39 Paper Baling Press 104 

40. Diagrammatic Arrangement of Paper and Scrap Baling Plant ........ 104 

41 16. Mechanical Scrap, Paper and Rag Baling Presses 105-107 

47. Adjustable Hood and Suction Pipe of Paper Recovery Plant . 108 

48. View of Picking Belts, Brookvale Rd. Depot, Birmingham 110 

* zvii 


mo PAGE 

49. Another View of the Picking Belts, Brookvale Rd. Depot, Birmingham 110 

50. Grit Collector as installed at the Montague St. Depot of the Birmingham Corporation Salvage Department 111 

51, 52 Force Diagrams ... 114 

5355. Centres of Gravity of Plane Figures .... .115 

56. Moment of Force 115 

57. Method of ascertaining Coefficient of Friction ... .... 117 

58 Temperature Scales ........ . ... 121 

59, 60. Formation of Steam 123-124 

61. Structure of Candle Flame . . 130 

62 Draught Gauge .... .132 

63. Haystack Boiler 136 

64. Wagon Boiler .... . . . 136 

65. Cornish Boiler ... . . . 137 

66 Lancashire Boiler. . . ......... .... 137 

67 " Adamson " Eing Joint . . 137 

68. Babcock and Wilcox Tube Cap ... 138 

Cap and Back Plate . . . . 138 

Tube Header . 138 

Galloway Tube . ... 138 

69. Babcock and Wilcox Boiler . .... . . . .138 

70. Lever Weight Safety Valve . . . . 140 

71. Spring-loaded Safety Valve .... .... 141 

72. Dead-weight Safety Valve . . . ... .141 

73 Steam Pressure Gauge .... . . 141 

74. Water Gauge ... ... . 142 

75 Feed-check Valve . ... . . 142 

76. Blow-down Valve . ... .142 

77. Fusible Plug ... . . . . 142 

78. Mam Stop Valve . . . . .... 142 

79. " Bourdon " Pressure Gauge ... ...... 146 

80. Steam Pressure Chart . . 147 

81. " Lea " Recorder Tank ... .... 148 

82 Arrangement of Boiler Feed Recorder . ........ 149 

83. Feed Water Recorder and Tank . . 149 

84, 85. Boiler Feed Water Charts .... . ... 150 

86. Temperature Gauge . ........... 151 

87. Temperature Recorder . 152 

88. C0 2 and Temperature Chart . 153 

89. C0 2 and Temperature Recorder ......... ... 154 

90. U -Tube Draught Gauge ... 155 

91. Lay-out of Instruments ......... .... 156 

92 94 Diagrams of a Simple Electric Generator ......... . 160 

95. Illustration of Fleming's Right-hand Rule . . . . . . . . . . .161 

96 Series Circuit . ... 161 

97. Shunt Circuit 161 

98. Condensing Plant. . 164 

99. 100. Steam-driven Generating Sets 165-166 

101. Motor-starting Panels with Fuse Wire Boxes . ......... 169 

102. Five-wire Balancer Set 170 

103. Diagram of a Benzene Fat Extraction Plant . ...... 179 

104. Timber Sections .... 190 

105. Foundation for a Nine-inch Wall 194 

106 109 Brickwork Bonding and Corbelling 194 

110. Diagram showing Method of preventing Surface Damp ......... 195 

111. Hoop Iron Strutting T 195 



112. Method of Supporting Moor Joists. ............ 195 

113. Line Drawings of King Post and Queen Post Eoof Trusses ...... . 196 

114. Drainage Methods 199 

115 Electric Vehicle Charging Panels 206 

116. Diagrammatic Illustration of Series-wound Motor .......... 207 

117. Diagrammatic Illustration of Shunt-wound Motor 207 

118 Diagrammatic Illustration of Compound- wound Motor ......... 207 

119. " Dennis " Street Washing and Sprinkling Machine . 232 

120 Section of Street Gully 236 

121 Sketch of Tipping Bumper for use on Tips, showing Method of anchoring Bumpei . . . 243 


Specimen ruling 1 . . . . 36 

2 . .... . facing 36 

3 .... . 39-40 

4 . . . 41 

5 . between 38-39 

6 ... 38-39 

7 . . , . . 38-39 

8 . facing 42 

Dl ,,44 

,,D2 .46 




THE chapter dealing with law will be mainly confined to Acts and Bye-laws which, have a direct bearing 
upon cleansing and salvage work. Apart from what for want of a better term may be called Cleansing 
Acts, there are of course many Acts of Parliament, such, for instance, as the "Workmen's Compensation Acts, 
Factoiy Acts, etc., which are of great importance in the work of Corporation Departments, but as these 
and other Acts do not refer particularly to cleansing work they do not fall within the purview of this 


The law dealing with Cleansing as regards England and Wales is principally contained in the Public 
Health Act, 1875, as amended and amplified by subsequent Public Health Amendment Acts, Local Acts 
and Bye-laws 

The Public Health Act, 1875, is the basis of Public Cleansing Law, and has been referred to as the Charter 
of Public Cleansing This Act does not extend to Scotland and Ireland, however, nor to London In 
passing, it may be mentioned that London is provided for by the Metropolis Management Act, 1855, and 
the Public Health (London) Act, 1891 

It is essential that students wishing to sit for the examination of the Institute of Public Cleansing 
should obtain a thorough knowledge of the various sections of the 1875 Act, as, quite apart from this Act 
bemg the basis of Public Cleansing Law, the law section of examination papers almost invariably includes 
questions upon this Act 


The Authorities for the purpose of the Public Health Act, 1875, aie described m that Act as Urban 
and Eural Sanitary Authorities The effect of the Public Health Act, 1875, taken m conjunction with 
the Local Government Act, 1894:, is that the country is divided into cities, boioughs, and urban districts, 
on the one hand, and ruial districts on the other, the distinction between the two classes of distuct rests 
upon the degree of development which has taken place. In the case of cities and boroughs, the Corpora- 
tion acting by the Council is the Urban Sanitary Authority, in the case of the uiban districts and rural 
distucts, the Urban District Councils and the Rural District Councils are respectively the Sanitary 


This is probably the most important section of the Act so far as cleansing is concerned, and reads as 
follows . 

"Local Authority to promde fot cleansing of sheets and removal of refuse 

Every local authority may, and when required by order of the Local Government Board shall, 
themselves undertake or contract for 

The removal of house refuse from premises. 


The cleansing of earth-closets, privies, ashpits and cesspools, either for the whole or any pait 
of their district Moreover, every urban authority and any rural authority invested by the Local 
Government Board with the requisite poweis may, and when, required by order of the said Boaid 
shall, themselves undertake or contract for the proper cleansing of streets, and may also themselves 
undertake or contract f 01 the proper watering of streets for the whole 01 any pait of their district. 

All matters collected by the local authority or contractor in pursuance of this section may be sold 
or otherwise disposed of and any profits thus made by an urban authority shall be earned to the 
account of the fund or rate applicable by them for the general purposes of this Act , and any profits 
thus made by a rural authority in respect of any contubutoiy place shall be carried to the account 
of the fund or rate out of which expenses incurred under this section by that authonty in such con- 
tubutory place aie defiayed 

If any peison removes or obstructs the local authority or contiactor in removing any matters by 
this section authorised to be removed by the local authority, he shall for each offence be liable to a 
penalty not exceeding five pounds Provided that the occupier of a house within the district shall 
not be liable to such penalty in respect of any such matteis which are produced on his own piomises, 
and are intended to be leraoved for sale or for his own use, and aie in the meantime kept so as not 
to be a nuisance " 

It will be observed that no power is given to a Local Authority to charge occupiers for the removal of 
house refuse, and also that the section does not require a Corporation to remove trade refuse an important 
point, which will be referred to in a subsequent chapter. 

Particular note should be taken of the wording of the section in regard to cleansing and watering of 
streets It will be seen that an Authority can be compelled to cleanse streets, but watering is optional. 
A further point requiring emphasis is that any Local Authority (whether Urban or Rural) is empowered to 
set up a cleansing service for house refuse removal, but Rural Authorities are not empowered to undertake 
street cleansing unless they are granted special poweis to do so by the Local Government Board (now the 
Ministry of Health). 

In case any student does not understand the descriptions of the various types' of receptacles referred 
to in the section, the following notes are given 

Bai tli-dosets Eeceptacles having an arrangement whereby earth is mixed with fsecal matter after each 
time the receptacle is used. 

Pnvies Generally called privy middens Nothing more than a hole in the ground, sometimes brick- 
lined They are used as receptacles for all kinds of filth, fsecal matter, aslies, etc. 

Both these types of " conveniences " (a better description would be "inconveniences ") are abomina- 
tions, and the dangers consequent upon their use are too apparent to need mention 

Fortunately, in Birmingham there aie comparatively few of either of these insanitary arrangements, 
and where they are m use they are geneially attached to isolated dwellings. 

Cesspools in Birmingham usually called " dumbwells " They geneially serve houses on the outskirts 
of the City for which no sewer is available. They aie underground chambers (which should be water- 
tight) and generally both sewage and waste sink water are drained into them The law requires dumb- 
wells to be at least 50 feet away from, a dwelling house, water springs or wells 

Ashpits These places are too well known to require description. They are a relic of r" -!,---- - 
past, and Brrmmgharn is spending large sums of money each year upon their conversion into I 

(C Penalty on neglect of local authority to lemove refuse, etc 

If a local authority who have themselves undertaken or contracted for the removal of house refuse 
from premises, or the cleansing of earth-closets, privies, ashpits and cesspools fail, without reasonable 
excuse after notice in writing from the occupier of any house within their district requiring them to 
remove any house refuse or to cleanse any earth-closet, privy, ashpit 01 cesspool belonging to such 
house or used by the occupiers thereof, to cause the same to be removed or cleansed, as the case may 
be, withm seven days, the local authority shall be liable to pay the occupier of such house a penalty 

LAW 3 

not exceeding five shillings for every day duung winch said default continues after the expiration of 
the said period " 

This section does not requue any lengthy explanation It will be seen that occupiers of properties 
in districts wheie a refuse collection service is in operation have very definite rights, and that Corpora- 
tions affected have well-defined responsibilities Although it might be thought that this section enables 
an occupier to require a free weekly collection, the Courts have decided that a Local Authonty can only 
be required to carry out a free collection at reasonable intervals, having legard to all the circumstances 

The case of an occupier who took proceedings against the Epsom Corporation for the more frequent 
cleansing of his dumbwell might be instanced Durnbwell emptying is a very expensive operation, and 
as will be seen from an account of the case which is given below, it was held that, although the dumbwell 
in question had only been emptied at three-monthly intervals, the occupier conceined had received good 
value foi his money, and that if he required more fiequent seivice, he must pay for it 


" Local Authonties and Cesspools 

It will come as lather a relief to many local authorities who have undertaken the duty of cleansing 
cesspools undei Section 42 of the Public Health Act, 1875, to leain that there is some limit to the 
demands for unreasonably fiequent emptying that may be made upon them by ceitam occupiers 
The piovision of Section 43 for a daily penalty to be paid to the occupier if a local authority fail to 
cleanse after seven days' notice might obviously become oppressive if it were enforced without qualifica- 
tion For example, in a case which was recently before the Courts it had cost 37 18s Od m one year 
for labour alone to meet the demands of the occupier of a house having a rateable value of no more 
than 100 It appears from the report of this case Leek v Epsom Kural District Council 
which, appears in the current issue of limglifs Local Government Reports, that on account of the heavy 
cost of the work the Council decided that the occupier concerned must pay the cost of any cleansrngs 
he might require in excess of one every three months To this the appellant objected, and summoned 
the Council under Section 43 for refusing to empty his cesspool a second time in one quarter without 
payment It was, however, held by the Court that in the ciicumstances they had a reasonable excuse 
lor not complying with the demand without payment, and the appeal was accordingly dismissed 
It cannot be denied that this particular ratepayer was receiving full value for his rates, and the decision 
that he was not entitled to an unlimited service is not only good law but also sound common sense " 

The writer is not aware as to the amount of rates levied by the Epsom Council, but assuming they were 
15,5. m the , which would piobably be on the high side for a Rural Authority, it would mean that this 
particular occupier would pay 75 per annum in rates He received neaily 40 m value in labour only, 
and it can be safely estimated that other items such as use of vehicles, overhead charges, etc , would bring 
the total cost of emptying his dumbwell to at least 50 per annum, or no less than two-thirds of his total 
payments, so that he was certainly getting veiy good value for his money 


" Power of Local Autlionty to make bye-laws imposing duty of cleansing, etc , on occupier. 

Where the local authority do not themselves undertake or contract for 

The cleansing of footways and pavements adjoining any premises 

The removal of house refuse from any premises 

The cleansing of earth-closets, privies, ashpits and cesspools belonging to any premises, they may 
make bye-laws imposing the duty of such cleansing or removal, at such intervals as they, think fit, on 
the occupier of any such premises 

An urban authority may also make bye-laws for the prevention of nuisances arising from snow, 
filth, dust, ashes, and rubbish, and for the prevention of the keeping of animals on any premises so as to 
be injurious to health." 


The first portion of this section covers those smaller authorities who do not undertake refuse removal 
and cleansing, and who can leqime occupiers to undertake the duty at presciibed intervals 

It should be noted that Section 44 does not authorise any conditions being laid down by a Corporation 
as to the method of cleansing to be adopted, but only authorises the interval between cleansrngs being 

The second part of Section 44 empowers an Uiban (note Urban) Authority to make bye-laws upon the 
matters referred to. 

This is the section which allows bye-laws to be passed such as those in operation in Birmingham icgard- 
ing the deposit of liquid matter in dustbins It is also from, this section that an Urban Authority can 
lequire occupieis to lemove snow from pavements to roadway 

" Powei to pwvide receptacles foi deposits of lubbish 

Any urban authority may, if they see fit, provide m piopei and convenient situations receptacles 
for the temporary deposit and collection of dust, ashes and rubbish , they may also provide fit buildings 
and places foi the deposit of any matters collected by them in puisuance of this part of this Act 

It is upon this authority that an Urban Authority may erect a refuse disposal works or provide a tip 
Some Corporations themselves provide dustbins at properties instead of requiring owners 01 occupiers 
to do so, as is done in Birmingham, and this section would provide the necessary authority foi this method 
of installing bins The section would also covei the piovision of receptacles foi refuse which are fixed 
by some Corporations in the streets, and usually attached to lamp or tram standards 

" Penalty in respect of certain nuisances on ptemises. 
Any person who m any urban district . 

(1) Keeps any swme or pigsty in any dwelling house, or so as to be a nuisance to any person , or 

(2) Sutlers any waste or stagnant water to lemain in any cellar or place within any dwelling 
house for twenty-foui hours after written notice to him from the urban authority to remove the 
same , or 

(3) Allows the contents of any water closet, privy or cesspool to overflow or soak therefrom, 
shall for every such offence be liable to a penalty not exceeding forty shillings, and to a further 
penalty not exceeding five shillings for every day during which the offence is continued, and the 
urban authority shall abate or cause to be abated every such nuisance, and may recover in a 
summaiy manner the expenses incurred by them m so doing from the occupier of the premises 
on which the nuisance exists." 

The reasons for the provisions contained in par. (3) of this section are rather difficult to follow, as it 
appears that with regard to overflowing of privies or cesspools an occupier is in the hands of the Corporation 
concerned If the latter do not empty his privy or cesspool sufficiently frequently to prevent overflowing, 
it is difficult to see how the occupier can be held responsible. The section may be fiamed to cover districts 
where no cleansing of the conveniences mentioned is undertaken by the Authority, in which case the onus 
of cleansing could be placed on occupiers. 

The section might also be intended to be used m requiring occupiers to keep the conveniences mentioned 
in sufficiently good repair, i e., to prevent refuse escaping, presuming emptying is cairied out often enough, 
although this seems doubtful, as it will be noticed that the Authority can only proceed against an occupiei 
and not against an owner 

It will be remembered that Section 42 of the Public Health Act, 1875, refers to the cleansing of several 
types of conveniences, and the question once aiose as to whether in putting a cleansing service in operation 

LAW 5 

an Authority is obliged to undertake the cleansing of each type of convenience mentioned m that section 
The Local Authority concerned passed a bye-law requiring cesspools to be emptied every three months 
by the occupiers of houses, and at the time this bye-law was passed the Local Authority did not undertake 
cleansing of any nature 

It was subsequently decided by resolution of the Council to cleanse ashpits, privies and eaith-closets. 
The occupiers of houses possessing cesspools then claimed that the Local Authority were obliged to under- 
take the cleansing of all types of conveniences mentioned in Section 42 The case was taken to law, and it 
was held that the Authonty could by resolution of the Council decide to undertake the cleansing of a portion 
only of the types of conveniences referred to in Section 42. 

It has been ruled in the Couits also that a Local Authority, once having decided to undertake cleansing 
under Section 4.2, can, if they so desire, cease to undertake the woik 

" Power of Local Authonty to enforce prov^s^on of pnvy accommodation f 01 houses. 

If a house within the district of a local authority appears to such authority by the report of then- 
Surveyor or Inspectoi of Nuisances to be without a sufficient water-closet, earth-closet or privy and an 
ashpit furnished with proper doors and coveimgs, the local authority shall, by written notice, require 
the ownei or occupier of the house, within a reasonable time therein specified, to provide a sufficient 
water-closet, eaith-closet, or pnvy and an ashpit furnished as afoiesaid, or either of them, as the case 
may require 

If such notice is not complied with, the local authoiity may, at the expiration of the time specified 
in the notice, do the work thereby required to be done, and may i ecover in a summary mannei fiom the 
owner the expenses incurred by them in so doing, or may by order declare the same to be private improve- 
ment expenses Provided that where a watei-closet, earth-closet or pnvy has been and is used in 
common by the inmates of two or more houses, or if in the opinion of the local authority a water-closet, 
earth-closet or privy may be so used, they need not require the same to be provided for each house " 

Sections 42 to 47 were discussed earlier in this chapter, and the reader may wonder why Section 36 
is dealt with subsequently. The reason is that Sections 42 to 47 are placed undei the heading of 
" Scavenging and Cleansing " in the Act, and these sections may therefore perhaps be regarded as more 
closely concerning a Cleansing or Salvage Department than other sections. 

Section 36 comes under the heading of " Privies and Water-closets," but, as will be seen, contains one very 
important clause affecting Cleansing Departments, viz that bearing reference to the provision of ashpits. 

Under Section 11 of the Public Health Acts Amendment Act, 1890, the term " ashpit " as used in the 
1875 Act, is extended to include movable receptacles such as dustbins Section 11 of the Public Health 
Acts Amendment Act reads as follows 

" The expression ' ashpit ' in the Public Health Acts and in this Act shall for the purposes of the 
execution of those Acts and of this Act include any ashtub or other receptacle for the deposit of ashes, 
faecal matter or refuse." 

It will be seen that under the sections mentioned of the two Acts, a Local Authoiity can obtain the 
provision of dustbins by owners or occupiers, and, in some districts, the installation of dustbins is obtained 
under these sections. In actual practice, however, this method is somewhat cumbersome, possesses certain 
loopholes, and to put the matter on a sound basis some Authorities have obtained definite powers under 
local Acts to require the provision of bins. Birmingham possesses full poweis under local Acts to obtain 
the installation of dustbins at any property, and these Acts will be dealt with in a subsequent chapter 
upon local law. 


"Public Necessaries. 

Any urban authority may, if they think fit, provide and maintain, in proper and convenient 
situations, urinals, watei-closets, earth-closets, privies and ashpits and other similar conveniences fox 
public accommodation." 


This section lequues no explanation and, as will be seen, gives authority for the provision of public 

" Powe 1 ) of entty of local authority. 

The local authoiity, or any of then officers, shall be admitted into any premises foi the puipose 
of examining as to the existence of any nuisance theieon, or of enforcing the piovisions of any Act in 
force within the distuct requmng fireplaces and furnaces to consume then own smoke, at any time 
between the hours of nine in the forenoon and six m the afternoon, or in the case of a nuisance arising 
in lespect of any business, then at any hour when such business is in progress or is usually carried on 

Where under this Act a nuisance has been ascertained to exist or an order of abatement or pro- 
hibition has been made, the local authority or any of then officeis shall be admitted fiom time to time 
into the piemises between the houis aforesaid, until the nuisance is abated, 01 the works ordeied to be 
done are completed, as the case may be 

"Where an order of abatement or prohibition has not been complied with, 01 has been infringed, the 
local authoiity, 01 any of their officers, shall be admitted from time to time at all reasonable houis, 
or at all hours during which business is in progress or is usually earned on, into the premises where the 
nuisance exists, in order to abate the same 

If admission to premises for any of the purposes of this section is lefused, any justice on complaint 
thereof on oath by any officer of the local authority (made after reasonable notice in writing of the 
intention to make the same has been given to the person having custody of the premises) may, by ordei 
under his hand, require the person having custody of the premises to admit the local authority, 01 their 
officer, into the premises during the hours aforesaid, and if no person having custody of the premises 
can be found, the justice shall, on oath made befoie him of that fact, by order under his hand authorise 
the local authority or any of their officers to enter such premises during the hours aforesaid 

Any order made by a justice for admission of the local authoiity or any of their officers on premises 
shall continue in force until the nuisance has been abated, or the woik for which the entry was necessary 
has been done." 

This section deals with the serving of notices and reads as follows 

" Notices, orders and any other documents required or authorised to be served under this Act 
may be seived by delivering the same to or at the residence of the person to whom they are respectively 
addressed, or where addressed to the owner or occupier of piemises by delivering the same or a true 
copy thereof to some person on the premises, or if there is no peison on the premises who can be so 
served by fixing the same on some conspicuous part of the premises, they may also be served by post, 
by a prepaid letter, and if served by post shall be deemed to have been served at the time when the 
letter containing the same would be delivered in the ordmaiy course of post, and in proving such 
service it shall be sufficient to prove that the notice, order or other document was properly addressed 
and put into the post 

Any notice by this Act required to be given to the owner or occupier of any premises may be 
addressed by the description of the ' owner ' or ' occupier ' of the premises (naming them) in respect 
of which notice is given, without further name or description." 

It will be seen that there are several ways of serving notices, and it may be advisable to comment upon 
some of the methods mentioned : 

(a) Fixing Notices on Buildings This course should be adopted only when it is found impossible to serve 
a notice either personally or by registered post. 

(5) " Prepaid Letter." It will be noted that " Eegistered Post " is not demanded. Notices served under 
the Public Health Acts can be served by ordinary post, postage and prepayment being proved by the 
individual who made up, stamped and posted the postal packet. If notices are served by ordinary post, 
however, it is desirable for one person only to carry out the making up, stamping and posting of the postal 

LAW 7 

packet, as otherwise difficulty might be expcuenced in piovmg posting Another method of piovmg prepay- 
ment is by means of a certificate of posting, which can be obtained on payment of \d at a post office, at 
the time of posting an unregistered letter, postcard, printed paper or newspaper 

Either method satisfies the requirements of the section, but it should be noted that ceitam local Acts 
such as the Birmingham Consolidation Act, 1883, require notices sent by post to be registered 

(c) Addressing as "Owner" (without name) This method should be adopted only after leasonable 
efforts have been made to obtain the actual name and address of the ownei 


This section deals with the obstruction of an Authority in execution of the provisions of the Act and 

" Penalty on obstructing execution of Act 

Any person who wilfully obstructs any member of the local authonty, 01 any person duly employed 
in the execution of this Act, or who destioys, pulls down, injures 01 defaces any board on which any 
bye-law notice or othei matter is inscribed, shall, if the same was put up by authority of the Local 
Government Boaid or of the local authority, be liable f 01 eveiy such offence to a penalty not exceeding 
five pounds 

Where the occupiei of any premises prevents the ownei theieof from obeying or canying Into 
effect any provisions of this Act, any justice to whom application is made in this behalf shall, by oidei in 
writing, require such occupier to peimit the execution of any works lequired to be executed, provided 
that the same appear to such justice to be necessary for the purpose of obeying 01 cairying into effect 
the pio visions of this Act , and if within twenty-four hours aftei the making of the ordei such occupier 
fails to comply therewith, he shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding five pounds for every day duimg 
the continuance of such non-compliance. 

If the occupier of any premises, when requested by 01 on behalf of the local authority to state 
the name of the owner of the premises occupied by him, lefuses or wilfully omits to disclose or wilfully 
mis-states the same, he shall (unless he shows cause to the satisfaction of the Court for his refusal) be 
liable to a penalty not exceeding five pounds " 

It must not be assumed that this section gives a Local Authonty power to enter piemises without the 
permission of the occupier, as is evidenced by the following lepoit of an action which was taken by a Local 
Authonty against an owner for obstruction 

" A notice having been served by an urban district upon the ownei of premises requiring him to 
abate a nuisance thereon, certain members of the Council went to the premises, and, without the per- 
mission of the owner, some of them entered the premises to make an inspection, the rest remaining 
outside. The owner thereupon locked the door of the premises, thus preventing the members who weie 
outside from entering, and those who weie inside from getting out Upon information charging the 
owner with having wilfully obstructed the members in the execution of the Public Health Act, 1875, 
it was held that the members had no power under Section 102 of the Act to enter premises except by 
permission of the owner or by an order of a magistrate, and that therefore they were not lawfully 
there, and the ownei was not guilty of obstructing them in the performance of their duty (Consett Urban 
District Council v Crawford, 1903)." 

The proper course for the Authority to have taken was to ask the owner's permission to enter the 
premises, and if sanction was refused, a magistrate's order should have been applied for, in accordance 
with Section 102 of the Public Health Act, 1875. 


This section, part of which appears to be supplemental to Section 44 of the Public Health Act, 1875, 
deals with the making of bye-laws in connection with refuse removal and reads as follows 


" Powei to make lye-laws for certain samtany purposes 
" (1) An uiban authority may make bye-laws in lespect of the following matters, namely : 

(a) For prescribing the times for the lemoval or carriage through the streets of any faecal or 
offensive or noxious matter or liquid, whether such matter or liquid shall be in course of removal 
or carriage from within or without 01 through their district 

(6) For providing that the vessel, receptacle, cart or carriage used theiefoi shall be properly 
"constructed and covered so as to prevent the escape of any such mattei or liquid 

(c) For compelling the cleansing of any place wheieon such matter or liquid shall have been 
diopped or spilt m such removal or carriage 

(2) Where a local authority themselves undertake or contract for the removal of house refuse they 
may make bye-laws imposing on the occupier of any premises duties m connection with such removal 
so as to facilitate the work which the local authority undertake or contract foi." 

The times for removal of offensive matter as specified in bye-laws made undei this section are determm- 
able by the Local Authority. 

In a Metropolitan Police Act (now repealed) it was laid down that the hours for removal of noxious matter 
should be restricted to the hours of from 12 midnight to 6 a m 

In a series of bye-laws made as recently as August 1925 by a Midland Authority, the hours for removal 
are fiorn 6am to 8 30 from March to October and from 7 30 a m. to 9 30 a m from November to 

The second paragraph of the section empowers an Authority to pass bye-laws to facilitate the woik of 
refuse collection, such, for example, as requiring occupiers to remove dustbins to the pavement to await the 
collecting vehicle. In this connection it might be mentioned that there is some limit to which occupiers 
can be called upon to assist in this direction, in spite of bye-laws which may be brought into operation, as 
will be evident from the case in which an occupier whose house was situated 40 feet fiom the kerbstone, and 
who declined to remove his bin to the kerb. The Authority refused to remove his house refuse until the bin 
was delivered by the occupier to the kerb, and in the legal action which resulted it was held that the occupiei 
was justified in his refusal 


Introduction The powers obtained under the various Acts and Bye-laws which will be dealt with are 
applicable only to the City of Birmingham Most cities have their own local Acts and Bye-laws, and 
each may differ from the other according to local conditions. 

Ashplaces Before proceeding to deal with the Acts and Bye-laws it is necessary to describe the more 

frequent types of ashplaces for the temporary 

-"""^ >^ /^ storage of refuse, in use in this city before the 

introduction of dustbins. 

The question of ashplaces as a means of storing 
refuse pending its removal by the Corporation and 
their great disadvantages will be dealt with later. 
In order that the terms used in the local Acts 
to be dealt with may be better understood, the 
types of ashplaces are divided into the following 
classes : 

, . '- V (a) Suitable construction 

Cb' (6) Unsuitable construction. 

EIG 1 Ashplaoes (a) Suitable (&) Unsuitable 

Class (a) are ashplaces of such construction as 

to give a ready means of access and in which there are no obstructions to the removal of refuse (see 
Fig. 1). 

Class (6) are ashplaces of such construction that, to remove the contents, the refuse collectors have to 
climb through the small door and shovel the refuse out. 

LAW 9 

It is obvious that the collection of refuse from this class of ashplace has numerous objections, which 
render them of " unsuitable construction " 

" Regulation Dustbins. 

28 (1) The Corporation may by notice in writing require the owner or occupier of any dwelling 
house, warehouse or shop to provide portable dustbins of galvanised iron or other impervious material 
in lieu of ashpits or ashtubs or other receptacles for refuse and such bins shall be of such size and 
construction as may be approved by the Corporation 

(2) Any owner or occupier who fails within fourteen days after notice given to him to comply with 
the requirements of the Corporation under this section shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding twenty 
shillings and to a daily penalty not exceeding five shillings 

(3) Provided that this section shall not apply to any ashpits or ashtubs or other receptacles for 
refuse m use at the passing of this Act so long as the same are of suitable material size and construction 
and in proper order and condition and for a period of five years after the passing of this Act this section 
shall not apply to any ashpits or ashtubs or other receptacles for refuse m use at the passing of this 
Act which complied with the bye-laws in operation at the time when they were provided and which 
are in proper order and condition " 


From Sub-section (1) it will be seen that the Corporation may serve the notices upon either the owner 
or occupier The Salvage Committee have by resolution adopted the principle that notices shall be served 
upon the owners of properties except in special cases such as when a tenancy is for a number of years on 
lease, when it is left to the discretion of the General Manager to serve such notices upon the occupiers if 
he thinks fit 

The City Council has approved for use in the city two sizes of dustbins and the detailed specification of 
construction is given on the back of all notices served under this Act 

It will be observed that Sub-section (3) prevents the Corporation from requiring dustbins to be installed 
at any property which has an ashplace, ashtub or other receptacle in use, which at the passing of the Act was 
of suitable size and construction and in proper order and condition 

In order to overcome this difficulty the Corporation obtained further powers by Section 54 of the 
Birmingham Corporation Act, 1922, as follows 


" Fwtfi&t Provisions as to Dustbins. 

54. (1) Section 28 (Regulation Dustbins) of the Act of 1914 is hereby amended by the insertion of 
the words ' and to maintain in good order and condition ' after the word ' provide ' 

(2) Where the Corporation are prepared to pay one-half the expense of providing a portable 
dustbin, the said Section 28 as amended by this Act shall notwithstanding Sub-section (3) thereof 
apply to ashpits, ashtubs and other receptacles for refuse m use at the passing of the Act of 1914, 
although they are of suitable material, size and construction and in proper order and condition 

(3) In cases where a portable dustbin is substituted for an ashpit the Corporation may (if they 
think fit) contribute to the cost of converting the ashpit into a dustbin shed, a sum not exceeding one 
half of such cost " 


Sub-section (1) gives the Corporation power to require owners or occupiers to renew dustbins when 
worn out. 

As already stated, the Corporation could not require dustbins to be provided at any property where 
the ashplace was of suitable size and construction and in good order and condition, and therefore to obtain 


dustbins at such properties the Corporation Lad to agree to pay half the cost of the first dustbm(s) required 
in lieu of such ashplaces 

Sub-section (3) deals with the ashplace of unsuitable size and construction and empowers the Corpora- 
tion to make a contribution not exceeding one-half the cost of having such alterations carried out as will 
convert the ashplace into a dustbin shed 

The alterations required to do this are usually of a very small character 

From Fig 1 (6) it will be seen that if the door and jambs are taken off, the brickwork is cut down for the 
width of the door from the bottom of the door to the ground, and a 3-mch sill built at the bottom, a suitable 
bin-shed is obtained If the floor of the ashplace is below the ground level, it would be necessary to have 
the floor raised to the same height as the sill 

This section deals with the serving of notices and how such notices are to be made out 

t[ 1 Notices may either be in writing, print (including lithograph), wholly, part or both, and shall 
be sufficiently authenticated by the signature of the proper officer, in print, writing or stamp 

2. Notices can be served on owner or occupiers addressed ' Owner or Occupier " (as the case may 
be) of the premises (naming them) 

3 Serving of Notices 

Notices can be served in any of the following methods 

(a) Personally. 

(6) Registered post addressed to him by name at his last known place of abode or business. 

(c) By delivering same to some inmate at his last known or usual place of abode or business 
In the case of an occupier, to any inmate of the premises of which it is served or given, or if the 
premises are unoccupied, and after diligent enquiry the place of abode cannot be traced, by fixing 
the notice or copy on some conspicuous part of the premises 

4 The date of service is the date on which such letters would be delivered in the ordinary course 
of post 

5. The section of the Act or Bye-law under which the notice is served must be set out at the head 
or foot or back of the notice 


This section empoweis the Corporation to contribute not exceeding one-half the cost towards the 
conversion of existing closet accommodation (other than a water-closet) into a water-closet at any dwelling- 
house in the city. 


The following Bye-laws were made by the City Council in May 1921, and approved by the Ministry of 
Health, by virtue of the provisions of the Public Health Acts Amendment Act, 1890 

Section 26 1. In these Bye-laws the expression " the Council " means the Lord Mayor, Alder- 
men and Citizens of the City of Birmingham acting by the Council 

2. (a) Where under Section 28 of the Birmingham Corporation Act, 1914, a portable dustbin has 
been required to be provided in connection with any premises the occupier of such premises shall 
cause all house refuse on the premises, intended for removal by the Council, to be placed in such portable 

(&) Where no portable dustbin has been required to be provided he shall cause all such house refuse 
on the premises intended for removal by the Council to be placed in the ashpit or other receptacle for 
refuse provided in connection with the premises 

(c) He shall cause such portable dustbin or other receptacle containing the house refuse to be placed 
in such a position on the premises as for the purpose of removing the contents of such portable dustbin 
or other receptacle will be most conveniently accessible from the nearest street used as a means of 
access to the premises for the removal of house refuse, otherwise than through any dwelling-house. 

LAW 11 

3 The occupier of any premises shall not deposit or cause to be deposited in or within four feet of 
any leceptacle provided for the reception of house refuse intended for removal by the Council any house 
refuse not intended for removal by the Council 

4 The occupier of any premises shall not deposit or cause to be deposited in any portable dustbin 
or other receptacle provided for the reception of house refuse any liquid or fsecal matter whatever 

5 Every person who shall offend against any of the foregoing bye-laws shall be liable for every such 
offence to a penalty of 40s Provided nevertheless that the Justices or Court before whom any com- 
plaint may be made or any proceedings may be taken in respect of any such offence may, if they think 
fit, adjudge the payment as a penalty of any sum less than the full amount of the penalty imposed by 
this Bye-law. 

These Bye-laws deal entirely with the collection of house refuse and were made to facilitate this work 
Bye-laws 2 (a) and (&) apply more particularly to court or back premises where usually the refuse accom- 
modation is common to two or more houses and the occupiers of such properties are not as clean and careful 
in their habits as could be desired Prior to the introduction of these Bye-laws, it was found that refuse 
was frequently thrown in the direction of the dustbins, and most of it fell on the giound 

Great assistance has been affoided by Bye-law 2 (c) especially m the case of houses with long gardens, 
with the street entrance furthest from the house Dustbins aie now kept near the entrance, thus obviating 
the refuse collectors having to carry the dustbins the length of the garden 

Bye-law 3 clearly defines what refuse is intended for removal by the Corporation, and assists 
considerably in meeting complaints from occupiers of articles having been wrongly removed by the refuse 

It is not necessary to dwell upon Bye-law 4, as the evil of liquid or fsecal matter in dustbins is apparent. 
More particularly is the enforcement of such a Bye-law necessary in towns where the refuse is treated at a 
salvage works 

It has not been found necessary to serve any notices under these Bye-laws , a letter calling the attention 
of defaulting occupiers has, so far, always been sufficient If, however, at any time it was necessary to 
serve a notice upon an occupier, the notice would have to be drawn up and served in accordance with the 
requirements of Section 259 of the Birmingham Corporation (Consolidation) Act, 1883. 



It will be lemembered that when the provisions of Section 42 of the Public Health Act, 1875, were 
discussed pieviou&ly (page 2), it was pointed out that theie is nothing contained in that section which 
directs that a Local Authority shall remove tiade refuse In districts where no special local enactment 
authorising a charge being levied for trade refuse removal is in force, the fact that Section 42 does not 
require a Corporation to remove tiade refuse might be used as an authonty for demanding payment This 
may be termed a negative authority, however, and in actual piactice might not invariably prove satisfactory, 
particularly in the largei cities and towns, where organised associations of traders are usually found, who 
are always alive to the protection of their members To place the matter on a sounder footing, therefore, 
many Local Authorities have obtained powers under local Acts definitely authorising the levying of charges 
for trade refuse removal, or have adopted other legislation which is lefeired to later 


As far as Birmingham is concerned, power to demand payment for removal of trade refuse is contained 
in Section 80, Birmingham Corporation Act, 1903, as follows 

" No trade refuse, building materials or rubbish of a like description shall be deposited in any closet, 
privy, cesspool, ashpit or ashtub, and if any such refuse, materials or rubbish be so deposited the 
Corporation may make a reasonable charge for the removal of the same, which charge shall be paid to 
the Corporation by the occupier of the premises in respect of which the charge is made." 



A charge for trade refuse removal is authorised also under Section 48, Public Health Acts Amendment 
Act, 1907, as follows 

" Removal of Ttade Refuse 

If the local authority are required by the owner 01 occupier of any premises to remove any trade 
refuse (otter than sludge), the local authority shall do so, and the owner or occupier shall pay to them 
for doing so a reasonable sum, to be settled in case of dispute by order of a court of summary jurisdic- 
tion , and if any question arises in any case as to what is to be considered as trade refuse, that question 
may be decided on the complaint of either party by a court of summary ]unsdiction, whose decision 
shall be final." 

The latter Act is an adoptive Act, that is, an Act which can be adopted in part 01 whole by a Local 
Authority at their discretion, subject to the approval of the Ministry of Health If a Corpoiation had 
adopted Section 48 of this Act, they would be obviously obliged to abide fully by its provisions, and 
would, theiefore, have no power to decline removal of trade refuse (othei than sludge), no matter what the 
nature of the trade refuse might be. From a Cleansing or Salvage Department's standpoint, this is not 
desirable, as certain classes of trade refuse are very difficult to dispose of For instance, refuse produced 
by some trades is not combustible , refuse of other trades is offensive, and its treatment might bring a 
Department into disrepute, and again, certain classes of trade refuse are dangerous to deal with A 
Corporation is, therefore, in a happier position if they can discriminate between the classes of tiade refuse 
they shall remove. 

This section, which refeis, of course, to the Metropolis only, reads as follows 

" If the Sanitary Authonty are required by the owner or occupier of any premises to remove any 
trade refuse, that Authority shall do so, and the owner or occupier shall pay to that Authority a reason- 
able sum for such removal, such sum in case of dispute shall be settled by the order of a petty sessional 


From the above remarks it will be gathered that Local Authorities usually have ample power to recoup 
themselves for the cost of trade refuse removal, and the student might begin to wonder where the difficul- 
ties, which he has probably heard referred to, anse in charging for this service The answer lies in the 
question " "What is ' house 5 refuse and what is ' trade ' refuse ? " Perhaps the best definitions of the two 
terms are contained in Section 30, Public Health (London) Act, 1891 , 

" The expression ' house refuse ' means ashes, cmders, breeze rubbish, mghtsoil and filth, but does 
not include trade refuse 

" The expression ' trade refuse ' means the refuse of any trade, manufactory or business or of any 
building materials " 

The definitions contained in the above section are, of couise, not necessaiily binding on Authorities 
other than Metropolitan Authorities, but it may be reasonably assumed that regard would "be paid to the 
definitions in any action affecting a provincial Authority No legislation, however, has proved sufficient 
to prevent legal proceedings being taken with reference to trade refuse removal, and the question of what 
may be legitimately termed trade refuse has apparently vexed the minds of members of the legal profession 
and of Corporation officials ever since cleansing services were instituted. The subject has become so 
complicated that a really intelligent and complete definition of trade refuse is to-day perhaps one of the 
greatest needs of Departments responsible for the removal and disposal of refuse 

It -was probably the intention of the promoters of legislation dealing with trade refuse that all refuse 
produced in tie course of trade should be regarded as tiade refuse Be this as it may, legal decisions have 
been given from time to time to the effect that lefuse produced in certain trades (although these trades 

LAW 13 

aie ostensibly earned on solely foi making profit) must be regarded as house and not trade lefuse by reason 
of the nature of the refuse, and Local Authorities undertaking removal of refuse have no option but to 
remove without payment In a trade refuse case tried in 1909, in which a firm of caterers were concerned, 
Loid Alverstone stated that 

" If the principle could be accepted that all refuse produced in a trade was trade refuse, we should 
have a clear and safe guide to the decisions of these cases, but that having regard to previous decisions, 
the Couit could not accept the pimciple " 


Tiadeis who are able to claim this preferential treatment in the removal of refuse produced in their 
businesses are engaged in such undertakings as hotels, refreshment rooms, and similar catering establish- 
ments, and their claim is based on the argument that they are carrying on a domestic undertaking to supply 
a domestic necessity for persons who would otherwise produce similar refuse in their own dwellings As 
an instance, hotel proprietors claim that if hotel residents were living in private houses they would pioduce 
refuse exactly similar in nature to that produced in hotels, and that if the refuse had accumulated at private 
dwellings, it would be removed by the Local Authority without question. 

However logical this argument may appear fiom the viewpoint of the hotel pioprietor, it seems palpably 
unfan that one trader, because he happens to make his profits from the sale of such articles as eatables, 
should be m a position to demand fiee refuse removal, whilst his neighbour, who may trade in some othei 
useful commodity, must pay for the removal of eveiy bm of trade refuse produced on his premises 

It is also unfortunate from the point of view of the Local Authority that catering businesses usually 
produce larger quantities of refuse than tradeis engaged in other directions Theatres, cinemas and other 
places of amusement are another class of business generally allowed refuse removal fiee of charge, owing to 
the nature of the refuse produced 

Notwithstanding the legal decisions which have been given from time to time to the effect that refuse 
produced in the businesses mentioned must be removed free of charge, it appears possible that payment at 
least on a reduced scale to a Local Authority's normal charge for trade refuse removal could be demanded 
in many cases. Under Section 43 of the Public Health Act, 1875, a Local Authority is not in default for 
non-removal of house refuse until after the expiration of seven days' notice to remove has been received 
fiom an occupier, and a Corporation cannot therefore be compelled to remove refuse more frequently than 
once weekly It has been stated already that hotels and other catering establishments usually produce 
laige quantities of refuse, and apart from the quantity produced, the nature of the refuse is such that frequent 
removal is necessary A weekly service is not generally sufficient therefore foi such businesses, and where 
a more frequent removal is demanded, there appeals to be good grounds for a Local Authority to require 
payment of at least a portion of the expenses incurred When recently reading through a paper entitled 
" Trade Refuse," read by Sir William E Hart, Town Clerk of Sheffield, at the annual conference of the 
Institute of Cleansing Superintendents (now The Institute of Public Cleansing) in June 1920, the writer 
was interested to find that this opinion is held by such an eminent authority on the subject 


A paper devoted largely to the legal position regarding trade refuse removal was read by Mr Leigh 
Turner, the Town Clerk of Blythe, at a meeting of the Institute of Municipal and County Engineers in 
September 1926, and the following decisions given in a number of trade refuse cases are referred to in this 

(a) Lyndon v Stairibndge (1857) 

House refuse does not extend to dust and ashes, the exclusive produce of manufactories, 
(b) Solbotn Umon (Guardians of) v. St. Leonards' (Vestry of) Shoreditch (1876). 

Local Authority was bound to remove refuse from a workhouse, although such workhouse was by 
local Act rated at a less amount than other property m the parish. 


(c) Gay v. Cadby (1877). 

Ashes arising fioni coals buint m the furnace of a steam engine used for the purpose of sawing and 
lifting timber and other matenals for canymg on business of a pianoforte manufacturer were held not to 
be house refuse, but were the refuse of a trade, manuf actoiy or business within Section 128 of the Metropolis 
Management Act, 1855 

(d) Collins v. Paddington (Vestiy of) (1879) 

Not all refuse from a house is " house refuse," as it was held that bioken glass, shoes and other articles 
of a similai character, which it might not be convenient otherwise to get nd of, thrown into the dustbin 
of a house weie improperly placed there, and the Local Authority weie not bound to remove them This 
decision was given under the Metropolis Management Act of 1855, which requires the Local Authority to 
remove " rubbish," and it was considered that what the Vestry weie required to lemove weie dnt and dust, 
which would be prejudicial to health if allowed to accumulate, and not such things as broken glass, bottles or 
disused garments Where such articles were removed and were afterwards appropriated by servants of the 
Local Authority it was held that the contiactoi who had purchased and undertaken to dispose of the house 
refuse was not entitled to compensation in respect of them, on the giound that his contract only included 
such refuse as the Authority weie bound to remove. 

(e) St Mat tin' s Vestry v. Got don (1890). 

Clinkers pioduced in furnaces of boilers belonging to an hotel used to generate steam for the purposes 
of supplying power for electric lighting and for warming and cooking and other purposes of the hotel were 
held not to be refuse of a trade, manufactory or business within the Act (Metropolis Management Act of 

(f) London and Provincial Laundiy Company v. Willesden Local Boatd (1892) 

Clinkers pioduced m furnaces of boilers belonging to a steam laundry for the purpose of heating the water 
used and also for heating laundry were not house refuse within the meaning of Section 42 of the Public 
Health Act, 1875, although the laundry comprised a dwelling-house for the persons m chaige, which had a 
separate receptacle for house refuse 

(g) Westminster Corporation v Gordon Hotels Ltd (1906). 

Ordinary refuse of an hotel, comprising such things as ashes from the grates, sawdust strewn on the 
kitchen floors for the sake of cleanliness, empty sauce bottles and preserve tins, straw packing-cases for 
bottles, tea leaves, waste papei, egg-shells, lemon peel, the dust from the rooms and staircases, and from time 
to time quantities of broken crockery ware and glass, was " house refuse " within the meaning of Section 30 
of the Public Health (London) Act, 1891 In this case the Court expressed the opinion that in considering 
whether refuse is " house refuse " or " trade refuse " legard must 'be, had to its physical nature and chaiactei, 
and not to the piocess or CM cumstances l>y which it is accumulated 

(h) Lyons & Co , Ltd. v , City of London Coipoialion (1909). 

It was held that where premises (upon which no one slept at night) weie used as a teashop for providing 
customers with refreshments and food for consumption on the premises (some of the food being cooked 
or prepared on the premises), the refuse, consisting of ashes and clinkers, coffee grounds, newspapers, cabbage 
leaves, egg-shells, dust and general dirt, broken crockery, tea leaves, potato parings, scrapings from the sink 
and sweepings from the rooms, but not including scraps left by customers, which were given away in charity, 
was " house refuse " and not " trade refuse," within Sections 39 and 141 of the Public Health (London) 
Act, 1891, and that the Sanitary Authority were under an obligation to secure its due removal. In this 
case, Lord Alverstone stated that " if the refuse is ' house ' refuse in fact if that is its character, then it is 
not a good answer to say, ' But that refuse has been produced in the course of carrying on a trade ' " 

In the same case, Mr Justice Jelf made the following statement 

" Now there are many cases which clearly fall on one side of the line and many "which clearly fall 
on the other. For example, in a carpenter's shop, the sawdust and shavings are clearly trade refuse; 
the snipprngs from a tailor's business would clearly be trade refuse , and so would be the hair cut by a 

LAW 15 

hairdresser from the heads of his customers. On the other hand, there are certain incidents common 
to all houses, whether used for trade puiposes 01 not, which would clearly not be tiade lefuse dust 
blown in by the wind, soot fiom chimneys and dirt brought m on the boots of persons entering the 
house. These fall clearly on the other side of the line. The description of the refuse in this case 
included many things which aie meiely house refuse, and other things which might be considered trade 
lefuse, and it seems to me that, having regard to its charactei as distinct fiom the place in which it 
was produced, it is not ' tiade refuse/ but is ' house lefuse ' " 

The above decisions clearly show the senous confusion which has ansen on the question owing to the 
contradictory legal findings which have been given from time to time, and also demonstiates how the legal 
mind is capable of confusing the oiigmal meaning of plain language and intent 

As stated pieviously, it was piesumably the intention of promoteis of legislation dealing with trade 
refuse that all refuse pioduced in the couise of tiade should be regaided as tiade refuse, but the legal mind 
sees things differently, and what to the lay mind appeals to be a plain question has been the subject of 
numeious contradictory legal findings, thus lendcring the position full of complications. 

A consideration of the decisions deliveied in the cases quoted demonstrates that the subject is almost 
hopelessly confused, and it appears that the only way of placing the mattei on a satisfactory basis fiom a 
Local Authority's standpoint is by fresh legislation being passed which would definitely lay down the 
punciple that all refuse pioduced in the couise of trade foi piofit, is to be legaided as tiade refuse 


The unsatisfactory and uncertain legal position in which Local Authorities are placed in the matter of 
enforcing chaiges for tiade lefuse removal has led some Coiporations to take the line of least lesistance and 
to shirk their responsibilities of lequnmg traders to pay the cost of trade refuse removal and disposal A 
retuin incoiporated with Mr Leigh Tuinei's paper shows that a numbei of Authonties lemove trade lefuse 
free of cost The list of Corporations who follow this practice is not confined to small Euial Authonties, 
but includes a number of fanly large Corporations. Other large Corpoiations chaige very small sums for 
the removal of trade refuse, a charge which can be legarded as a small acknowledgment only for the service 
given, and cannot possibly cover their expenses. These methods aie grossly unfair to the general body of 
latepayeis, as the businesses concerned are being subsidised to some extent out of the rates. A leal 
difficulty is also created f 01 cities where an endeavour is made to obtain the approximate cost of seivice given 
in trade refuse removal, particularly when dealing with lefuse produced by multiple businesses possessing 
branches in different towns, as when requiring payment for trade refuse removal from such businesses a 
complaint is frequently made that at blanches in other towns free seivice is given, or a small payment 
only is required 


In view of the problems which arise fiom time to tune in deciding whether different classes of 
are to be legaided as trade refuse, it has been found advisable in the Birmingham Salvage Depaitment to 
issue to all persons concerned a list of instructions showing how the mam classes of refuse which the Depart- 
ment is called upon to remove fiom businesses are to be dealt with, i e , whethei payment is to be requited 
or whether free service should be given. The essentials of these instructions are as follows 

(a) " Under the Public Health Act, 1875, it is the duty of the Corporation to remove house refuse 
from premises It is not the duty of the Corporation, however, to remove trade refuse as a charge against 
the rates, and the Corporation have power, under Section 80 of the Birmingham Corporation Act, 1903, 
to make a reasonable charge for the removal of trade refuse, building materials or rubbish of a like 
description " 

(6) The following will serve as a general definition of trade refuse . 

All refuse other than house refuse from premises where business is carried on. 
(c) Even so, it is sometimes difficult to decide whether a certain kind of refuse is house refuse or 
trade refuse. Each case must be dealt with on its merits and the endeavour to obtain payment for the 


removal of any suspected trade refuse should not be abandoned until advice has been obtained from a 
superior officer. 

(d) In the case of a shop to which there is attached a dwelling-house occupied by the proprietor or 
manager of the shop, and where the shop refuse and house refuse are deposited in the same bin, the 
removal of one bin of refuse per week may be allowed as a charge on the rates Any refuse above this 
quantity should be charged for as trade refuse. 

(e) In the case of a lock-up shop, all refuse except the assistant's fire and cooking refuse should be 
regarded as trade refuse, and its removal charged for. 

Speaking generally, the following classes of refuse (among others) fall under the heading of trade refuse : 

Ashes, clinkers and hops from home-brewed beer-houses. 

Ashes, clinkers and other refuse from pork shops. 

Bakers' ashes, clinkers and refuse. 

Factory and workshop ashes, clinkers, refuse and sweepings. 

G-arage refuse. 

Heating apparatus ashes (except from offices). 

Jewellers' refuse. 

Machinery cotton waste and rags. 

Metal waste. 

Packing waste. 

Polishers' sand, etc. 



Shopkeepers' refuse, packings and sweepings, including : 

Barbers' refuse 

Butchers' ,, (including sawdust) 


Grocers' ,, 

Tobacconists' etc , etc. 
Straw refuse. 

Waste paper, including waste paper from offices 

(/) The following refuse generally falls under the heading of house refuse, and is removed without 

Refuse fiom hotels, lodging houses, restaurants and public houses 

Refuse from theatres, music halls, picture houses and other places of amusement. 

Providing these instructions are faithfully observed, the mam classes of trade refuse at least are dealt 
with on a uniform basis, whereas prior to the instructions being issued there was always a danger that an 
inspector of one district was allowing free removal of a class of refuse, while in another district of the city 
a charge was being made for the collection of the same class of refuse 


Students sitting for the examination of the Institute of Public Cleansing may be asked to give a defini- 
tion of trade refuse, and the following answer is perhaps as satisfactory as could be given under present 
circumstances . 

" Trade refuse consists of all refuse other than domestic refuse, from premises where business for 
profit is carried on Alternatively, it may be defined as any waste or useless material produced in the 
course of a manufacturing process or as a result of any profit-making business. In considering whether 
refuse is house or trade refuse, regard must be paid to its physical nature and character, and not to 
the process or circumstances by which it is made " 


LAW ] 


Manure produced at mews, stables, etc , does not fall under the usually accepted designation of trac 
refuse, but attention might be usefully drawn to the provisions of Section 50 of the Public Health Act, 187i 
which provides that notice may be given by any Urban Authority (by public announcement m the distn< 
or otherwise) for the periodical removal of manure or other refuse matter from mews, stables, or othc 
premises, and where any such notice has been given, any person to whom the manure or other refm 
matter belongs who fails to remove the same or permits further accumulation, and does not continue sue 
periodical removal at such intervals as the Urban Authority direct, shall be liable to a penalty not exceedin 
20s for each day of the continuance of the offence. 


The removal of this refuse is dealt with m different ways by various Corporations, some Authoritie 
requiring payment for removal, others removing free of charge Probably the more general custom is t 
remove without making any charge The Birmingham Salvage Department does not knowingly undertak 
free removal of garden refuse, although this fact now seems to be so well known by many occupiers of house 
possessing gardens that it is not an uncommon occurrence for garden refuse to be deposited at the bottor 
of dustbins and for a quantity of house refuse to be placed carefully on the top The refuse collector 
no matter how keen he may be to obey his instructions not to remove garden refuse unless the collectiO' 
be paid for, is therefore not infrequently deceived 

There is no legislation dealing actually with payment for garden refuse removal, but in Birmingham th 
view is held that garden refuse cannot be regarded as legitimate house refuse, and its removal is therefor* 
subject to the same charge as that levied for trade refuse collection 


ACCOUNTANCY may be described as the science of accurately recording monetary transactions so that 
at any tune you may be able to ascertain the exact state of your financial affairs, v e , whether you are solvent 
or insolvent This is very desirable, as it affords the information by which you will be able to protect 
yourself against excesses and generally keep control over your business affairs 

I propose to explain the system practised in a Salvage Department and to show by means of a diagram 
the various stages which lead up to the final result, i e , the Statement of Income and Expenditure compared 
with estimates This is the means by which the Chief Executive Officer is able to keep a close watch on the 
financial affairs of the Department and thereby check undue expenditure under any particular heading. 

1 Wages Sheets are ruled with columns to give the following information 

Pay check number 

Registered number. 



Time worked 


Gross amount due 

Deductions for superannuation 

Health insurance 3 etc. 

Net amount due 

Employers' contributions (Health and Unemployment Insurance). 

Employers' contributions (Superannuation Fund). 

These wages sheets are made up to each Wednesday night at the Depot, from time cards, etc , and are 
checked at the Central Office 

2 Wages Summary. The totals of each column of the Depot Wages Sheets are transferred to this sum- 
mary, thus giving the total wages bill per week This summary is completed by Thursday afternoon and 
after being certified by the Chief Executive Officer is forwarded to the City Treasurer, who draws a cheque 
on a special Wages Advance Account at the bank The Treasurer's advance account is reimbursed the 
following week A certificate Is passed forward for payment on the Monday following, against which the 
Treasurer draws a cheque on the Borough Fund Account, which is paid into the wages advance account. 
A Wages Chart or graph is prepared each week showing the comparison of the total wages to the estimate 
together with those of the previous year 

3 Periodical Payment Bool This is the record hook of such items as Eents, Rates and Taxes, etc , and 
contains the following information 

Head of Expenditure to which the charge is to be allocated. 

To whom due Address 

Nature of Charge 

Contract dated Minute numbers. 

When Payable On 


Amount payable per annum, 

4 An account must be rendered by the creditor and particulars should be entered in the Periodical 



foCST- te paymeat Tte aoo unt 6tould tien be oertled by completmg the 

Certification of Penodicd Payments 

Checked by 
Certified by 

Nominal Account 


Fia 2 Diagram showing Accounting System 

Offiv S> W I k t0 ? e d ne r SemCe t0 bere * dered * forwarded to the Chief Executive 

Urncer by the Storekeeper or others for approval. 

The form of requisition is 

Requisition from Depot No Date 

Name of goods, etc., leqd 


To be used for 

Approved by General Manager 
Order issued Date 

Accounts Clerk's Initials. 

Signature of Requisitioning Officer 


6 The Requisition 'Book When requisitions have been approved by the Chief Executive Officer 
they are entered in this book under the following headings : 

Consecutive number. 

Requisition number 

Description of Goods or "Work. 


To be purchased from or carried out by 

Estimated cost 

To be used for. 

Order number 

Actual cost. 


The Estimated Cost column is totalled each month and the book submitted to the Monthly Committee 
Meeting for confirmation. Orders are not issued until this authority of the Committee is obtained 
Any individual item over 50 must be specially brought to their notice 

7. The Official Older. Orders for all goods to be supplied are issued from a counterfoil order book of the 
carbon copy type, numbered consecutively. Only urgent orders are issued before approval of the Com- 
mittee has been obtained 

8. Goods Received Sheets The storekeeper or other person receiving goods must certify as to their receipt 
immediately on delivery by an entry on the Goods Received Sheet. A carbon copy is forwarded to the 
Central Office each week 

9 Invoices and Monthly Statements Invoices or delivery notes must in all cases accompany 
the delivery of goods Invoices made out by an official of the Department are not accepted Each item 
appearing on the invoice must be compared with the order and the number of the order entered on the 

The date and quantity of goods on the invoice must be entered on the counterfoil of the order Every 
invoice must be certified as to the receipt of the goods or as having been checked with signed Goods Received 
Sheets and the prices, extensions and additions must be checked and initialled by the officer entrusted with 
this duty, and such officer should not be the one receiving the goods. The nominal account to which the 
goods are chargeable should be written or stamped on each invoice 

For the purpose of official certification a rubber stamp is used as follows 

Certification of Invoice 

Order No 

Compared by .. . .. 

Goods rec'd by 

Prices checked by 

Extensions checked by 

Nominal Account. 
Cap , 


Accounts due for charges other than goods supplied or Periodical Payments are checked as follows . 

Nature of Charges, Checked by 

Horse Keep 

Hired Horses / Horse Returns 

Contractors' Carting Depot Clinker Books 

Boating Boating Returns 

Tonnage Charges Canal Tickets 

Electricity ) Consumption 

Statements of accounts must be obtained at the end of each month and entries on such statements be 
compared with the invoices and certified, and the deductions or discounts be checked by the officer 
responsible. No invoice should be passed for payment unless it appears on the statement rendered and such 
statement must bear upon its face a summary of the amounts chargeable to the nominal accounts as shown 
on the invoices 

The Statement of Account, together with the Invoice, must be attached to a certificate or " jacket," 
which is certified by the Chief Executive Officer and also certified by the Chairman or other authorised 
member of the Committee 

For the purpose of Official Certification of the statement, a rubber stamp is used 

Certification of Statement. 

Checked with invoices by 
Discounts checked by . 
Arithmetic checked by 
Certified by 

Nominal Account. 

Analysis of Stores Purchased This is a subsidiary analysis of the heading Plant, Materials, Tools, Repairs 
and Maintenance. The expenditure under this head is large enough to make it desirable to split it under 
sub-heads, such as Bricks, Lime, Cement, Brooms, Brushes, Petrol, Paint, Iron and Steel, Timber, Manure 
Bags, Tyres, Wagon Sheets, etc. 

The comparison with the estimate can then be more closely watched each month 

10 Accounts passed for Payment Sheets The Wages Certificate for wages paid the previous Friday, 
together with any urgent accounts for payment, are prepared for signature of the Chairman of the Finance 
Committee each Monday 

Other accounts are prepared for submission to the Committee each month, by attaching to the front of 
each account a certificate or " jacket " bearing the name, what the account is for and the summary of 
the nominal account to be debited. This is certified by the Chief Executive Officer and signed by the 
Chairman. All accounts are entered on the Accounts Passed for Payment Sheet, which is ruled with, a 
column for each head of expenditure. The amounts shown on the " jacket" or certificate against each 
nominal head are entered m the appropriate column 


The whole of the expenditure of the Department is allocated to one of the following nominal heads - 



National Insurance . 


Workmen's Compensation. 
Workmen's Clothing 
Hired Haulage 
Horse Keep and Bedding 
Other Stable Expenditure 
Purchase of Horses 
Plant Vehicle Eenewals 

Machinery Eenewals. 

Materials, Tools, Eepairs and Maintenance. 
Additions to 

Eents and Acknowledgments 
Eates and Taxes 
Telephones and Postages, etc 
G-as, Water, Electricity and Fuel 
Printing, Stationery and Advertising 
Fire and Other Insurances 
Eailway and Canal Charges 
Tipping Charges 
Travelling and Conveyance. 
Incidental Disbursements. 

Equal Annual Charge 

Equivalent Contributions. 

Supplementary Pensions 
Ashbm Scheme Purchase of Bins 
Contributions Conversion of Ashpits, etc. 
Central Depot Site 
Contributions to Hospitals. 
Loan Charges 

Having been approved by the Committee and signed by the Chairman, the original sheet is forwarded 
to the City Treasurer with the accounts for payment and the duplicate retained m a binder forming an 
Expenditure Journal 

11. Sales Invoice Boole All credit sales at Depots are made out m this book and a receipt for goods 
is taken in exchange for the official invoice A copy of each invoice is forwarded to the Central Offi.ce 
weekly. Cash Sales are made out in a special book and the amount is paid in each week 

12. Sales Analysis Sheets Each invoice is entered on these sheets and analysed under one of the following 
headings of Income 

Sale of Manure. 


Sale of Bottles, Waste Paper, Kags, etc 

,, Scrap Metals. 

,, Aslibms, etc 

,, Plant and Materials. 

Trade Kefuse Charges 
Cleansing Markets 
Rents and Acknowledgments 
Steam Sold 
Central Depot Site 
Tipping Charges 
Ashbin Scheme Eepayments 
Government Grant towards Loan Charges. 

13 The Sales Ledge? is kept in the Treasurer's Department A duplicate of the sales ticket or invoice 
is forwarded to the Treasurer for posting to the debit side of the Sales Ledger 

14 The Cash Receipt Book, from which receipts are given for all payments from debtors. The credit 
posting is made m the Sales Ledger from these Receipt Books, or when a receipt is given by the Department 
from the " Paying in Form " which shows each receipt m detail 

15 Gash Abstiact Total of cash receipts dissected m accordance with analysis of sales and paid into 
bank under the appropriate income headings 

16 Tiansfe 1 ) Jouinal, is used for making transfers between nominal heads It is also used for recording 
direct charges debited to the Department by the City Treasurer such as 

Postage stamps 

Fire and other insurances. 

Superannuation equal annual charge 

Contributions to hospitals 

Loan charges, etc 

17 The General Ledger is ruled m the same form as the Accounts Passed for Payment Sheets with a 
column for each nominal head of expenditure or income 

Expenditure Debit monthly totals from Accounts Passed for Payment Sheets, or Expenditure Journal 
as analysed under nominal heads Also liabilities unpaid at the end of the period (pai 18) Credit liabilities 
outstanding at the commencement of the period, the balance being the total expenditure 

Income. Credit Cash received and paid into bank in accordance with the cash abstract under the income 
headings mentioned previously Credit assets accrued but not received at end of period, i e , a list of debtors 
extracted from the Sales Ledger and analysed under income headings (par 18) Debit Assets at com- 
mencement of period The resulting balance is the total income. 

18. Liabilities In preparing a Statement of Expenditure for any period, it is most important that a 
correct and complete list of liabilities should be compiled This list should include all items of expenditure 
which have been incurred but not paid. It should include all creditor's, whether due for payment or not and 
may be compiled from various sources as follows . 


Goods Received Sheets 
Periodical Payment Book. 
Depot Clinker Books 
Boating Returns. 
Canal Tickets. 

XT'. Register of 

Water Yn 

m , . n , Consumption. 

Electric Current J r 


Assets A list of assets or debtors must be extracted from the Sales Ledger and analysed under the 
appropriate headings of Income mentioned previously. 

19 The Income and Expenditure Statement is an account showing on the credit side the total income 
earned during the period, whether actually received or not and on the debit side the expenditure incurrec 
during the period, whether actually paid or not This account should not be confused with a Beceipts anc 
Payments Account, which would only be a summary of accounts paid and cash received It should be 
noted that the Income and Expenditure Account embodies the outstanding assets and liabilities at the com 
mencement and end of the period, as will be seen by referring to the General Ledger It will be noted 
that the debit postings ( e , the accounts paid) commence from the first day of the period, in this case 
from April 1st It will be seen that these amounts must include the liabilities unpaid for the previous 
period, therefore these items must be credited or deducted Similarly, the liabilities outstanding for the 
period must be debited 

In January each year an estimate of the requirements for the ensuing year, set out in accordance with the 
nominal headings is prepared, and after approval of the Salvage Committee, submitted to the Finance 
Committee of the Council When finally approved by the City Council, these estimates form the basis upor 
which the City rates are levied, and it is therefore expected that Committees will endeavour to keep then 
net expenditure within these estimates. 

A statement of income and expenditure compared with estimates is submitted to the Chief Executive 
Officer and the Committee each month, thus enabling a close check to be kept that the estimates arc 
not exceeded 




I PROPOSE to give in the course of tins chapter, the history of costing as applied to cleansing work, its 
objects, requirements and benefits, the lay-out of a simple system and a brief description of its working 

The word " Costing " means, as its name implies, any method used to obtain the cost of making some 
specific article, or performing some specific service It may also be described as the scientific application of 
statistics to finance 

I believe I am correct in stating that Costing in the Cleansing Services is quite a modern innovation. 

In pre-war days, except in a very few instances, costing was only considered a necessity by private 

During the last ten years, however, new methods of collection and disposal have come into use in 
cleansing work, and Salvage has become an important factor These new methods have brought in their 
tram an increased desire to know what things are costing, not only in mam unit costs, but also in detail 

Another factor in bringing costing into the limelight is the tightness of money and the ever-increasing 
quest on the part of the ratepayers and the Press as to where and how the money goes 

These various factors led up to and culminated in the appointment by the Ministry of Health of an 
expert Committee to consider methods of keeping costing accounts for public cleansing work. 

After exhaustive consideration of the subject, the Committee issued their Eeport, which I may here state 
has filled a long-felt want. 

The Report contains the outline of a costing system suitable for application to cleansing work, and 
thus becomes a text-book for the guidance of cleansing officials who are about to commence costing, or who 
are seeking a remedy for weakness in their present system 

At the time of writing, 1 have yet to hear of a text-book other than this Report which touches particu- 
larly on the costing of cleansing work, neither have I seen any reference to cleansing costing methods in the 
recognised costing journals 

When I tell you that the cleansing services of England and Wales entail an annual expenditure of 
approximately 10,000,000 you will see that there is great scope for any methods of control that will 
lead to greater efficiency at less cost 

The Ministry of Health have now published a summary of the first year's returns, and this gives food for 
thought, and m some cases for not a little concern The publicity, however, is all to the good and cannot 
do otherwise than further key up official staffs and bring about a real endeavour to reduce their costs 

This first publication has already led to improvements in the form. , the original one did not call for 
particulars of methods of collection or percentages of refuse tipped, pulverised or incinerated. These details, 
of course, add to the value of comparative figures 

Before leaving the subject of the Costing Returns furnished to the Ministry of Health, I would like to 
point out that these returns only deal with certain unit costs The principal ones are as follows . 


Cost per Ton 
,, ,, 1,000 Population. 
1,000 Premises 


These costs give a valuable comparison from year to year and between town and town, but they are 
taking what one may call the large view 

Of course, all reductions or increases m cost are reflected in these bulk figures, but the management 
and costing staff have to concentrate their attention on the individual sections of their woik m the search 
for efficiency and economy The results from individual sections may not be great, but however 
small, they are worth while, and the cumulative results are shown m the published comparison of 
unit costs 

Having briefly outlined the history of costing m the Cleansing Services, I will now pass to the objects 
and methods of costing 

The mam objects of Public Cleansing Costing are as follows : 

1. To keep a check on expenditure and by analysis show how and when it is possible to curtail 
expenses without losing efficiency 

2 To give controlling officials a closer grip on the work of their department 

3 To act as one of the deciding factors in comparing the merits of various methods of collection 
and disposal of house refuse and street cleansing 

Elective costing should be, and is rapidly becoming, a great aid to management It is primarily a 
function of management and not a function of finance 

The financial accounts bring into range the whole series of individual transactions of an undertaking, 
whilst the cost accounts deal with its production and afford the detailed information requisite to the 
successful conduct of the business or undertaking 

The cost accountant must, like a poet, have a certain latitude or licence granted to him, and be allowed 
to exercise imagination within certain defined limits, and his methods, even if unorthodox, should not be 
condemned if they lead to the shortest, cheapest and most efficient road to the desired end. 

Before considering the lay-out of his system, the cost accountant should bear in mind a number of points, 
a few of which are as follows 

1. The thing that matters is the works itself and not his system The costing system is an auxiliary 
to the works, and therefore must be woven round the works organisation He must not expect the works 
to be re-organised to suit his requirements He may show at a later date where some change in the 
organisation would be effective 

2 To ensure that the system is laid out m such a way that future developments will be absorbed into 
it without any marked disturbance 

Under the system that I shall shortly outline, two new depots costing 100,000 each have been opened, 
new processes have developed and fresh types of mechanical plant have been brought into use. It han 
only been necessary to allot a fresh series of code and cost numbers, notify the people concerned and the 
flow of information to the Cost Office commenced immediately 

3 To bear in mind the expense of costing, and that the benefits to be expected should be commensurate 
with the outlay. 

I believe that the Ministry of Health consider that anything up to Id per ton of refuse dealt with is a 
reasonable price to pay for costing In Birmingham the cost is approximately 0-6 pence 

4 The percentage of accuracy and detail to be aimed at. 

5. The mere fact of costing a process has no effect m itself, it does no work and effects no saving. The 
figures produced must be presented m such a way that they can be effectively used by the management 

6. He must acquire a thorough knowledge of the organisation of the works, and at least some knowledge 
of the workings of every plant and process, and, like the small boy, must constantly display a curiosity as 
to what makes the wheels go round 

7. He must not be too ambitious at the outset, but model his system on such lines that will first give him 
costs of the main sections of work, and if the system is well thought out, these first efforts will of them- 
selves show the way to future developments and more detailed analysis. 

Whilst on the subject of points to be borne in mind by the cost accountant, I will instance a few more 
that are applicable when the system is in operation. These points are in the nature of axioms for cost 


(a] Costs, to be of any value, must be prepared as each job progresses, so that each week a computa- 
tion can be made as to the progress Costs must also quickly follow the completion of the work. 

(6) Bear in mind that, however quickly your cost figures are ready, they cannot always be put to 
good use until other sections of the Department have completed their statistics It is therefore up 
to the cost accountant to be always at the other fellow, Smith, Brown or Kobmson, seeking for 

(c) Closely study your returns, otherwise they can serve no useful purpose 

(d) Costs must be " all in " Do not give someone a chance to say something has been left out It 
shakes confidence 

(e) Do not accumulate a lot of useless figures , cut them out when you are sure you can do so with 

(/) Never think your system is perfect , it is not Study it sufficiently and you will find you still 
have a lot to learn 

(g) Use mechanical means whenever you can do so to advantage. 




FIG 3 Line and Staff System of Works Organisation 

Before describing the lay-out of a Costing System, I will make a comparison of the Staff Organisation of 
a commercial works and that of a Salvage Department 

Figs. 3 and 4 show the similarity between the two organisations 

It would appear at first that the similarity between a works and a Salvage Department only exists so far 
as staff organisation is concerned 

As a matter of fact, I suggest it can be carried further , for instance, the function of a factory is usually 
to manufacture goods and sell them Is not this also the function of a Salvage Department ? The answer 
appears to be so, a Salvage Department collects refuse and disposes of it Another point of view can be 
taken, however, that is, that a Salvage Department, by means of its organisation, renders a service to the 
ratepayers which is invoiced to them in the rates that are levied 

The manufacturer gets his return for careful organisation and control in his profits. A Salvage Depart- 
ment by applying the same careful control and business methods to its work can also get some form of 
profit, i e., the good opinion of the public and a high place in the cleansing world 


I will now describe the lay-out of a Costing System. 

The system which I shall outline is that m use in the Birmingham Salvage Department. I may mention 
that the use of Hollerith posting and tabulating machines has obviated a lot of the routine posting and 
balancing, but as these machines are not available m many towns, I will describe the system as it existed 
prior to their introduction. 

I consider that the costing of cleansing work is best carried out by the adoption of code numbers covering 
the various activities of the Department 

This is quite a simple matter m towns which have one depot only, but m a large town like Birmingham 
with many depots, the position is easily met by the adoption of prefix letters or numbers representing the 
names of the various depots 

These prefix letters enable the items of cost to be gathered together under Depot Headings. 

There are a series of permanent Cost Numbers from 1 to 50 for use at all depots, covering the collection 





FIG 4 Salvage Depaitment Staff Organisation 

of refuse by various types of transport and the disposal of the refuse and residue by various methods. A 
few examples are as follows 

EP/1. Collection of refuse by horse wagons at Eotton Park Street Depot 
EP/2 ,, by hired horses at Eotton Park Street Depot 
BP/3. ,, by electric vehicles at Kotton Part Street Depot 
EP/8. Disposal of refuse (burning) at Kotton Park Street Depot 

For the same work at other depots it is only necessary to change the prefix letters thus : 
M/l Collection of refuse by horse wagons at Montague Street Depot. 

In the same way, all transport cost numbers are prefixed by some suitable letter such as E V for electric 
vehicle, P D V. for petrol dumbwell vehicle, M V. for Morris van. 

This method enables the cost numbers to be kept within reasonable bounds. In Birmingham 
there are only 500 numbers in constant use The next series of numbers runs from 200 upwards and 
can be used at all depots, coupled with a prefix letter These numbers are used for salvage processes, 
maintenance and repairs of various salvage plants, clinker crushing, canteens, collection of tins, etc. 


The next series commences at 500 and is allotted to work of a transient nature These numbers are 
used for obtaining the cost of special jobs, such as annual repairs at disposal works, installing new con- 
centrators in the manure plant, installing a weighbridge and other such similar work They are closed off 
when the ]ob is completed, and having served their purpose, no longer exist, and the costs are transferred 
to the section of work to which they rightly belong 

Estimates of the cost of these special ]obs are obtained from the Engineering Staff before the work is 
commenced, and a weekly progress report is placed before the General Manager, so that the cost of the 
job can be closely watched against the estimate whilst the work is m progress 

All mechanical vehicles have two cost numbers, one for the running charges and one for maintenance 
and repairs. There are also special nurnbeis for tips, and for departmental charges. 

Some of the last-mentioned cost numbers are a duplication of the permanent collection or disposal 
numbers, but confusion is avoided by the use of the prefix letters 

The items of expense with which the system has to deal may be classified under four headings, Wages, 
Materials, Special Charges and Loan Charges. 

I will first deal with Wages, this item being of the first importance, representing as it does approximately 
60% of the total expenditure of the Department. 

This item I will divide into four headings as follows 

Refuse Collectors. 
Skilled Men. 

The first three groups are easy to deal with, as the work upon which they are employed varies very 
little, and it is quite an exception for a man in these grades to be employed upon more than one sort of 
]ob during any one week. Cost numbers are allocated to the wages of these men in a wages dissection 
book by the Depot Clerk, It is not necessary to enter each individual man's name in this book, but it can 
be done by grades of employment; for instance, if there are, say, 40 refuse collectors at Rotton Park 
Street Depot and they had all worked full time on collection, one item would cover them for the week. 
It would read as follows 

" Refuse Collection, 24.0 days @ 8/11 Id. = 107.16.8 R.P 1 " 
A similar item for 12 Stokers would read as follows : 

" Disposal (burning), 72 days @ 9/7 g<Z. = 34 15.0 R P.8." 

From this dissecting tune book, a Wages Dissection Sheet is written up, the total balanced with the 
Wages Sheets and sent to the Cost Office. 

When the dissection sheets are received at the Cost Office, the totals are checked with a summary of 
wages paid, which is furnished by the Accounts Department, and they then become the Wages Journal, 
from which the items are posted to the appropriate cost accounts. 

When the postings are complete, the entries on the cost cards are totalled, and balanced with the Journal 
as a check that all items have been entered. 

The wages of the skilled tradesmen are not so easy to deal with, owing to the fact that it is not unusual 
for a man to work on as many as twenty different jobs in a week. It will be obvious, therefore, that a 
dissecting time book would be too unwieldy a method to deal with this section. 

The position is met by having a combined clock card and time sheet, as illustrated on p. 33 

By this means every tradesman dissects his own time each day, and it is one of his foreman's duties 
to examine daily and initial weekly his card, and see that the work is properly described, and that the 
appropriate cost numbers are filled in. The cards are also initialled by the engineer in charge of the work. 

I might here mention that each foreman is in possession of a schedule of cost numbers and is also 
notified m writing of the number of any special job upon which his men will be employed. 



At the end of the week, the hours shown against each ]ob are extended at the man's hourly rate 
of pay and the total time and money balanced with, the entry shown against each man's name on the 
wane" sheet 

The cards are then analysed and all the items for each cost number are grouped together, and then 
copied on to a dissection sheet, which in turn becomes part of the Cost Office Wages Journal 

After the initial difficulty of training the workmen in dissecting their time, this method is found to 
work quite smoothly, and it soon becomes looked upon as part of their day's routine 

3/crf' rial? There are in the Stores of the Birmingham Salvage Department approximately 5000 different 
items of material , you will see, therefore, that the first essentials are a good system and a good storekeeper 
It is a sound principle that all goods should go through the Stores, and that issues should only be made 
against a requisition signed by an official or foreman 

As before mentioned, each foreman has a copy of the schedule of cost numbers, and it is a strict rule 
that all requisitions shall show in the column provided the prefix letter and cost number of the ]ob for 
which the material is required Should more material be drawn from Stores than is ultimately used on the 
job, a somewhat similar form, printed in red, is used when the material is returned to Stores Both 
requisitions and returned to stores forms have columns provided for cost number, description of stores, 
quantity, price and total value 

At the end of each day the price and total value columns are filled in, and at the end of each week they 
are analysed and the items for each cost number gathered together, written up on a materials dissection 
sheet, and then sent to the cost office, where they become the Materials Journal, from which the issues of 
material to each job are posted to the appropriate cost accounts 

When the posting is completed, the total entries on the cost cards aie balanced with the totals of the 

The original requisitions on stores are also sent to the cost office, and are subjected to caieful sciutiny 
befoie the items are posted You can usually tell whether the description of the job and the material shown 
as issued to it bear some relation one to the other. For instance, if thiough an enoi in the cost number 
you find steam coal being issued to an electric vehicle, even a novice would sit up and take notice. 
These checks are made in order to reduce the percentage of error 

From the Wages and Materials Journals, a weekly Progress Report is prepared and this enables the cost 
of special work in hand to be checked against its estimated cost while the work is still in progress 

Special Charges The items included under this heading are horse keep, purchase of horses 
hired haulage, canal tonnage charges, tipping charges, rents, rates, taxes, gas, water, electricity, 
salaries, stationery, insurance, workmen's compensation and superannuation Particulars of these items 
are obtained from the Accounts Department at the time they are passed for payment by the Committee 
ine items are entered on a special form which shows the account number, name of the person to whom the 
account is payable, name of depot to which the account refers, date and amount Cost numbeis are 
allocated to these items by the Cost Office men this has been done, the lists become the Special 
Charges Journal The entries are then transferred to the cost accounts The totals as shown on the 
cost cards are balanced with the Accounts Passed for Payment Sheet 

The majority of the items included in special chaiges'are quite easy to allocate to then appropriate 
cost numbers The description on the invoice usually makes it quite clear to which depot the charge should 

""' 011 f 

wo T fi f K ' o this, and I will mention one or 

two. _ The first is horse keep. The charges for this item are debited to the Salvage Department by the 

^ Wr4L f "* W ' ^ * * " " < L " * '** 
This item therefore has to be analysed extensively The clerk at each depot sends to the Central 
Office a weekly Horse Return sho g the number of horses at the depot, separating work from play 


e e 
Horse Keep ouai a and a H / ? ^^ """^ ^ Oort fflce Tlus 


of woik upon which horses aie employed should not only bear its cost of horses that have worked, but the 
cost of those that are off work It follows, therefore, that to get the full cost of horse keep for any particular 
section, the cost pei horse-week should be multiplied by the total weeks booked against it on this retuin, 
whether worked or otherwise In working out costs which are required in between these quarterly periods, 
the horse cost per week for the previous quarter can be used The other large items of expense which require 
extensive analysis are Canal Tonnage Charges and Hired Haulage Accounts. The invoices that are 
rendered for these items always show the nature of the material earned, its destination and the depot 
from which it was taken From these particulars the Cost Office can summarise these items and allot and 
post them to their coriect cost accounts 

There now remains one more item of expense, and that is Loan Chatges Any Cleansing Department 
to which this item does not apply is indeed fortunate, as at the present time it is not always possible to 
increase the activities of a department or modernise its methods without having recourse to borrowed 

In Birmingham these charges are paid by the Treasurer direct and debited against the Salvage Depart- 
ment periodically The Treasurer's Department supply a detailed statement showing the amount due for 
the year on each loan From, the known cncumstances in the Department, these are allocated to depots 
and divided between collection and disposal A detailed summary is prepared from which the items are 
posted to the Cost Accounts 

The next step is to prepare a periodical summary of the cost accounts summarised under Depot Headings. 

It is on this summary that the allocation has to be made between collection and disposal It is in this 
division that labour can be wasted. It is not necessary in this allocation to split hairs, bearing in mind that 
these figures will ultimately, m arriving at unit costs, be subject to division by very laige figures It 
follows, therefore, that a matter of 5 or 10 in allocating between collection and disposal may only 
represent a fraction of a penny when reduced to unit costs 

I do not wish to convey the impression that an extreme of accuracy is never required, for there are 
many occasions when it is necessary to work a cost out to the third or fourth decimal point of a penny, 
because in some subsequent calculation it may be necessary to multiply this cost by a very large 
number s 

In the course of allocating expenditure between collection and disposal there are many questions which 
have to be decided by the Head of the Department It is advisable, therefore, to have these decisions 
recorded m a book kept for the purpose They are then available for reference, and also constitute the 
authority for your allocations Decisions on other points can also be recorded in this book 

The majority of the cost numbers clearly indicate by then description to which heading the item should 
go, but quite a number of the accounts have to be divided Of course, the particular circumstances existing 
in any department have a great bearing on the dividing of items of this nature, but an example of the 
division m this department may be instructive For instance, there are a number of canteens m the 
department An approximate division of the department's employees is two-thirds collection, one-thud 
disposal This item is therefore divided in these proportions Weighbridge expenditure would, of course, 
follow the extent to which it was used for collection or disposal 

Having completed our periodical summary of Cost Accounts, there is still an important point to deal 
with before we can say definitely what the cost of collection or disposal is at any particular depot This 
point is the transfer of our transport and departmental charges to Depots 

The transport charges have been kept separate, so that vehicle costs can be prepared, but having served 
this purpose, they must be debited to the depots for which they have performed work I will take as an 
example our Electric Vehicle Fleet Assume for the purpose of illustration that the total drivers' wages, 
maintenance, repairs, etc , amounted to 73,000 and that the total number of vehicle days worked during 
the period was 21,000, the cost per vehicle day worked would be 3 9s Gd It is then only necessary 
to multiply this cost per day by the number of vehicle days worked at each depot and make the necessary 

With regard to the Departmental Account, this is made up of general items that cannot in the first 
place be allocated direct to any particular depot or section of work These may be transferred to depots 
in proportion to the amount of wages expended at each depot Wages are the most stable factor 


for tin, puipose, as they so closely follow the amount of work perfumed This disposes of departmental 
and oveihead charges so far as depot totals are concemed In preparing individual costs, however, such 
a, transport, treatment of waste tins, etc , it is usual to adopt a definite percentage to be added to laboui 
costs This percentage can be ascertained by taking the percentage of overhead charges to the total 

^ases paid for the year _ U1 

Having now completed the Cost Accounts, such unit costs as aie required by the Mimstiy ot Health 

and also costs under similar headings in respect of each depot can be furnished. 

The system outlined provides foi the balancing of all items of expense except materials An annual 

stork is taken of materials and a Stores Ledger is kept, the recoids of which form a check balance on this 


For the purpose of obtaining costs of individual sections or piocesses, it is only necessary to extract 
from the detailed summary the items lecoided against the cost numbeis relating to the woik which is being 


Tiansport Costs aie one of the most expensive items in cleansing woik, and this section is one that should 
Lave a great amount of time and thought expended on it 

It is desnable to show the cost per day and cost per ton of each separate item of expense To find 
the cheapest and most efficient type of collection vehicle for any particular town is one of the greatest 
pioblenh with which contiolhng officials are faced to-day, and the closest comparison of individual cost items 
is useful to show where any difference in cost occurs 

The difference in cost may only be small, but it is important to know what has brought it about For 
instance, it may only be caused through a less capital cost or, on the other hand, it might be that a lower 
loading line or some such similar refinement in design had brought about an increase in output 

I think the cost of transport is so important that I must put forward a plea for standardisation I do 
not mean standardisation of results, that is not desrrable nor can it be obtained What can be aimed at, 
however, is standardisation of principles in costing and of expense headings of transport. 

As an example of expense headings for transport, I will quote those in use for electric vehicles m 

Work engaged upon. 

So of loaders employed in addition to duver 
Days worked. 
Miles run. 

Weight carried (tons) 
Average loaded mileage per journey 
Energy used, in units 
Premises visited 
Units used per mile 


s. d. Cost per Cost 
day per ton. 

Wages and insurance (drivers only) 

Electrical energy Pence per unit. 

Garage expenses and sundries (including wages of attendants, 

charging, lubricants, etc.) 

Repairs and renewals __ 

Total running charges. __ 

Gamed Forward 






Bt ought Forward & s d Cost per Cost 

day per ton. 
Proportion of tax and licence. 


Total standing charges 

Total exclusive of loaders' wages. 

Loaders' wages and bonus. 

Tools and materials (including sleeps, scuttles, brooms, etc.) 

Overhead charges. 


I do not suggest that this is the perfect list, but I do say that if some such headings could be agreed 
on, comparisons of transport costs in various towns would be of much greater value and would bear the 
hall mark "All in." 

If it is considered that the costing out per ton of each item is going too far with detail, I would at least 
advocate a dividing line between Running Charges, Standing Charges and General Charges. These are easily 
defined. Running charges are those incurred through the running of the vehicle, standing charges 
are those that continue when the vehicle is not in use, and general charges would include such items 
as loaders' wages, overheads, etc. 



STATISTICS is the scientific study of enumerated and tabulated facts. Its application to all large 
undertakings is essential, indeed it may be said to be the foundation upon which a large business is based. 

There is increasing evidence that chief officials and committees responsible for the cleansing services 
are beginning to realise, not only the necessity for keeping reliable data relating to past experiences, but 
also the invaluable assistance which such records can contribute to their work 

In compiling statistics relating to cleansing, it is essential that careful consideration is given to the 
object for which the data are required and so avoid the accumulation of unnecessary records and the 
consequent waste of time 

Briefly it may be stated that the object of the collection and tabulation of data is to ascertain the extent 
of any variation between past and present results If the information thus obtained shows a speeding up 
or slackening off in the amount of work performed, etc , the cleansing official concerned is given an oppor- 
tunity of locating the reasons for such variations and can take immediate steps to encourage or counteract 
such tendency m the future. 

To establish an efficient and useful statistical system, careful attention must be given to the following 
important points . 

(a) Decide beforehand the exact nature of the information required and also the purpose to which 
it is to be put. 

(6) Ascertain that the source from which the data are to be collected is reliable, e g , it is of little 
use to tabulate figures relating to the tonnage of refuse unless facilities are available for accurate 

(G) The person responsible for compiling the statistics should be conversant with the nature of the 
work to which such records relate 

(d) Considerable care should be exercised m laying out the heading and ruling of the required 
stationery, in order that the data may be collected and co-ordinated in a convenient form and without 
unnecessary overlapping 

(e) Having once decided upon the object in view, all the relative information should be collected 
and recorded. 

(/) To be of practical value, statistics should be prepared so that they can be put to immediate 
use It must be remembered that figures themselves are of little value it is the correct method of 
utilising them which will repay the time and expense incurred in their tabulation 

The collection of refuse is generally found to be most economically performed by units of 2 or i men, 
and it is therefore impossible to keep their work under constant personal supervision, but by an adequate 
and well-conceived method of recording work done, the cleansing official may obtain an efficient control 
and detect at once any variation in output. 

There are still a number of towns which do not weigh their refuse, although this fact does not prevent 
them publishing data relating to the tonnage of refuse collected and disposed of. Such data may be 



regarded as purely hypothetical and of no practical value , indeed, in most cases it is entirely fallacious 
and their publication results in many misleading conclusions being drawn 

A weighbridge is a very necessary adjunct to the efficient working of a cleansing department, and its 
initial cost is a small item compared with the advantages to be derived from its proper use 

The following notes are intended to describe briefly the method of tabulating, in a convenient form, 
the statistics relating to the collection of refuse as adopted in one large city, and whilst they may not be 
suitable for use in towns where local conditions are not the same, they can be adjusted to meet the require- 
ments of most towns with very slight alterations 

On entering the depot, the weight and time of arrival should be recorded in the weighing s look (specimen 
ruling No 1) 


Salvage Department. . . . 192 



No No PEE. DAY Out. In 





T C Q 

T C Q 

T C Q 

T. C Q 





(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) 

Column No I refers to the departmental number of the vehicles All vehicles should be numbered 
consecutively, commencing at No 1 for each type of transport, i e , electric, petrol, horse-drawn, etc , and 
when a vehicle is replaced, the new vehicle should be allotted the next highest number to the previously 
installed vehicle of the same type For instance, the first electric to replace a scrapped vehicle in a fleet 
of 16 electrics should be No 17, the second replacement No 18 and so on. This system of numbering will 
prevent confusion when referring to past records of various vehicles 

The remaining columns are self-explanatory, and it is only necessary to state that the weight should 
be recorded in the weighings book immediately each load is weighed In the event of an exceptionally 
light or heavy load, the weighman should be instructed to use the remarks column for denoting the reason 
for such abnormal weighing 

At the end of each day, the weights should be totalled up and summarised and then transferred to the 

Record of Woik done by Refitse Collection Vehicles (specimen luhng No 2) It will be noticed that this 
sheet is for use in recording the work done by electric vehicles By substituting " quantity of petrol 
used" for column No. 7 a similar sheet would serve the purpose of petrol vehicles 

A more simple form of return will, of course, suffice for horse-drawn vehicles. 

Columns numbered 1, 3, 4. and 6 should be filled m at the end of each day's work, the information being 
extracted from the "Weighings Book (No 1) 

Column No. 1, Sheet No 2 } refers to the number of the round or collecting unit, and the weekly 
totals will give the record of work done on such rounds, not necessarily the work of any particular 

Column No 4 (Vehicle Days) -If, through accident, or any other cause, a vehicle is taken off a round 
before completing a full day's work and is not replaced by another vehicle, only the fraction of the day 
worked should be entered in the column, * e , -|, J, f , etc , likewise, any additional work above one normal 
working day should be recoided 

Column No 5 (Men Days) Particular care should be taken that the exact number of men days worked 
is recorded correctly, as it is man power which, more than any other factor, affects the amount of 




I 1 


Lds Tons 






bU i 











w( Cleil. 


{Inspector or 
is * ""\Foreman. 



work performed The following table indicates the method of arriving at the number of men days 

Vehicle days 

No of Men Days Worked 

2 Men units 3 Men units 4 Men units 







or vehicle days worked X number of men engaged per vehicle 

Columns Nos 7 and 8 The information required for these two columns is first ascertained by the 
garage attendant, who records it on 

Vehicle Log Sheet (specimen luling No 3). The information extracted from columns 1, 2, 8 and 9 of this 
return should be transferred to columns 2, 5, 8 and 7 respectively of Sheet No. 2, and it will generally be 
found more practicable to transfer this information at the end of each week and not daily 

Recotd of Premises Visited (specimen ruling No 4.) To obtain a reliable record of premises visited it is, 
of course, essential that the system of refuse collection in operation should provide for this information 
being readily ascertained 

The " continuous " system enables this to be done m a very convenient form by utilising the Specimen 
ruling No 4 

NOTE The method of ascertaining the number of premises visited is explained in detail in Chapter V 

The following summary will, perhaps, indicate more clearly the method of co-ordinating the various 
information, collected on Sheets Nos 1, 3 and 4 for the purpose of completing Sheet No. 2, i e , Eecord of 
Work done by rounds or collecting units 

Col No 


No 2) Sheet No 

Information extracted 





Col No 


1 and 2 

5 and 6 

Interval between 
collection " 

Original Source of Information 

Departmental numbei of collecting unit 

The driver should write his name in the column 
provided befoie the commencement of each 
clav's work 

The departmental number allotted to vehicle 
This can be checked with the number of 
vehicle denoted on Sheet No 3 

No of vehicle days worked usually indicated 
by number of loads collected 

Sc 1 ' of ascertaining con ect 



KWH Meter 


See Chapter V for correct method of ascer- 
taining this information 

Average penod in days between two collec- 
tions of refuse 

The tabulation of the above return provides practically all the data required relative to refuse collection 
in any particular area, but in this form it is not, of course, convenient for comparative purposes. 

To enable a comparison to be made between present and past results on any particular round, the total 
columns of each, round shown on specimen ruling No. 2 are transferred each, week to specimen ruling No. 5. 


From the information collected on this sheet, any variation in the amount of work performed may be 
easily detected and action can immediately be taken to ascertain the cause of such variation 

The " Grand Total " of the work recorded on Sheet No 2, * e , the whole of the work done by all rounds 
at any particular depot, is transferred (in cases where refuse is collected by two or more depots) to summary 
Sheet No 6. This latter sheet can be used for weekly, monthly, quarterly and yearly totals, or any other 
period in which the cleansing official may desire the information to be tabulated 

To obtain a comparison of the quantity and variation in refuse collected at any particular depot, the 
totals of Sheet No. 6 are transferred to Sheet No 7. 

The effect of seasonal changes may be clearly ascertained from the latter return. 

Retut n of Work Done by Vehicles It frequently happens that a vehicle may work for a week or more 
entirely on one particular round, and in such cases the record of work done for such rounds as shown in 
the total column of the front page of Sheet No 2 also indicates the work of one particular vehicle, but it 
often becomes necessary, either through breakdown or other causes, to transfer a vehicle to another round. 

It is, however, necessary m the case of mechanical vehicles to keep a complete record of the work done 
by each vehicle. A method of collecting this information is indicated on the back of Sheet No. 2, the 
summary of such information being tabulated for comparative purposes, etc , on Sheet No. 8 

In small departments, it may be convenient to combine two or more of the refuse collection returns 
on to one sheet, for instance, Sheet No 4 could be incorporated with the Weighings Book (No. 1) In 
Birmingham it has been found that by keeping all the returns in the manner indicated, it is possible 
to obtain practically all the information required in relation to the work of refuse collection, particularly 
that information which is essential for the Cost Accountant. It must be remembered that the foundation 
of Cost Accounting is the utilisation of recorded information of past work done. 

Having briefly described a method of presenting refuse collection statistics, it is possible to enumerate 
some of the chief relative facts which may be extracted from such data, and to which it is essential that 
the cleansing official should give careful consideration if he requires to keep an efficient check upon the work 
of his department 

1. Output of work per man. 

2. ,, , ,, ,, horse 

refuse per house 

round or district 
1000 population 





7 Average haul between collection districts and disposal point (for mechanical vehicles). 

8 Variation in refuse due to seasonal or other effects. 

9 Average interval between collection of refuse 

10 Distribution of refuse at various depots and tips. 

The above-mentioned items can, of course, be split up into more detail, for instance, item No 3 may be 
analysed as follows : 

(a) Tonnage of refuse collected per vehicle, per hour, day, etc 
(&) Premises visited per vehicle, per hour, per day, etc. 

(c) Average weight per load collected 

(d) Number of B.Th U consumed per ton, per mile, etc 

(e) Number of ton miles worked. 

(/) Number of visits per ton collected, per mile run, etc. 

In compiling statistics relating to refuse collection, regard should be had to the following 

1. All weekly returns should, as far as is practicable } commence and terminate on the same date 
as the wages week, i e , if wages are paid from Thursday morning to Wednesday evening, the statistical 
returns should relate to the same period This will greatly facilitate the work of the Costs Department. 

2 Where Saturday is reckoned a full day for the payment of wages, it must be remembered that only 




-r- , r o r Q'fg.d "$ g fl w WEIGHT |f a, M 

Week Bnver's || a|> J, M ^ g> g> gi| ^ Premises 

Ending Name | ^P d jop ^^ || || L B 

Lds T C 

(1) (2) (3) (4) (, 

[To face j>, 38 



Year ending 





vvjii^iiA PER LOAD. 

Lds T ' Q T Q Lda T Q Lcls T Q 

[To face p 39. 




Weekly Log Sheet, Electric Vehicle No Week ending 192 

Thursday Friday Saturday Monday Tuesday Wednesday. 
{!) Driver's name 

{2) Loaders' names 

<3) Work done (Bound No etc ) 

T G Q T 


{4) Depot where Loaded or Tipped 1 


(5) Weight carried 1 


(6) Depot where charged 
{7) Milo before charging 
^8) Miles run 

{Q) Charging units 

TOTALS: (5).. . tons cwts . .. qrs., (8) . . miles run; (9) units. 
Tiansfened to Weekly Summary by Clerk Depot. 

NOTES as to breakdowns, repairs, topping-up, cleaning controller, etc., etc. 

Initials of Garage 
Date Particulars Attendant 



to be filled in and signed every day. If nothing to report, write "All Correct" 

Date, Accidents, Repairs Required, etc Signature of Signature of Repaired by 

192 Reported by Dnver Driver Garage Attendant 







Detailed Report of Accident 

Date Time Place Particulars 

Witnesses' Names and Addresses 




Signed . ... Depot Clerk 

Countersigned Foreman. 


about one-half the normal day's work is done by the refuse collectors, and this should be particularly 
noted where any comparison of work is being made In this connection it should also be remembered 
that once in every five or six years, according to the incidence of leap year, the financial year will 
contain 53 weeks and that one quarter will therefore consist of 14 weeks. 




No of Houses 



- Nr fe Houses on _ 

(NOTE Assistance given by spaie ^ Round Diilv " 



Vehicles to be shown in RED) m f gsaive 

' lotal Total 

Thurs (I) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 





Wed I 

Assuming that a satisfactory system of collecting and tabulating data has been installed for recording 
the work of refuse collection, the cleansing official is able to control more effectively the work of the refuse 
collectors, and by applying to present conditions the recorded experiences of past achievements, it will be 
possible to ascertain what are the requirements for dealing with current problems 

Every abnormal increase or decrease in the yield of refuse or any other phenomenal results which may 
be revealed by statistical records has a cause and the change resulting in such variation should be imme- 
diately analysed in order to ascertain such cause, so that if similar changes are likely to occur in the future, 
the official is able to make provision to meet them. In some cases statistical methods have been brought 
into disrepute, largely due to the fact that proper care has not been exercised in the method of presenting 


The cost of refuse collection in England and Wales is approximately 5,000,000 per annum The 
disposal of refuse is responsible for a further expenditure of approximately 2,500,000 

Generally speaking, it is possible to maintain a more direct supervision upon the work of disposal than 
is practicable in the case of refuse collection 

In towns where refuse is dealt with by screening, incineration and tipping, ..... "" 1 " ~ No 1)1 (facing 
p 4.4:) will be found a useful return for recording particulars of work done \ 1 to 6 refer to 

the tonnage of refuse dealt with at the disposal depot Columns Nos 7 and 8 are used for recording the 
quantity of crude refuse boated from the depot to tip Columns Nos 9 to 14 indicate the various facilities- 
available at the depot for the incineration of refuse 

In the weekly summary (shown on Dl) the first four items are totalled m order to arrive at the total 
quantity of refuse available for treatment The remaining items indicate the tonnage of various grades of 
material not dealt with by incineration The total of the latter material is then subtracted from the total 
tonnage of refuse available for treatment and the difference represents the total tonnage burnt 

The totals are transferred weekly from Dl to D2 (facing p 46) for comparison purposes 

In a cleansing department, one of the chief points to be watched is the effect of seasonal variations upon 
the output of refuse. 


The following table shows the daily yield of refuse in Birmingham during the twelve months ended 
March 1927, together with the mean temperature recorded during each month 














Average daily 
yield of refuse 

771 83 


degrees P 


These data have been plotted in graphic form and are reproduced in Pig. 5, which portrays in a very 
striking manner, the variation in yield of refuse consequent upon seasonal changes. In this diagram, two 



700 - 

so <Z* 

600 ' ' ' ' | i i i . , , 

April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec ^Jan Feb Mar 

1926 1327 

5 -Chart showing the average daily output of refuse m tons, and atmospheric conditions durin* the 

year ended March 31st, 1927 

fons and thP , I T "t^ 0601 ' tte left ta d * *<> indicate the average daily output of rcfunc in 
ton, and the right i hand one the mean temperature in degrees Fahrenheit In order to show more clear v 
the rise m yield following upon a fall in temperature, the latter scale is shown inversely Y 

- - 

substant,all y to decre3tol ge of efTld^d * ****&* the efieot o fl d lapute m 


zsg* the opportmity 

U5e rf 

There are, of course, nr _ ^ mstances wheie 







Average f K |, 
per Load W-B -a a 

T C Q ^ ! 







[To face p 12 



enables the cleansing official to obtain a comparison between past and present results without having to 
wade through a mass of tabulated statements 

A very useful graph which records the output of work by stokers and chargemen is shown in Fig 6 
The top portion of the figure is utilised for showing the quantity of refuse burnt per week and the bottom 
portion indicates the average wages cost per ton of burning. 

It is, of course, impossible m this chapter to describe in detail all the various returns and statements 
which a Cleansing Department may require, as m many cases they are peculiar to each individual depart- 
ment, but by carefully studying the various specimen forms which have been provided, and which, generally 
speaking, are suitable for recording the work of refuse collection and disposal m most departments, it should 
be possible to obtain a useful knowledge of a method of collecting data 

C Chait showing (A) weekly tonnage of refuse incinerated, and 
(B) wages cost per ton foi incineration 

Companson of Data Relating to Different Towns Questionnaires. It often occurs that a cleansing 
official who is contemplating some change m methods requires to compare the present results of his own 
department with those obtained m other towns, and for this purpose he sends out a list of questions or 

Unfortunately, in a number of cases, the questionnaires, after being duly completed and returned to the 
sender, are misleading either because the questions have not been drawn up in a clear and concise manner, 
or else the conditions m the various towns are not comparable 

In sending out a questionnaire, careful thought should be given to the following important points if it is 
desired to avoid misunderstanding and mistakes . 

(a) The nature of the information required should be concisely but clearly stated. 
(6) The questions should be short and to the point. 

(c) Where an opinion is required, the question should be so framed that the answer " Yes " or " No " 
may be given without qualification 


(d) If the conditions existing in any of the towns to which the questionnane in addressed n> .sub- 
sequently found to be incomparable, the greatest care should be taken in coming to any derision bawd 
upon such information 

(e) As an assistance both in drafting and in answering a questionnaire, the questions slioum DC 
first answered by the draftsman in respect of his own town, and those answers .should be enrul.iied 
with the questionnaire in the fast place If this were always done, questions and replies would 
frequently be more intelligible than they are The courtesy of replies to queries is fittingly .uid grune 
fully acknowledged by the circulation among correspondents of tabulated results 

Assuming that it was desired to compare the output of refuse per thousand of population in various towns 
together with the reasons for abnormal fluctuations, the following would be a suitable form of question miiro - 

1 Name of Town 

2 Population (Registrar-General's figure, Midsummer 1927) 

3 Tonnage of refuse produced Tons % Weighed. 

(Year ended March 1927) 
(a) Dry house refuse 
(6) Nightsoil 

(c) Cesspool contents. 

(d) Trade refuse 

(e) Markets and slaughterhouse refuse 


Total refuse 

4 Number of premises from which refuse is collected. 

5 Method of storing refuse prior to removal 

(a) Dustbins % Cubic capacity of Standard Dustbin 

(6) Ashplaces % 


6 Frequency of collection from (a) Dustbins 

(5) Ashplaces. 

7 Approximate % of coal mining population 

8 Approximate % of use of gas or electric cookers and radiators. 

9 Has any propaganda work been undertaken 2 

10 Are you of the opinion that such propaganda has reduced the yield of refuse ? 

11 Factors influencing production in youi particular town 

In analysing the data supplied by means of the questionnaire, more reliable deductions arc likely to bo 
made by a comparison of a few correct returns than by attempting to compare a large number of unreliable* 
returns Thus assuming that twenty of the above completed questionnaires are returned and it Is iuuw- 
tamed that only ten of the towns weigh more than 50% or 60% of then refuse, it will be far safer to Jgnom 
the figures supplied by the remaining ten towns whose figures are largely estimated. 

There is a noticeable dearth of rebable published statistics relating to cleansing, but as the result of a 
report issued in 1925 by a conference of cleansing and other officials, there are prospects of more trastwori K v 
data being available in the near future y 

In pursuance of the recommendation made by the above-mentioned conference, the Ministry of Health 
now incorporates in its annual report a series of statistical tables relating to Cleansing DepaitmentH The 
data supplied are mainly concerned with coste, but as it is the first serious attempt to present more or ICHH 
reliable comparative statistics of cleansing work, an extract from the report for 1927 is reproduced 

In considering these statistics, attention should be paid to the comments made by the Ministry 'm the 








iea . Sq Ft 



/pit Pleasure . Ins 





of Buinmg per Giate per 24 hours 

ced as Disinfectant 



s d 



1 fcJtokers 



) Must in 









Total Refuse Received 

Quantity on Yaid at commencement oi 
Quantity m Hopper Do Do 
Scrap Metala, &e (fiom Refuse) receive 

/'Refuse Tons] 

Boated -I [- 

(Salva Tons) 

Tieated in Fish Plant 

Treated in Meat Plant 

Quantity on Yard at end of week 

Quantity in Hopper Do, Do 

Scrap Metals, &c (from Refuse) Dispos 

Quantity Burnt (to Balance) , 

bo Burn (in Pence) 

WEEKLY Scrap Metals taken from Refuse. 

T G Q 

epot xeceived fioin 

Ticket or 


^arne of Purchase! 

Ticket or 



T C Q 

Estimated quantity of Tins, Scrap Mel 
from Refuse . . , 



{To face p. 44 


1926 report upon the methods employed by the various Municipalities conceined in the preparation of the 
data The second paragraph particularly emphasises the need for caution being exercised in using the 
figures to compare the working results in different towns 

It is probable, however, that as the value of the Ministry's leturn becomes more widely recognised, 
subsequent editions will be found to contain statistical information of a more reliable nature, especially if 
some system of grouping is inaugurated m lieu of the present alphabetical arrangement By this means 
it would be possible more easily to compare and analyse the data relating to those towns which operate 
under similar conditions, i e , mining, industrial and coastal towns 


Gostmg Retmns from County Boiough Councils. 

The report issued in March, 1925, of the conference which considered the keeping of costing accounts 
for public cleansing, recommended that annual costing returns should be obtained by Local Authorities 
The Minister asked the Councils of County Boroughs to furnish returns for the year 1925-26, returns 
have been received from 79 ol the Councils, and are summarized in the tables in Appendices I and II (pages 
48 to 53) 

The Minister wishes to make it clear that it is not suggested that towns can be compared simply on these 
figures. Account has to be taken of local conditions, and these differ greatly in different towns 

Proper costing accounts are, however, essential for economy of service There is still room for a good 
deal of saving in this branch of work, and it has to be remembered that it is responsible for a large part 
of the expenditure of Local Authorities, the amount spent in England and Wales on the collection and 
disposal of refuse and on street cleansing being over 10,000,000 for the last year for which information 
is available 

It may be mentioned that the net expenditure on these services in 1925-26 in the 79 towns from which 
returns were obtained was approximately 4,200,000, equivalent to about 6s Id per annum, or a little over 
l|ii per week, per inhabitant. 

Inaccuracies in Returns As was to be expected, this being the first occasion on which returns of this 
nature have been obtained, theie are many shortcomings in them , and the principal defects are mentioned 
in order that they may be avoided in future returns 

(1) Borne Councils have not kept separate accounts for collection and for disposal This should be 

(2) In some cases, there is neither a record nor a reliable estimate of the weight of the refuse 
Instances have come to the notice of the Department in which statistics of cost have been wholly 
misleading because of the absence of any proper record or estimate of the weight of the refuse 

(3) In some cases, the cost of tipping has been included in that of collection The cost to the point 
of discharge should be included in collection, but all subsequent costs should be charged to disposal 

(4) Different numbers of days m the year have been adopted m calculating the weight of refuse per 
day per 1000 of the population The number taken should be the actual number of days in the 
year , and the figures m the summarized tables in the Appendices have been amended on this basis 

(5) The returns for street cleansing were generally not satisfactory It has not been properly 
understood that, as was set out m the report of the conference, the unit costs per 10,000 square yards 
for street cleansing and per 1000 gullies for gully cleansing should be based on the number of cleansmgs, 
so that, to give a purely hypothetical illustration, if there were two towns with the same expenditure 
and the same area for street cleansing and the number of cleansmgs in the one were twice that in the 
other, the unit costs in the former would be half those in the latter. 


In some cases, also, the cost of street cleansing has been partly included in the expenditure on the 
maintenance of highways. 

Summary of Returns The following summaries are given in illustration of the figures in the Appendices 
It has been thought well not to attempt any detailed analysis of the figures until there has been more 
experience of them, and until there has been opportunity to avoid present inaccuracies. 

' I. 

Quantity of Refuse per 1000 of Population pet Day for the Year 1925-26. 
Number of County Bot oughs with Quantity as stated in first column. 

Quantity per 1000 of Population. Number of 

County Boroughs 


Under 10 2 

10 and over, under 13 14 

13 ,, 16 . 24 

16 19 , 17 

19 22 . 8 

22 and over . . 9 

Total . . 74 

Average of the towns . 16 6 cwts 


Cost per Ton of Refuse Collection for the Year 1925-26 

Number of County Boroughs with Cost as stated in fast column 

(Loan or depreciation charges and expenditure f 01 new plant out of revenue included ; income deducted ) 

Cost per Ton Number of 

County Boroughs 

Under 6s 8 

6s and over, under Ss 15 

8s 10s ... 21 

10s 12s. . . 13 

12s and over . . 9 

Total ... . 66 

Average of the towns . . .9s, Id. 


Cost of Refuse Collection per 1000 of Population for the Year 1925-26. 

Number of County Boroughs with Cost as stated in first column 
(Loan or depreciation charges and expenditure for new plant out of revenue included ; income deducted ) 

Cost per 1000 of Population Number of 

County Boroughs 

Under 90 . . 10 

90 and over, under 120 . 18 

120 150 . . 21 

150 180 . . 16 

180 and over 5 

Total 70 

Average of the towns . . . 130 



in this 
is, and 

uld Ibe 

with a 


ages of Foreman, 

jokoifi, Chargeib -vr 

d Flue Cleaners 

tcludmg Holiday RmUBKfi g 

1 a J ) \V 


i per Ton 

, B d d 

20) (21) (22) 





[Loan or depreciation charges and expenditure for new plant out of revenue included (except ^n column 7, wlieie 

Net Expendituie per Ton per 


r-3 g m ft 


Name of County Borough 


Collection Disposal Total 

Liverpool . 





West Ham 




Stoke on-Trent 












East Ham 

















13 1 





No data 
13 1 

s d 
9 10 
9 10 

13 10 

7 9 

8 3 
10 10 

8 8 

9 10 
8 1 
7 7 






11 9 

8 3 

9 10 
6 11 
6 8 


13 10 

8 11 

2 11 

3 9 
3 9 
2 1 
2 10 

5 10 

2 6 

1 4 


9 6 

7 8 

3 11 


s d 

15 5 

17 11 







5 10 
4 10 

6 10 

8 5 

16 6 
15 8 
10 11 

14 2 

10 6 

17 4 

14 10 

18 8 

16 8 


8 11 

9 11 
12 9 

8 2 
18 4 

16 2 
10 5 

17 2 



12 5 

14 10 

15 5 
14 2 

14 5 
8 11 

15 9 

13 4 

17 9 






(he, -figures are given, for comparison, exclusive of loan charges and such revenue expenditure) , income deducted ] 

Net Expenditure per 1000 
Population per Annum 

Net Expenditure per 1000 
Houses per Annum 

Rate in 









































































6 15 













































































































































































































































ture for 
New Plant 
out of 









Method of Disposal 

I = Incineration 

P = Pulverization 

S = Separation 

T = Tipping 


8,1 and T 

I and dumping at 

I and T Land re- 

S and I 

I andT 

I andT 


I andT 

T and I 


S , I and T 

I andS 


I andT 


T and I, 

P and I 

I , T and dumping 
at sea 

I andT 

Dumping at sea 

Dumping at sea 

I andT 

I andP 

S , I and T 


Dumping at sea 

T andP 


Dumping at sea. 

S , I and P 


S , I and T, 

I andT 


Name of County Borough 



St Helens 



Southend-on Sea 

Newport (Mon ) 











Merthyr Tydfil 


West Bronrwich 





West Hartlepool 






Hastings . 




Great Yarmouth 












Total population and average of columns 
" 3 to 16 " . 


Weight, actual or 
estimated, per 1000 of 
Population per Day 

Net Expenditure per Ton pei 

Collection Disposal Total 
















































































































No data 



















40 1 


































No data 
















































13 1 








No data 

























14 1 


































, 55,020 












No data 

















17 1 

















> i TJ -g 

I 8 s| 


,, fH , *H R 
<D CJ <D fl 

. -- g 


,3 M 3 
ft o o o 

s d 

14 11 

9 7 

11 2 


19 2 



15 3 

17 7 

4 2 

13 8 
8 11 

12 2 

14 5 

7 11 
11 5 

8 3 
10 6 

8 6 


8 4 
13 10 

i4 5 







14 9 

5 8 

7 8 

7 10 




I (continued) 

Net Expenditure per 1000 
Population per Annum 

Net Expenditure per 1000 
Houses per Annum 

Rate in 










































































2 10 







I 71 


































, . 



. . 














1 88 




11 50 












> 582 

1 87 










1 81 

























5 25 

11 13 

































5 12 
















11 99 



































11 61 





















8 14 












































. 770 



























ture for 
New Plant 
out of 

Method of Disposal 

I = Incineration 
P = Pulverization 
S = Separation 
T = Tipping 



I andT 



667 8 , I and T 


T and I 

I andT 
595 T 

R and I 

I andT 

I and P 

I andT 

I andT 
343 I andT 

, , j 


587 I 

S and I 

I andT 

I andT 

T andP 
290 I 

I andT 

I , S , P and T 

I andT 


532 I 

54 I andT 

I and dumping at 


Dumping at sea 


I andT 



1296 P andS 

314 T 


T and I 

I andT 
















(Loan or depreciation clicnges and expenditia e for new plant out of revenue included ; income deducted.) 

Name of County 







West Ham . 











Plymouth (&) 




Birkenhead . 

East Ham 


Brighton (b) 









Total net 



per 1000 of 









Net Goal, : 
Bate in 


3 76 


Now Plant 

out of 






(&) The return did not include any expenditure on snow lemoval 


APPENDIX II (continued) 

Name of County 

Total net 

per 1000 of 

Not Cost 
Rate in 


New Plant 

out of 



St Helens 



Southend-on-Sea (a) 

Newport (Mon ) 








Bootle (a) (b) 

Ipswich (a) 

Merthyi Tydiil 

Blackpool (6) 

West Bromwicli 

Smethwick . 

Warnngton (b) 


Barrow-m-Furness (b) 

West Haitlepool 

Barnsley (a) 


Darlington (a) 

Bath, (a) 


Hastings (a) 


Exeter (b) . 


Great Yarmouth . 

Oxford (a) 







Burton-upon -Trent 

Worcester (b) 


Canterbury . 

Tc j il - 

and average of 



































































































(a) The cost of gully cleansing was not included in the return. 

(b) The return did not include any expenditure on snow removal 




APPROXIMATELY 11 million tons of house and trade refuse are produced annually m England and Wales, 
and the cost of collection of this refuse amounts to something like 5,000,000 per annum. The animal 
tonnage of house and trade refuse removed in Birmingham is about 254,000 tons, necessitating more than 
eleven million separate calls and the whole time employment of about 450 men. These statistics are quoted 
m order to emphasise the necessity of well-organised collection services, and a brief consideration ol the 
figures mentioned will render obvious the grave danger of waste of public moneys if collection services are 
not efficiently organised A simple calculation shows that an increase or decrease of only one penny per 
ton in the cost of collecting the house and trade refuse of the country would entail a difference in expenditure 
of over 45,000 per annum 

The importance of collection of house refuse from the health standpoint cannot be over-estimated, 
and the dangers attendant upon putrefying refuse being allowed to remain on premises for indefinite periods 
are apparent It will be agreed that every household should have its refuse removed once weekly at least. 
A disgruntled ratepayer was once credited with having facetiously remarked that, after the annual municipal 
elections have taken place, the only representative of the Corporation with whom the ratepayers como into 
regular touch is the humble dustman I This gentleman presumably meant that the refuse collectors attended 
his premises with unfailing regularity, and he was probably not aware that he had paid a nice compliment 
to the Cleansing or Salvage Department of the Corporation concerned 

., ae ,7 nter / uls . lleaid 1 J he remark made on a number of occasions that, as compared with refuse disposal, 
dtbt ?? C ; UeCt Tf ot fcffi^^t he considers that such a dogmatic statement is open to 
that L iSr f f P Sa , f faSe C l rtelnl7 alls f r k S% ^ allfied tec]lnical 8klll > b*t it is submitted 

: to B 


as much as practicable 7 ^ ^ SpeClfi needs of the Iocallt 7> and standardised 

depend on ^m^L^&^^^l^^^^J^ The frequency of collection should 
of the town. The time of cxabc^SMlStS^ ~ ^-^ a ? d , 0n the ^graphical location 
and. tr&ffic moYinff on f;hA Qfraafo TH. 

**,%- * o ^ tA u---& ouj.ct5wo xJQ.6 TT1 fl.Tl TI AT ri 



from house to wagon in the least objectionable way The loading should be done so that it will pro- 
duce the least possible dust and noise, and the wagons should be kept covered for as much of the time 
as practicable " 


In Chapter I the various kinds of storage accommodation are briefly referred to The two types of 
receptacle mainly in use to-day are fixed ashpits and portable dustbins. In that chapter, fixed ashpits 
are referred to as relics of an insanitary past, and their abolition should be proceeded with by every well- 
ordered Authority as quickly as finances and circumstances permit It is generally admitted that it is 
almost impossible for ashpits to be kept in a sanitary condition, and after emptying, they are frequently 
as great a nuisance as before the refuse was removed The frequency of emptying an ashpit usually depends 
mainly upon its size, and may vary from weekly to quarterly, which alone is a sufficient reason to condemn 
the fixed ashpit as a sanitary convenience Ashpits are not generally situated in positions accessible to 
collection vehicles, and the filth has usually, therefore, to be loaded into a barrow and wheeled to the pave- 
ment, where the refuse is dumped, to be once more picked up and re-shovelled into the vehicle, thus causing 
double work and annoyance 

The emptying of ashpits is also a degrading and unpleasant task to the workmen responsible for the 
work, and the cleansing of certain types of ashpits, particularly where men have to crawl through small 
apertures (and there are ashpits of this kind in use) may be described as almost inhuman There is no 
necessity to emphasise further the disadvantages of this type of receptacle, as sufficient has been said to 
show that whether regarded from the economy, efficiency, or public health viewpoint the fixed ashpit 
stands condemned 

It is now generally accepted that the best method of domestic refuse storage is by means of portable 
dustbins These receptacles possess the advantages of being easily cleaned and emptied and they also 
keep refuse dry, providing lids are kept fitted, thus facilitating treatment of the refuse at the disposal works. 

A dustbin should be of sufficient capacity to hold the refuse produced by an average household between 
the collection periods during the period of the year when the output of refuse is greatest, but it should not 
be so large that an average man cannot easily handle and carry it when the bin is completely filled A dust- 
bin should be also sufficiently strong to withstand the somewhat rough treatment to which it is liable when 
being emptied, as if the refuse does not leave easily, the dustman usually bangs the receptacle on the side 
of the vehicle in order to loosen the contents. This particularly applies in the case of bins from houses 
where the misguided occupants persist in depositing liquid matter into bins in spite of bye-laws which 
may be in force making such action an offence If the bin is not made strongly, and if the " bump " is 
over-vigorous, the result is a badly dented side, probably quickly followed by a letter of complaint from 
an irate landlord or tenant In passing, it may be mentioned that to obviate or lessen damage to dustbins 
in this way, refuse collection vehicles in Birmingham are provided with rubber strips which are attached 
to the top edges of the sides of vehicle bodies Even this precaution, in many cases, is insufficient to 
prevent damaged bins, and the only sure remedy is to educate householders to refrain from depositing liquid 
matter into dustbins Eef erence was made in a previous chapter to the bye-law in operation in Birmingham 
relating to liquids being thrown into dustbins, but the prosecution of offenders is frequently a matter of 
some difficulty, and it is appreciated that the co-operation of the citizens is of much greater value than 
methods of compulsion With the view of securing the co-operation of citizens in this respect, lids of dust- 
bins in use in Birmingham are embossed with the wording " FOR DRY REFUSE ONLY," and in addition, 
every bin issued under the Salvage Department's Hiring Scheme has the following appeal affixed to the 



RIDDLE your ASHES and use the CINDERS again. 
BUNDLE all your OLD PAPERS and hand them to the Refuse Collectors. 


Referring to the use or misuse of refuse receptacles, it may be mentioned in passing that, since the war, 
many Corporations have experienced trouble through explosives being deposited amongst house refuse 
It was found that these explosives had been brought home by ex-Service men as souvenirs, and after a 
time were deposited in bins for removal This action was obviously extremely dangerous, particularly 
where refuse is passed through incinerator cells, and in the writer's Department several employees received 

injuries owing to explosives bursting in the 
incinerator cells, one man losing the sight of 
an eye owing to this cause. In ordei to 
impress upon the public the grave danger of 
discarding explosives by depositing them in 
refuse intended for removal, appeals were 
made in the Press, and a window display 
was arranged at the Central Ollices of the 
Department of explosives recovered from 
refuse The display included a large number 
of cartridges, high explosive shells, aerial 
torpedoes, and various other kinds of ex- 
plosives, and was accompanied by notices 
* ' appealing to the public to refrain from 

, - depositing explosives in bins The publicity 
given to the matter in the directions men- 
tioned immediately resulted in a diminution 
of the number of explosives recovered from 
house refuse, and it was obvious that, gener- 
ally speaking, the explosives had been put 
out for removal owing to thoughtlessness, 

as the persons concerned had not apparently realised that the bulk of refuse collected passed through 

It was found necessary, however, to take legal proceedings against one person who had deposited a 
number of ku live " cartridges with refuse after the above-mentioned publicity had been given to the matter, 
and even at the present time explosives are occasionally discovered in refuse. 

In order to obtain a satisfactory receptacle, many Local Authorities have adopted a standard dustbin, 
and m districts where this has been done, bins of the approved type only are accepted. 

In Birmingham, two types of standard dustbin have been adopted, one having a capacity of 3* cubic 
feet and the other of 2J cubic feet 

The essential details of the two standard bins are as follows 

FIG 7 Explosives found m refuse 


Weight without hd 
with lid 

Large Bin 

24 in. 

22BWG Sheet Iron 

25 Ib. 

Small Bin 

20 in 

22BWG Sheet Iron 

19 Ib 


lor tee small 

4000of tTes! 
* thes 

, with 

at 9 * 5*. for the large bin and 8, U. 
quantities * 

* *"* m Ma7 1927 ' and m ctoloer 1928 there were approximately 
adoption was not earned out until tests over a long period had been com- 
ensmetllat ttis sma ^r bin possessed sufficient capacity to ^^0X^X^8 
t ettleS - ^eoretically, tJ bi/possessed ^^y^ 

property in Birmingham, but it was decided to try it out under actual working conditions 



before arriving at a definite decision. About thirty of the small bms were therefore distributed to the 
private addresses of various members of the staff, mainly occupying small self-contained houses, and they 
were requested to keep close observation as to whether the bin was sufficiently large The result of this 
test proved that, under all normal conditions, the small bin has ample capacity for small self-contained 
properties, and since its adoption as standard, the small bin has been installed at the majority of small houses 
requiring new dustbins It is considered that the small bin will prove an important factor in still further 
reducing the output of refuse throughout the City, as it is the general experience of cleansing officials that 
the larger the receptacle allowed, the greater is the output of refuse The smaller bin has also the advantage 
of a lower cost as previously shown, and this is a point which particularly appeals to property owners It 
should be added that the Department specifies which type of bin is to be installed at any property, and the 
installation of the large bin is now usually confined to premises where the use of bms is shared between 
two or more houses, such as courtyard properties The latter bin is used also as standard for trade refuse 

In some districts, a bucket-shaped bin is used, and bins of this shape possess the advantage of being 
more easily stored in bulk. It is also claimed that a bucket-shaped bin is easier to empty The circular 
bin is, however, the type most generally adopted 


It has been mentioned that one advantage obtained from, the use of dustbins is that refuse is kept dry, 
but obviously this is only so when lids are replaced after bms have been used It sometimes happens, 
however, that careless householders fail to replace the lid, or that the lid becomes displaced, with the result 
that refuse becomes wet in rainy weather unless the bin itself is kept under cover It is therefore an advan- 
tage if dustbins are kept in bin-sheds, and apart from the double assurance thus obtained against the refuse 
becoming saturated with rain, a bin contained in a simple dustbin-shed presents a tidier appearance than 
a receptacle standing in the open A further advantage obtained where a dustbin-shed is provided, is that 
in the event of an unusually large quantity of refuse being produced, which could not be entirely accommo- 
dated in the dustbin, the " overflow," which would probably be thrown on the floor of the shed, is kept 
reasonably dry, whereas under similar conditions in the case of premises provided with a dustbin only, 
part of the refuse would be thrown down in an open yard near to the dustbin, from where the " overflow" 
would perhaps be distributed to neighbouring properties by the wind, or become saturated with rain The 
Birmingham Corporation has no legal power to demand the provision of bin-sheds although 83,268 were 
in use on 31st March, 1928, of which about 35,000 have been converted from ashplaces, the cost of con- 
version having been borne partly by the Corporation. 


The legal powers of the Birmingham Corporation to require the installation of dustbins at all properties 
have been dealt with in a previous chapter, and the property owner, having received a statutory notice 
requiring him to provide bms (stating whether small or large), has the option of taking one of two courses, 
^ e ,to purchase a standard bin outright from a retailer, or to enter the Department's Hiring Scheme A 
property owner deciding to enter the scheme is required to pay a deposit varying from. Is &d to IQd per 
bin, according to the month of entry, and to sign an agreement form undertaking (amongst other things) 
to pay the sum. of Is lid for each large bin and Is Qd for each small bin on April 1st of each year 

After a hired standard dustbin of the larger capacity has been in use for a period of five years, the annual 
charge is reduced from. Is. lid! to Is Qd It may be added that to suit the convenience of dustbin hirers, 
payments of the annual instalments can be made at any branch of the Birmingham Municipal Bank, 
Accounts not paid through the latter are collected by the Salvage Department 

Until the year 1919 the Birmingham Salvage Department sold dustbins direct to the public, but m that 
year an agreement was entered into with the local branch of the Ironmongers' Federated Association, under 
which the Corporation undertook not to sell dustbins direct to the public, the Association on their part 
agreeing to sell standard dustbins only, at a profit which is controlled by the Corporation. The Hiring 
Scheme was inaugurated in April 1923, and it is entirely optional upon any owner whether he hires bins 
from the Corporation or purchases them outright from a retailer 


The success of the scheme can "be judged from the following table 

No of No of Bms Replace- 

Owners ments 

Large Small 

1/4/23 to 31/3/24 940 5,465 

1/4/24 to 31/3/25 931 6,889 

1/4/25 to 31/3/26 1,066 8,414 6 

1/4/26 to 31/3/27 967 6,911 

1/4/27 to 31/3/28 745 5,696 786 43 

1/4/28 to 30/9/28 374 801 2,390 57 

Total to Sept. 30, 1928 . 5,023 34,176 

3,176 106 

Replacement of burnt and damaged bins, for which extia payment has been received, is not included in 
the above figures. 

There are now a number of Corporations which supply bins on yearly payments, and in a few cases 
Parliamentary powers have been obtained whereby property owners are compelled to hire bins from the 
Corporation concerned 

In one large city, bins are made by the Cleansing Department, who supply the first bin on pay- 
ment of the sum of 105 , subsequent renewals being supplied by the Corporation as a charge against the 


It is perhaps unnecessary to mention that dustbins should be kept on premises in a convenient position 
for emptying, so that the length of " carry " is reduced to a minimum This is a particularly important 
point in the case of houses having long gardens and where access to the premises for the removal of refuse 
is by means of an entrance at the end of the gardens. In such cases, occupiers are sometimes prone to 
keep dustbins near to the house, and this results in extra travelling and carrying for the dustmen. It was 
mentioned in a previous chapter that a bye-law is in force m Birmingham which empowers the Corporation 
to require dustbins to be kept in a convenient position for emptying. 


Waiting time is probably the most important factor affecting the cost of refuse collection, and is a matter 
over which a Cleansing Department has unfortunately little control In the planning of most districts, 
no consideration appears to be given to facilities for refuse removal, with the result that the department 
responsible for this important service has to frame its methods to fit the conditions prevailing, and in districts 
where refuse has to be carried long distances to the collecting vehicle, the waiting time may be as much as 
three times greater than actual travelling time In some towns in the North of England, refuse is loaded 
in back lanes situated between the backs of the houses fronting adjacent streets, the refuse being stored 
in special receptacles which are generally fixed to the wall at the end of back yards The collecting vehicle 
is loaded from each side simultaneously, without the collectors entering the premises, as access to the 
refuse receptacles is obtained by means of small doors in the wall It is obvious that towns possessing 
these facilities for loading have a tremendous advantage over those areas where portable bins have to be 
carried down long passages or pathways to the front street, and returned to their usual position after being 

With a view to reduce waiting time to a minunum, some Authorities have passed bye-laws requiring 
occupiers to carry their bins to the kerb and to remove them from the pavement when emptied, but while 
this method reduces costs, the disadvantages attached to it probably outweigh any saving effected The 
average person has a strong objection to being employed as an amateur dustman, and if a Corporation 
suddenly decided to compel occupiers to remove their refuse to the kerb after having previously carried 
out the removal by the employees of the Corporation, strong opposition and criticism would undoubtedly 
be encountered. Quite apart from objections of ratepayers against the removal of bias to the kerb, the 


method leaves much, to be desired from other points of view. Bins would probably be left to await the 
collecting vehicle without lids being fitted, and on windy days waste paper, dust, etc , would be broadcast 
into the streets Another objection is that in the event of the collecting vehicle being delayed for any 
reason, such, for example, as a breakdown, bins might be left standing on the kerb for indefinite periods 
Even if the collecting vehicle is punctual, there is no guarantee that the emptied bins would be removed 
promptly by householders. 

A further disadvantage attached to this method is that it is essential for collecting vehicles always to 
visit each house on the same day and time, so that occupiers would know when to deliver their bins to the 
kerb It would be impossible, therefore, for a Department to take full advantage of the lighter output 
periods of the yeai , where the practice of householders removing bins to the kerb is in force 

Another practice employed by various Corporations is to leave loaders in the collecting area while the 
collecting vehicle is travelling to and from the disposal point. These loaders bring bins (with lids fitted) 
to the kerb, so that when the vehicle returns after tipping its load, less time is lost in completing the next 
load The bins, after being emptiedj are returned by the loaders to the premises to which they belong. 
The objections to this system are not nearly so great as those attached to the method mentioned previously, 
as providing the loaders carry out their instructions, no bins without lids are allowed to stand on the kerb, 
and after being emptied, the bins are promptly removed from the pavement 

From the aesthetic viewpoint, the appearance of a pavement lined with dustbins is certainly not pleasing 
under any conditions, but if consideration of economy is the primary factor, the consequent saving in cost 
probably justifies any disadvantages attached to the practice, provided it is operated in quiet suburban 
areas, particularly where the collection area is a considerable distance from the disposal depot The de- 
livery of bins to the kerb in busy thoroughfares cannot be recommended, however, under any circumstances 

Another method of loading involves the use of skeps or scuttles into which the refuse is emptied from 
the bins This system saves a return journey with the empty bin, and also obviates damage to dustbins 
through being banged on the side of vehicles to loosen contents Its disadvantages are that the refuse is 
subjected to a double disturbance, involving greater risk of dust being blown about, and also that a careless 
workman in transferring refuse from the bin to the skep is liable to spill part of the refuse on the ground 

The most sanitary method of loading, and incidentally the most costly, is for the bin and its contents 
to be taken direct to the collecting vehicle, emptied, and immediately returned to its usual position. 


The late of loading per man is closely allied to waiting time and is mainly dependent upon local condi- 
tions, as in districts where long carries are general the rate of loading will be obviously slower than in areas 
where refuse has to be carried short distances only 

The rate of loading was estimated at 9 cwts per man per hour in a paper read at the annual conference 
of the Institute of Cleansing Superintendents m 1925, but the figure varies very considerably in different 
districts, and may Tbe as low as 4 cwts per man per hour in summer, and as high as 12 cwts per man 
per hour in winter 

It is a very important factor, however, and must be taken into consideration before adopting any par- 
ticular type of transport, as it obviously largely determines the tonnage which can be removed and the 
number of premises which can be cleared by a collection unit in a given time. The following figures showing 
the number of premises cleared per week by average collection rounds in Birmingham are given for the 
information of students, but it cannot be borne in mind too strongly that a satisfactory output for a particular 
area can be determined only when the whole of the conditions attached to the area have been fully con- 
sidered, as it is easily possible for a collection unit in one area to give a higher output with less effort than 
that expended by a unit clearing a lower number of premises per week from a different area, even in the 
same city. 

Premises Cleared once Weekly by Average Rounds in Birmingham 

(a) Horse drawn wagon with two men operating in inner areas 1000 to 1200 premises per week. 
(6) Electric vehicle with four men operating in outer areas 2300 to 2500 premises per week 
(c) Container System Units of four men 2400 to 2700 premises per week. 



The frequency of collection varies m different towns from daily upwards, and the period between col- 
lections may also vary in the different districts of one Authority, but the service given by most Corpora- 
tions is a weekly collection In the case of a daily collection, it is essential, unless the cost be prohibitive, 
that householders should deliver their bins to the kerb, and some of the disadvantages of this practice 
have already been dealt with Further, where a daily collection is in force, the output of refuse is liable 
to be greater than in districts where refuse is removed less frequently 

The most suitable intervals between collections must be decided upon in full consideration of local 
circumstances, as a satisfactory collection period for a scattered rural district might be quite unsuitable 
for a congested industrial area In most cases, however, it is doubtful whether a collection service from 
ordinary dwelling houses of a higher frequency than once per week is not an expensive luxury, although 
in the case of business premises, located in the centre of towns, a daily removal is often essential Where 
a weekly collection is suitable, it is questionable whether a more frequent service, with its attendant extra 
cost, due to duplication of travelling, etc , can be justified by any extra sanitary advantage which may be 



The most efficient method of transport for the collection of refuse in any district can be properly deter- 
mined only after full consideration has been given to the conditions operating m the district concerned. 
The chief determining factors are as follows 

(a) Receptacles for storage of refuse. 
(&) Frequency of collection 

(c) Whether bins are brought to kerb by occupiers 

(d) Length of carries (if bins are removed from premises by dustmen). 

(e) Waiting time 

(/) Rate of loading per hour per man 

(g) Length of haul from collecting area to disposal depot. 

(h] Gradients and surface of roads. 

(j) Facilities for quick discharge of loads at disposal points. 

(7c) Average output of refuse per premises 

No two towns possess identical conditions and after due consideration has been given to the various 
factors affecting the question, it will probably be decided that no uniform class of transport will satisfactorily 
meet all the conditions applicable to any one town 

It has until recently been a usually accepted pimciple that a well-organised horse-drawn transport 
when employed on hauls up to about If miles gives better results than mechanical transport, and that 
mechanical vehicles are more economical for hauls m excess of that distance. The experience of the writer 
with both classes of transport has certainly proved that the horse cannot compete with mechanical vehicles 
on the longer hauls, and the results of recent tests conducted by the Birmingham Salvage Depaitment 
point to the probability that the superiority of the horse is challenged even on short hauls 

The two 2-ton electric vehicles employed in the above-mentioned tests were specially designed for the 
purpose of contesting the previously accepted sphere of horse-drawn wagons, and in addition to a lower 
loading line, the electrics possessed greater carrying capacity than the horse wagons Another feature of 
the electrics is their small overall dimensions, which renders them capable of negotiating narrow passage- 
ways with even greater ease than a horse and wagon. The two electrics are both employed m areas pre- 
viously cleared by horse-drawn wagons, and during the twelve months ended June 1928 the vehicles proved 
superior to horse wagons on all counts The actual results shortly summarised were as follows 

Reduction in total expenses 843% 

Increase in weight collected , 3 29% 

Increase in visits made ... ..... 5-5 / 

Reduction in men days worked 14 33% 



These tests have resulted in further vehicles of similar type being acquired by the Department for employ- 
ment on other short " haul " rounds, and so long as the electrics continue to show superior results to horses, 
the policy of the Department will be that of a gradual replacement of horses by mechanical vehicles 

The experience of low loading mechanical vehicles proving themselves more economical than horses 
for short " hauls " is not confined to the Birmingham Salvage Department, and the results of carefully 
conducted tests recently made in a North Country borough showed definitely superior results by low load- 
ing petrol vehicles as compared with horses when employed on exactly similar work within an average 
radius of 75 mile from the disposal depot 

The above-mentioned tests are not referred to m order to create the impression that horse-drawn trans- 
port employed on refuse collection is necessarily invariably uneconomical There are many towns where, 
owing to peculiar local conditions, it is probable that well-organised horse-drawn transport may always 
prove most suitable, but it is submitted that the hackneyed principle of horses being the only economical 
proposition for short " hauls " should not be blindly accepted 

The forms of traction used for refuse collection are as follows 

(a) Horse-drawn 
(&) Electric vehicles 

(c) Petrol vehicles 

(d) Container system (combined horse and mechanical) 

(e) Steam vehicles 

In the " Municipal Year-book " for 1928 the proportion of horse and mechanical transport engaged 
upon house refuse collection in 93 municipalities is stated to be as follows 

Population, per Town 

500,000 to 1,100,000 

250,000 to 500,000 

100,000 to 250,000 

50,000 to 100,000 


No of 








Proportion of Horse and Mechanical Transpoit 































A brief review of the various types of transport is given below 

(a) Horse Traction. This type of traction is still the most extensively used, and has, in the past, 
been generally accepted as being the most economical form of transport for short hauls Four-wheeled 
wagons are usually employed, although in hilly and rural districts two-wheeled carts are still frequently 
used. The objections against two-wheeled carts are that the loading line is necessarily high, and 
the carrying capacity is not sufficient Cleansing Departments employing horse-drawn transport 
are sometimes regarded as being obsolete in their methods, but this criticism not infrequently emanates 
from persons who do not fully understand the problems attached to refuse collection The fact is, that 
refuse collection is not such a simple matter as it appears on the surface, and the mistake usually made by 
persons having no actual experience in cleansing work is to compare refuse collection with point to point 
haulage. It is impossible to make any fair comparison, however, as the collection of house refuse usually 
entails about 30 stops to the ton against one stop only in the case of ordinary haulage 

(b) Electnc Vehicles Electric vehicles have proved themselves eminently suitable for refuse collection 
provided they are operated under suitable conditions, and as shown in the above table are fairly extensively 
employed in the larger towns They are extremely reliable in performance, and the percentage of running 
efficiency obtained from the fleet of 86 vehicles employed by the Birmingham Salvage Department was 93 


for the year ended 31st March, 1928 It may be stated that in calculating this figure time lost through all 
causes, including painting, repairs due to road accidents, etc , is taken into consideration Other advan- 
tages claimed for the electric vehicle are as follows 

(a) Maintenance costs are low 

(&) Does not require such a skilled driver as the petrol vehicle (In the Birmingham Salvage 
Department every electric vehicle driver has been promoted from a dustman, after passing through 
a short course of instruction arranged by the Department ) 

(c) Suitable for frequent stopping and starting 

(d) Starts easily under all conditions 

(e) Uses no energy when stationary. 

(/) Its motive power can be obtained as a by-product from the burning of refuse. 
(g) Amenable m the streets as it is practically noiseless m running and does not give off fumes 
from exhaust 

(c) Pettol Vehicles These vehicles have not found general favour m the larger towns for house refuse 

collection, although they are employed to an 
appreciable extent in towns having a popula- 
tion up to 100,000, and good results are claimed 
for them The initial cost of small motor 
vehicles is comparatively low, and they possess 
the advantage of extreme flexibility. One 
of the main objections against petrol vehicles 
is that they are not so suitable [or frequent 
stopping and starting as compared with other 
types of transport. It in an illegal practice to 
allow the engine of a petrol vehicle to remain 
running whilst the vehicle is unattended, so 
that in house refuse collection a considerable 
portion of the time of a petrol vehicle driver 
is necessarily taken up in constantly starting 
the engine 

In several towns, petrol vehicles are 
utilised in connection with relay systems, 
which are designed to keep tho loaders fully 
employed Under this method, a vehicle and 

loading gang leave the depot for each collection area, and are followed by a second vehicle after sufficient 
time has elapsed for the first vehicle to be loaded The empty vehicle is left for loading, while the loaded 
vehicle and driver proceed to the disposal point After the load has been discharged, tho vehicle is 
returned to be again loaded, and so on, throughout the day 

(d) Peti ol T 1 ) action (Container System) This system was introduced about five years ago and is designed 
to utilise horse and mechanical traction in their most advantageous spheres, on iho principles that : 

(a) For slow house to house collection the horse is most suitable 

(6) For the rapid conveyance of the loaded containers to depot, mechanical transport is most 
efficient and economical 

Each petrol lorry serves three or four horse sections, and by means of inclined rails deposits an empty 
container (which has a very low loading line) in the street, and picks up a loaded container for haulage to 
the place of disposal A horse is harnessed to the empty container left by the lorry and loading is then 
recommenced After the loaded container taken to the disposal point has been emptied, it is hauled to 
the next horse section, where it is deposited, and the full container from that section is then picked up and 
taken away 

The fact that a number of large Corporations are at present employing the Container System proves 

FIG 8 Part of Electric Vehicle Fleet 


that it possesses attractions, although it has certain disadvantages which may he hriefly reviewed as 

(a) In order to obtain the best results, it is necessary for horses to be stabled as near as possible 
to the collecting area, thus involving the use of several stables This makes it difficult for the district 
inspector to keep in close touch with the various sections, and in the event of a workman failing to 
report for duty, or if a horse is unfit for work, considerable time may be lost before the district inspector 
is informed 

(&) It is advisable that workmen should not return to the stabling depot from the time they turn 
out in the morning until they arrive there at night for leaving work This implies their staying away 
from their depots at dinner time and taking their meals as best they can 

(c) The gross weight of a loaded container may be over 4 tons, and the system is therefore unsuitable 
for hilly districts 

(d) The necessity for changing containers m the street renders the system unsuitable for congested 
areas such as mam streets and narrow roads 

(e) The dislocation in case of breakdown of a motor lorry is considerable if a spare is not available, 
and unless several units are employed, the cost of keeping a spare for emergency use would be 

In some districts, the container system is employed in conjunction with tractors In this case, the 
containers are hauled behind the tractor instead of being carried on the chassis of the lorry 

(e) Steam Wagons These vehicles are not employed to any great extent in refuse collection, although 
they have found considerable favour for point-to-point haulage of heavy loads such as clinkers Two 
5-ton steam wagons were used by the Birmingham Salvage Department upon refuse collection for several 
weeks during the summer of 1926, when owing to the low calorific value of the refuse, due to the coal strike, 
difficulty was experienced at one depot of the Department in raising sufficient steam to enable electric 
vehicles to be properly charged The experiment was not a success and it was deemed advisable to take 
other measures in order to surmount the difficulty, although it should be stated that the steam wagons 
were not designed for refuse collection, being normally employed upon clinker haulage 


Whatever form of transport is decided upon, it is usually good policy to provide vehicles of ample capacity 
and this particularly applies in districts where it is the practice for collection teams to remove a specified 
number of loads per day In Birmingham, three loads per full working day are usually collected by 
each collection unit, and wherever 5-ton mechanical vehicles with a body capacity of from 11 to 13 cubic 
yards have been substituted for 2|-ton vehicles, with a collecting team of 4 men in each case, it has been 
the general experience that costs are reduced. 

It is not suggested that the larger vehicles are necessarily completely filled on each occasion of returning 
to depot for unloading, but it has been found that during certain periods of the year, owing to the refuse 
being more bulky and the output greater, smaller vehicles are not infrequently filled when there is still 
time to spare for the collection of more refuse. Under such circumstances, a team of conscientious workers 
may endeavour to pack the refuse in the vehicle in order to provide further space for loading, but even if 
this is done, time and energy are expended which could be more profitably employed if a vehicle of greater 
capacity were provided Further, where refuse is tightly packed in vehicles, time is wasted in unloading, 
as the refuse usually has to be partly pulled out before the load will leave the vehicle 

It appears to be the general experience throughout the country that the composition of house refuse 
is undergoing a considerable change, in that while there is a tendency towards a reduction in the weight 
collected, the reduced tonnage is not accompanied by a corresponding reduction in bulk A few years 
ago the average weight of a cubic yard of house refuse was usually considered to be approximately 9 cwts , 
whereas at the present time, the average weight per cubic yard in many towns does not exceed 7 cwts. 
This increase in bulk and reduction in weight may be partially attributed to the following reasons 


(a) The more general use of dustbins instead of fixed ashpits, resulting in refuse pending removal 
"being kept in a drier condition 

(&) The increase in the use of gas and electric cookers and heaters in place of coal fires The heavy 
cinder content of refuse is thereby reduced and the facilities provided by the open fire for burning 
light refuse such as waste paper, etc , are lessened 

"With regard to (&) the following data are submitted showing the development in Birmingham m the use 
of gas and electrical heating and cooking appliances 

y ear Gas Gas Electric Electric 

Fires Cookers Radiators Cookers 

1914 19,000 116,300 945 11 

1927 92,000 195,700 7,000 295 

The increase in bulk m" house refuse obviously calls for vehicles of larger cubic capacity, although the 
size of vehicles employed must be governed largely by local conditions, such as width of streets, etc , as the 
employment of large 5-ton vehicles, for example, would obviously prove uneconomical in districts where 
narrow back passages are available, giving access to the backs of houses, which could be negotiated by 
smaller vehicles In such cases, refuse might have to be carried considerable distances if a large vehicle 
were employed, and this would result in waiting time being greatly increased 
" The width of vehicles is limited to 7 feet by law and the overall length should not exceed 20 feet 

An important consideration in the design of any refuse collection vehicle is the loading line, which 
should be kept as low as possible 


The cleanliness of refuse collection vehicles is a matter which frequently does not receive the considera- 
tion it deserves, and in many towns there appear to be no arrangements in operation for the systematic 
cleaning of vehicles The composition of average present-day house refuse is not usually of such an offensive 
nature that collection vehicles should be permitted on the streets in a perpetually filthy condition, and a 
thorough weekly washing is normally sufficient to ensure vehicles being kept in a reasonably clean state. 

After experimenting with several types of vehicle-washing apparatus, including overhead spray washers, 
the writer has found that a cyclone washing plant is the most suitable for refuse collection vehicles, for the 
reason that water can be applied either as a fine spray, or as a direct jet, up to a pressure of 300 Ib , which 
ensures the rapid removal of caked mud, grease, etc , and the complete washing of a vehicle can be 
comfortably accomplished in 10 minutes 

A Vehicle Prize Scheme was introduced in the Birmingham Salvage Department about five years ago 
with a view to encourage drivers of mechanical vehicles to maintain their vehicles in a cleanly condition 
The vehicles are subjected to a thorough examination at regular intervals, points being awarded for main- 
tenance and cleanliness. Prizes varying in amounts from 6 to 1 10s per vehicle are awarded annually 
to drivers obtaining the highest points, and it is considered that the money expended in connection with 
the scheme has been more than justified by the additional cleanliness of the vehicles It may be mentioned 
that a number of the Department's vehicles always participate in the local annual vehicle parade of the 
Commercial Motor Users' Association, and without exception the vehicles entered have obtained awards. 
In the parade for the year 1926 a team of four vehicles belonging to the Department was successful in 
obtaining the premier award in competition with vehicles entered by many of the leading traders in the 


The quantity of refuse produced daily in any area varies considerably during the course of the year, 
and a series of charts kept by the Birmingham Salvage Department over a number of years shows that the 
daily output at the heaviest period of the year is more than 60% greater by weight than during the lightest 
period of the year The charts also show that the heaviest output occurs during the months of January 
or February and that the lightest output is during the months of July or August 


This variation is chiefly due to the difference in climatic conditions during the various periods of the 
year, resulting m a greater or lesser use of coal fires at the different seasons, and a consequent variation 
in the quantity of ashes which the Department is called upon to remove Rainfall also has some 
effect upon the daily weight of refuse removed, and this particularly applies where dustbins are not in 
general use, as in such circumstances refuse becomes wet and heavy in rainy weather Another cause 
affecting the output of refuse which may be mentioned is coal strikes, resulting m inferior fuel being used, 
which gives a larger ash residue, or if the dispute lasts sufficiently long, it may result in the refuse output 
being reduced below normal, as coal of even a low quality may become almost unobtainable A temporary 
suspension of work due to a public holiday, a breakdown in transport or disposal arrangements are other 
factors affecting the daily quantity of refuse to be removed 


It will be apparent from the remarks made in the preceding paragraph that if the woik of collection is 
to be efficiently and economically performed, the organisation of the collection system must allow of full 
advantage being taken of the low output periods, and at the same time be sufficiently elastic to be capable 
of rapid expansion in order to deal with the output during the heavy period of the year 


Until about eight years ago, the " block load " system of refuse collection was in operation in Birming- 
ham, and under this method, blocks of premises were allocated to each load collected by every vehicle, the 
" blocks " allocated to each collection unit not necessarily being in the same area of the district In view 
of the disjointed lay-out of the collection rounds, this method proved unsuitable, as during heavy output 
periods of the year it was difficult to prevent collection teams becoming m arrears with their work and full 
advantage could not be taken of low output seasons A method known as the '' continuous " system was 
therefore devised, the whole of the refuse collection work of the Department now having been reorganised 
on the latter system 

Under the " continuous " system, a self-contained area calculated to provide a week's work during the 
summer months of the year is allotted to each collecting team, who are provided with a working list show- 
ing the exact order m which each house or shop is to be visited As far as possible, the route of the collect- 
ing vehicle is planned in an unbroken line from beginning to end of the round, and it is usually arranged 
that the commencement of the round lies at the farthest point from the disposal depot, so that the vehicle 
is gradually working towards " home " The vehicle commences work at the first house on the working 
list and proceeds from house to house and street to street in the order laid down in the working list until 
a full load is obtained or until it is time to return to the depot. The load is then taken to the disposal 
depot, and, after tipping, the vehicle proceeds to the next house on the working list and recommences load- 
ing This process of loading continues until the round is cleared or if duung the heavy output period of the 
year the team is unable entirely to clear the round in a week, the vehicle can, if it is thought desirable, be 
turned back to recommence work at the first house on the working list, assistance being given to clear that 
portion of the round not attended to by the regular vehicle It will be seen that under the " continuous " 
system the refuse collectors can never plead in excuse of a small load that they had completed their load 
or day's work, or that it was too far to travel to the next ]ob a plea which was frequently put forward 
when the " block load " system was In operation 

At the end of the day's work, the driver in charge of the vehicle reports to the weigh clerk the last address 
attended to, and by means of a simple table with which each clerk is supplied, a quick calculation is made 
giving the number of premises attended to by the collecting vehicle during the day The number of premises 
cleared is then recorded by the clerk in graph form on what is known as a progress chart 

A separate chart is kept m respect of each round, and m actual practice the day's work of each round is 
recorded daily on the progress charts by the depot clerk before he leaves at night By means of these 
charts the Inspector m charge of the district is able to see at a glance befoie each day's work commences 
the progress made by each collection team during the previous day 

The mam advantages claimed foi the " continuous " system, are 

(a) Control is entirely 111 the hands of the management 


(6) Collection is carried out at a minimum of cost, as by reason of the elasticity of the method the 
collection staff can be rapidly expanded or reduced in accordance with the varying output of lefuse 
(c) Complaints are practically eliminated 


A necessary preliminary before the " continuous " system can bo installed is that a complete record 
has to be obtained of all premises in the area concerned, showing their situation, access, i ccoptaclc for refuse 
storage, etc One man can record the necessary particulars of about 1000 houses per week 


Reference has been made previously to progress charts which show the daily progress of each collecting 
team. The average weight of each load is also recorded weekly 011 these charts, HO that a check is provided 
on both the number of premises attended to and also upon the weights collected 

Other weekly records kept which may be mentioned are . 

(a) Ai rears of Collection Chart shows the number of loads the whole of the collection teams employed 
in the city are in arrears. For purposes of comparison, the details of arrears in respect of corresponding 
weeks of the two preceding years are also recorded 

(b) Assistance for Arrears Chart shows the number of loads assistance given to the regular collecting 
teams Particulars of corresponding periods of the previous two years are also shown 

(c) Complaints and Applications for Removal of Refuse Chatt Records the total applications received 
from all sources, the total being divided under the headings of " Justifiable " and " Unjustifiable " 



Until a few years ago the tonnage of refuse collected was considered to be the best and perhaps the only 
reliable check obtainable upon work performed by refuse collectors, but it is now recognised by many 
officers that consideration of weight to the exclusion of every other factor may lead to wrong conclusions 
A given weight of refuse may be collected from properties possessing common backyards, with the expendi- 
ture of perhaps half the time and energy required to collect the same weight of refuse from single hotieo 
property where long carries are the rule Further, where the gospel of weight is being always preached 
to collection employees, they are tempted to disobey their instructions by removing builders' mbbish and 

PttT^ ?r a !if n T 7 T" 18 f IF* 10 * tlle avera e ^ight of their loads The number of premises 

attended to is now th 

Ptt i e numer o premises 

attended to is now, therefore, frequently regarded as proving a more reliable check upon woik pe C u 1 

1 1S 7 16 Wliere th " " 

far lr 1 ^ 1S f 7 fr 6 Wliere the " conto0 ^ " system is m force, thus poVi a 
further argument in favour of the latter system, for unless the number of premises attended to by the ml 

be qmc% calculated < 



The annual yield of house refuse per thousand persons in eighteen laige towns in England and Wales 
having a population of more than 200,000 for the year ended March 31st, 1928, varied from 373 tons 
to 1904 tons, the average annual yield for the eighteen towns being 290 1 tons, or nearly 16 cwts per 
thousand persons per day 

The average yield of house refuse may also vary within wide limits, in any one town, and the following 
table shows the average annual yield of dry refuse per premises in the nine collecting districts of Birmingham 
for the year ended 31st March, 1928 

Average Annual 

Distuct. Yield pei Premises. 


Holliday Street . . 31 93 

Shadwell Street . 30 97 

Montague Street ..... . . 29 32 

Rotton Park Street ... . 22 53 

Nechells . . .... 19 59 

Brookvale Road . . 18 47 

Handsworth . ..... ... 18 36 

Lifford ... . 15 66 

Tyseley 1461 

Average for city 20 59 

The fact that average yield figures, both in respect of separate towns and also in separate districts of 
one city, show such great variation, provides conclusive proof that the yield of house refuse throughout 
the country is capable of considerable reduction if only the co-operation of the public could be obtained, 
and it is perhaps unnecessary to add that, if the yield of refuse was considerably reduced, the cost of 
cleansing work could be materially lessened 

To what extent the yield of refuse could bo leduced if Corporations possessed the assistance of a public 
sympathetic to their aims in connection with reduction of output of refuse is a matter upon which opinion 
may vary, and in. a paper entitled " Suggestions for the Reduction of House Refuse at its Source," which 
was read by the General Manager o the Birmingham Salvage Department at the annual conference of 
The Institute of Cleansing Superintendents, held at Swansea in June 1925, it was stated that with the 
necessary care on the part of the housewife, an average reduction of 40% by weight throughout the country 
is a modest estimate of what could be achieved 

A first consideration of this estimate may lead to doubt as to whether this figure is not somewhat over- 
estimated, but when it is appreciated that half-burnt coal alone, in the form of cinders, accounts for 30% 
to 35% of house refuse, the estimate of an average reduction of 40% must be regarded as reasonable In 
passing, it may be mentioned that cinders contained in house refuse possess a calorific value of about 7000 
B.Th U per pound against approximately 14,000 B Th U obtained from coal, so that it will be conceded 
that such valuable fuel should never be consigned to the dustbin 

Whatever reduction m yield is considered reasonable of achievement, however, it must not be assumed 
that working expenses will necessarily show a corresponding decrease 


A reduction in the average yield per house would increase the number of calls per ton, so that the col- 
lection cost per ton would increase, but if the refuse reduction were appreciable, the collecting vehicle should 
visit more houses per load, and this would result in a reduction in the collection cost per house and per 1000 
population, further, m the case of premises where the output is exceptionally excessive, a reduction in 
yield would probably result in the refuse collectors being recurred to make one journey only between the 


premises and the collection vehicle, whereas two or more journeys may be necessary under existing cir- 
cumstances, particularly during the " heavy " output periods of the year Providing the collection system 
is capable of adjustment in order to take advantage of any yield reductions achieved, the total collection 
cost should, therefore, he decreased, and if the total cost is reduced, the fact that an increase is shown on a 
unit cost such as cost per ton can be disregarded 


When the disposal of refuse is considered, the effects of a reduced yield may be even more pronounced, 
according to the method of disposal in force Where refuse is disposed of by barging to sea, or pulverisation, 
the reduction m cost should dimmish almost proportionately with the yield Where disposal is by incinera- 
tion, the change in the constitution of the refuse which would accompany a large reduction m yield, ^ e , 
the elimination of the majority of cinders, waste paper and organic waste, might result m exi&ting disposal 
depots and salvage plants becoming to some extent unsuitable for the changed conditions Refuse disposal 
and salvage plants have been designed to meet existing circumstances, howevei, and if the need arises, 
cleansing officials will be undoubtedly sufficiently ingenious to adjust their methods to meet the different 


In the paper already referred to it was estimated that a yield reduction amounting to 40% should make 
possible a saving of 20% in working expenses The removal and disposal of house refuse costs the country 
approximately 7,500,000 per annum, so that a 20% saving m working expenses would amount to no less 
a siim than 1,500,000 per annum, which is equal to about 40 per 1000 persons per annum 

Sufficient has been said to show the desirability of yield reduction, and it now remains to be considered 
as to how best it can be brought about The following remarks are intended to describe methods and 
practices which are calculated to assist in promoting yield reduction. 


The advantages attached to the use of standard dustbins have already been referred to There is no 
necessity to discuss this matter further except to say that the absence of covered receptacles results in the 
removal of tons of moisture 


Mention has been made of the fact that household refuse contains a very large proportion of good fuel 
in the form of partly burned coal, so that if Local Authorities could induce the general public to recover 
this useful fuel by the use of cinder sifters, considerable progrebs would be made towards the end m view 
A number of Local Authorities have had a cinder sifter designed for use with the standard dustbin adopted 

Few methods are likely to be more effective in reducing yield than the imposition of a charge for the 
removal of trade refuse and garden refuse In this connection it may be mentioned that where a bonus 
scheme based upon the number of premises visited is in operation, refuse collectors may be generally relied 
upon not to surreptitiously remove trade, garden or builders' refuse, as besides risking punishment for 
disobeying instructions, they are quick to realise that they are performing work for which they receive no 


The adoption of bye-laws making it an offence to deposit liquid or fsecal matter in dustbins is another 
aid which should assist in reducing the weight of refuse to be removed 


Whatever action a Local Authority takes m endeavouring to obtain a reduction in yield of refuse, good 
results are not possible unless the interest of householders is awakened to the benefits which lie m their 


power to confer, "both upon themselves and the community at large, in reducing their output of house refuse 
to a minimum by burning all combustible refuse on the house fires In order to obtain the necessary co- 
operation between the householder and Local Authorities, a number of salvage and cleansing departments 
now undertake publicity work as a part of their regular activities, with a view to encourage the public to 
reduce the yield of house refuse, and also to give guidance as to how yield reduction can be best accom- 
plished The methods which have usually been employed in the past are as follows . 

(a) Lectures (sometimes illustrated by lantern slides) to school children, educational institutions, 
clubs and the general public, usually followed by visits of inspection to salvage and disposal works 

A fascinating story can be woven round the operations and aims of a modern salvage or cleansing 
department, and if lectures are skilfully delivered, they invariably hold the interest of audiences Apart 
from the value of lectures and visits of inspection in regard to the promotion of yield reduction, they 
also materially assist in educating citizens to regard the work of public cleansing with the consideration 
it deserves. 

(5) Prizes for best essays written by school children, after lectures or visits to works The child 
of to-day will be the citizen of to-morrow, and no field is likely to prove more fruitful if it could be 
assiduously cultivated In the case of a large town, however, it is almost impossible for the ordinary 
staff of a Cleansing Department to devote the time necessary to this branch of publicity work If 
success is to be achieved, it is essential that the effort shall be sustained, and this applies perhaps even 
more particularly in the case of lectures to school children than to any other sphere of propaganda 

(c) The exhibition of slogans such as " Burn your Kef use Reduce your Bates " on refuse collection 
vehicles Some time ago, a lady resident of Birmingham interpreted this slogan, which is exhibited 
on all mechanical vehicles employed by the Salvage Department, too literally This good lady for- 
warded a communication to the local Rates Department, stating that she had observed this notice on 
the vehicles, and as she made a practice of disposing of her own refuse, she would be glad to hear what 
allowance off her rates she was entitled to receive ' 

(d) Daylight signs with the wording " Save your Cinders " are now fitted to many refuse collection 
vehicles employed in Birmingham 

(e) "Window displays and exhibits at industrial exhibitions, etc 
(/) Distribution of " Don'ts " cards, leaflets and pamphlets 

(g) Insertion of matter in Municipal calendars The Birmingham Estates Department issue to 
tenants of all Municipal houses a calendar giving gardening information and hints upon the proper 
care of houses, drams, fittings, etc During the past three years the Birmingham Salvage Department 
has Coined the Estates Department m the production of this calendar, and the monthly notes contain 
helpful information upon the subject of house refuse, and especially upon the reduction of yield of 
refuse The calendar is used also for the purpose of advertising by-products of the Salvage Depart- 
ment, such as manures, clinker, paving slabs, etc. 


The results obtained in those towns where a real effort has been made to induce reduction in yield are 
distinctly promising, but the time has probably arrived when something beyond local efforts should be 
attempted, and for a National Campaign to be inaugurated. 

The question of obtaining the necessary funds for conducting such a movement appears to be the chief 
difficulty, and at the annual conference of The Institute of Cleansing Superintendents, held in 1926, 
Mr. Jas. Jackson, QBE, who was then President of the Institute, announced that the Birmingham Salvage 
Department would be willing to provide the sum of 100 towards the cost of a National Publicity 
Campaign if a satisfactory number of other Local Authorities would agree to donate a sum in the same 
ratio, based on population, but although a number of Corporations agreed to subscribe to the movement, 
sufficient support was not forthcoming to ensure its success 



The extent of a publicity campaign obviously must depend largely upon the funds available, and news- 
paper advertising, which is too costly for a single Local Authority to undertake to any extent, is one avenue 
of publicity which has not yet been explored. It is now recognised by most big advertisers that newspaper 
advertising, providing it is well done, is productive of excellent results, and if at any future date it is decided 
to embark upon a National Campaign for the reduction of yield in house refuse, this method of advertising 
will doubtless receive caieful consideration by the persons responsible for the methods to be adopted. 


Wireless lectures upon certain phases of cleansing work have been broadcast in the past, but this is 
another method which could probably be more efficiently exploited through a national rather than a local 

The cleansing of cesspools is a duty delegated by the City Council to the Birmingham Salvage Depart- 

PIG 9 Heet of "Halley" Cesspool Emptiers 

ment, although in other towns this work does not generally appear to be carried out by the department 
responsible for the removal and disposal of house refuse. 

Cesspools are usually attached to houses situated on the outskirts of a city where no sewer is available. 
They are underground chambers and generally sewage, in addition to waste sink and bath water, are drained 
to them 

Cesspools are recognised as very insanitary arrangements and almost invariably give rise to complaints, 
whether emptied frequently or otherwise The occupants of premises possessing cesspools usually insist 
upon frequent emptying, and notwithstanding that trie most efficient plant obtainable may be employed 
on the work, cesspools are productive of frequent complaints regarding nuisance from offensive smells 
created during the process of emptying and discharging 

Quite apart from the hygienic aspect, the work of emptying cesspools is an extremely expensive opera- 
tion, and in Birmingham it is a not infrequent circumstance that the expenditure incurred m the cleansing 
of a cesspool exceeds the total sum paid in rates in respect of the premises concerned The average cost 
of emptying cesspools in Birmingham during the year ended 31st March, 1928, was 14 65. 7d. per cesspool, 
the cost per house served being 8 12s. Id. 


In Birmingham there are 558 cesspools serving 709 premises on the records of the Salvage Department, 
no fewer than 348 of these cesspools being located in one small unsewered district which was annexed to 
the City in April 1928. 

The Department possesses five 35 h p " Halley " vehicles for cesspool emptying, each being fitted with 
an 800-gallon cylindrical tank body, this type of vehicle being adopted as standard after experimenting 
with several other makes of vehicle The tank is exhausted of air by a rotary air pump, which also, by the 
operation of a single lever, applies internal pressure for quick discharge Each vehicle carries 100 yards of 
4-mch armoured suction hose in 12 feet lengths, and the same hose is used for suction and discharge. 


The wnter has frequently referred in this chapter to methods in operation in Birmingham, but he is 
anxious that the impression shall not be created that such remarks have been made for the purpose of 
unduly stressing the activities of the Birmingham Salvage Department. 

Birmingham, like every other Authority, has its own local conditions and problems, and the organisa- 
tion of the Birmingham Salvage Department has been devised solely to meet the local conditions 

The writer, being in the service of the Birmingham Corporation Salvage Department, is obviously more 
familiar with Birmingham methods than those employed by other Authorities, and having access to all 
data and information compiled in the Department, considers that his conclusions being formed from 
actual data and personal experience are more reliable than if he were to attempt to treat the subject from 
a wider angle. 



KEFERENCE lias been made in the preceding chapter to the great variation which takes place in the output 
of refuse at different seasons of the year and the consequent need for a flexible system of refuse collection 
was stressed 

The " block load " system, by which the work of each collecting vehicle is arranged so that a definite 
block of premises is allocated to each load, does not possess that elasticity which is so essential for rapid 
expansion and contraction to meet varying conditions 

The " continuous " system of refuse collection, which has also been described m the preceding 
chapter, possesses the advantage of extreme flexibility and was devised mainly with the view to full advan- 
tage being taken of low refuse output periods of the year This chapter is intended therefore to describe 
the organisation of refuse collection upon the " continuous " system 


Before organisation can be satisfactorily commenced, it is essential for a complete compilation 01 census 
of the whole area to be made, the following particulars being recorded in respect of each separate premises . 

(a) Name of road and name or number of premises. 
(6) Access for purposes of removal of refuse. 

(c) Storage accommodation 

(d) Class of premises (stating whether private dwelling-house or business premises). 

One man can record approximately 1000 premises per week, and the initial cost of obtaining the necessary 
particulars will be amply repaid The information obtained will prove invaluable, and will provide the 
foundation on which an efficient system of refuse collection can be established 


After the compilation of the area has been completed, the whole area proposed to be organised must be 
divided into collection districts, definite boundaries being laid down The term " district " is used as 
meaning a defined area from which refuse is collected and taken to one disposal centre. 

In deciding the position of the district boundaries, the main governing factors are . 

(a) The position of the disposal centre 
(6) The capacity of the disposal centre. 

In passing, it should be stated that, subject to (a) and (&), it will be usually found that up to reasonable 
limits one large collection district is preferable to two small separate areas, as the work of supervising the 
collection employees is simplified Fewer supervisory officials are required and it becomes economically 
practicable to employ district refuse collection inspectors of a better type. 


Assuming that a district is reasonably developed over its entire area, the ideal position for the refuse 
disposal centre would be as near the centre of the district as possible, in order to avoid the necessity of 



collection vehicles having to make long journeys to and from their rounds. The gradients to the disposal 
depot should be easy, and an alternative method of transport such as a railway-siding or canal should be 
available It has to be admitted, however, that in spite of the fact that modern salvage and refuse disposal 
plants can be operated entirely without nuisance, there still exists a strong prejudice in the minds of the 
public against such works being erected in congested areas 

For this reason it may not be practicable to obtain a site located in the centre of the collection district 
which possesses all the above-mentioned features, and a site not centrally situated may have to be decided 
upon. In these days of mechanical traction, the disadvantages attached to long hauls are not nearly 
so important as was the case when horse-drawn vehicles were practically solely employed upon the work 
of house-refuse collection, and the disadvantage of longer hauls for a section of the collection fleet may 
be therefore more than compensated by the selection of a site not centrally situated, but possessing other 


This is the most important factor governing the size of the district and position of the boundaries 
The weekly tonnage capacity of the disposal centre must be ascertained, and possessing this information, 
the estimated number of houses required to give this tonnage is easily obtained The most reliable method 
of ascertaining the number of houses estimated to produce the tonnage required is, of course, to base the 
calculations on the output per premises during the heavy period of the year in the particular district con- 
cerned, but if this information is not available, a ready means of estimating the number of premises required 
to produce a given tonnage is to allow 5 cwt of refuse per week to each premises This figure is probably 
on the high side (Birmingham's average figure being 0-398 cwt per premises per week), but allows a margin 
for heavy output periods. The boundaries of the collection district can then be decided, in order to give the 
number of houses estimated to produce the tonnage capacity of the disposal depot at the heaviest output 
period of the year 


When the " continuous " system of refuse collection was commenced in Birmingham, each round was 
set out independently of any other round, but all rounds are now set out on the " Continuous Circle" system 
In the latter method, each round to be organised is commenced at the finishing point of the previous round, 
and the entire area of one district is thus organised m one or more large circles, each circle being 
composed of a number of rounds This allows of much easier adjustment which may become necessary, for 
reasons such as the addition of a large number of new houses, or re-arrangement consequent upon alteration 
to the type of collecting vehicle employed All that is necessary in such cases is to add the unattached 
premises to the appropriate round or rounds, which will, in the case of a round already constituting a full 
week's work, result in a portion of the original round being unattached. This unattached work is transferred 
to the adjoining round, and so on until the end of the circle is reached Instead of a portion of several 
rounds requiring revision, the whole of the premises left unattached to specific rounds are therefore brought 
together at the end of the circle The collection of refuse from these premises can be then organised as a 
part or whole of an additional round, as necessary 


The importance of rounds being carefully mapped out cannot be over-emphasised, as time wasted owing 
to waste runs, or badly set-out routes, will occur on each occasion refuse is removed subsequent to organisa- 
tion. If by carefully setting out the route of a round a saving of one hour's loading time per week, only, 
can be effected, the extra loading time thus obtained represents, during one year, the equivalent of a week's 
work for the entire team, in the case of a weekly collection 

The commencing point of the first round is most important and care must be taken m its selection Local 
conditions are the deciding factors in fixing this point, and as an example, if there is a main road running 
through the district, a good starting place would be the point where the boundary of the area meets the main 
road This would allow of the collection vehicle working up the mam road on the left-hand side, taking all 
side roads as they are reached, until arriving at the boundary at the other side of the district and then 
turning back to work similarly along the other side of the mam road 


The direction of travel as a general rule will be along the left-hand side of the road There are times, 
however, when this rule can be altered with advantage so as to avoid a waste nm, or in order to decrease 
the mileage of the vehicle 

There may be certain roads in the district with houses on one side only, and by woilung along the wrong 
side of the road (that is, against the traffic) a waste run may be avoided. This practice should not he, followed 
more than is necessary, and certainly not on main roads 

Again, there are occasions when it is advantageous to collect from both sides of a road ad the same time 
In many of the new Corporation estates, some of the side roads are veiy suitable foi collecting refuse m this 
way Generally speaking, however, the only instances where this practice can be worked with advantage 
are in narrow side roads, in thinly-populated areas, which are little used by trallic, and also on steep lulls. 
More will be said later regarding the latter point 

The advantages gamed from collecting simultaneously from both sides of a road are that mileage and the 
number of stops and starts of the collecting vehicle are greatly reduced. Unless roads are narrow and little 
used by other traffic, however, the time lost due mainly to the extra distance refuse has to be earned (as 
the vehicle must stand on the left-hand side of the road) more than outweighs any gain. There is ,ilso 
the possibility of refuse collectors being involved in accidents with passing traffic 

In the case of a collection team consisting of an uneven number of men, * e , 3 or 5, the method is un- 
suitable, as obviously more men would be working one side of the road than the other, probably resulting 
m the men employed on one side of the road wasting time, while those? clearing the opposite side caught up 

If horse vehicles are employed, it is necessary to work out the route of collection so that all gradients too 
steep for horses are worked downhill as loading proceeds This usually entails one side of the- road being 
cleared on the wrong side, although if the road is suitable, it will be more advantageous to clear both sides at 
once In the case of mechanical vehicles, hills are of considerably less importance, but if a lull is very steep, 
it is advisable, if convenient, to organise the work so that the vehicle docs not have to work up the lull, as 
continual stopping and starting are a strain on the mechanism 

When the collection vehicle enters a road, the whole road should be cleared, that is, tho vehicle should 
work straight up the left-hand side as far as possible, turn round, and return straight clown the other side. 
Only such side roads which have no other entrance should be turned into. By this means, time wasted by 
turning the vehicle in the road is reduced to a minimum. 

If possible, the work should never be set out so that the collecting vehicle lias to bo turned on a main 
or busy thoroughfare to work in the opposite direction, as in turning, there is a possibility of accidents and 
tune may be lost in waiting for a break in the traffic to allow of the vehicle being turned. 


A rough working list of the area to be cleared should be written up m accordance with the foregoing 
methods This list must contain every house to be visited m its correct sequence, and must show tho exact, 
route to be followed 

In drawing up the list, care must be taken that only houses with access in the road in winch tho vehicle 
will work are included, as although the fronts of certain houses may be located in one road, access for refuse 
removal may be in another road In such cases, houses should be included m tho working list embracing 
the road in which access is situated. 


The rough working list having been prepared and the vehicle and team decided upon, an experienced 
foreman should be detailed to accompany the team. The duties of this foreman are as follows .- 

(a) To see that the round is worked strictly in accordance with the working list 
he finds P artlculars of ti Premises visited, and to verify all details of the list with the conditions 

(o) In towns where charges are levied for the removal of trade refuse, to note all such refuse removed 
and to inform the District Inspector of his obseivations, m order that the latter may verify that 
an arrangement is in force for the removal of such refuse 


(d) To make suggestions for any improvement in the way in which the working list is set out 

(e) To report to the District Inspector any dustbins or other storage receptacles which are worn out 
or require attention 

(/) To see that the refuse collectors give a fair day's work 

The premises on the working list being visited in a different sequence from that previously in operation, 
it follows that if a weekly collection is usually given, a portion of the work will be overtime, while other 
premises will be reached before a full week has elapsed since the last collection In order to ensure that the 
round is set out fairly and that the work is a week old only, it is necessary for the foreman to accompany 
the team for a second week At the end of the first week, the collection should therefore be recommenced 
at the beginning of the list, a separate vehicle being sent to attend to any premises included on the working 
list and not cleared during the first week The house on the list at which the collection team finishes 
after the second week's work will be the recognised end of the round 

It is not suggested that the team should never complete the round as set out in less than a full week's 
work, as it is a frequent experience in Birmingham that a team of keen workers who are anxious "to earn bonus 
will complete their list in less than a week In such cases, teams are diverted to other work, such as to assist 
Other teams which may be unavoidably in arrears with their work The number of premises cleared at the 
end of the second week that the team is accompanied by the foreman should be regarded, however, as a 
definite minimum output required from the team at the period of the year in which the round is set out, and 
any falling off from this standard must be quickly inquired into As explained in the description of the 
" continuous " system included in the preceding chapter, the number of premises cleared by each collection 
unit is charted daily, so that where this system is in operation any reduction in output is readily discernible 


During the second week of the round being set out, at least three copies of the rough working list (which 
will by then have received any necessary corrections) should be typed, ^.e , one copy for Head Office, one copy 
for the Depot Office, and one copy to be carried by the refuse collectors 

On the depot copy of the working list, each page is totalled separately, a progressive total being also made 
showing the total number of premises included on the working list 


A point of paramount importance is that any deviation in the collection of refuse from the order laid 
down in the working list immediately disorganises the system, and refuse collectors must therefore be warned 
that disciplinary action will be taken if they are found departing from the sequence of their list 

It is absolutely essential that working lists be kept strictly up to date All new houses reported by refuse 
collectors as being occupied subsequent to organisation should, after verification by the District Inspector, 
be entered immediately on each copy of the working list concerned, in their correct position, and the totals 

If a charge is made for the removal of trade refuse, particulars of the quantity of such refuse to be removed 
should be indicated on the working lists against the premises concerned. 




THE earliest record of refuse disposal appears to be a reference to the burning of the refuse outside 
Jerusalem at a site known as Gehenna, previously the scene of Molochian sacrifices. Subsequently, 
Gehenna allegoncally represented the ancient Jewish corruption of "Hell" (a fact which appears bo have 
escaped the attention of not a few of our Borough Engineers and Directors of Cleansing) The Romans 
and Greeks, according to ancient history, are also credited with the disposal of refuse by burning, and it is 
stated that the Turkish baths of Cairo have been heated for many centuries by the heat generated from the 
refuse of the city 

Charles Dickens, in his *' American Notes " refers to the hog's part in refuse disposal in Broadway, 
New York For instance, " Take care of the pigs " " Two poi tly sows aie trotting behind this carnage, 

and a select party of half-a-dozen gentlemen hogs have just turned round the corner," . " hero a solitary 
swine He leaves his lodgings every morning at a certain hour, throws himself upon the town and regu- 
larly appears at the door of his own house again at night, grunting down to the kennel, turning up the 
news and small talk of the city in the shape of cabbage stalks and offal " this gentleman swine must have 
known something about the " Continuous " system of refuse collection " Just as evening is closing in, 
you will see the hogs roaming towards bed by scores, eating their way to the last." . cc They are 
the city scavengers." 

Again, take the pariah-dogs of Constantinople and other Eastern cities These also act as scavengers. 
In fact, the animal world appears to have been largely interested in the subject matter. Even at thiH day 
valuable food for pigs is derived from the proper treatment of certain constituents of our refuse, and we 
find the animal as a public utility agent still not quite distinct from our present-day mechanical practice. 

It is not my intention, however, to labour the animal's pait in refuse disposal, but to confine my remarks 
to those of Barging to Sea, Pulverisation, Incineration and Salvage Utilisation 


Many river-side towns and also towns on the seaboard resort to this means of disposal, which compares 
very f avourably from a cost point of view with any other method and is to a certain extent effective, exclud- 
ing the danger of floating residue being returned to the shore Moderately large dumping barges are 
employed in the service, which are towed to sea and there discharged, and assuming a suitable position 
be selected, the danger referred to is not likely seriously to affect the Authority responsible in most cases 
for the accumulation 

The nuisance of the lighter refuse being washed up on the beaches is always prevalent. Take the river 
Tyne, for instance Gateshead barge approximately 40,000 tons per annum, other neighbouring boroughs 
more or less likewise, it needs little imagination to visualise the state of affairs should any of this debris be 
washed ashore. It therefore follows that if dumping were carried out indiscriminately a good deal of 
nuisance would be caused, but to minimise this trouble the River Commissioners require that refuse barges 
shall not tip in less than 20 fathoms of water. 

It will be appreciated that the conditions of towns using this method vary considerably, e.g., the barges 
working from Gateshead have to travel a distance of 9 miles to the mouth of the river and a further 3 miles 



out to sea before discharging, whereas from Middlesbrough a distance of 14 miles from berth is necessary 
before the required depth is reached From other towns on the seaboard, a journey of from 2 to 5 miles 
is sometimes necessary before reaching a permissible dumping area. 

Another point which must be observed is that no tipping is allowed near to the fairways approaching 
rivers or ports on the seaboard Barges or hoppers used in this service differ in size and construction, 
but, generally speaking, a barge having a carrying capacity of 300 tons of refuse is mostly favoured 

One of the latest barges constructed for the Middlesbrough Corporation has a gross tonnage of 300 tons, 
an overall length of 120 feet, and a 27 feet 6-inch beam, the holding capacity of the wells is approximately 
300 tons of household refuse calculated at 8 cwts per cubic yard The barge is made up of four separate 
wells, each well containing foui drop doors with only sufficient bulkhead between wells for safety's sake 
The vessel is kept afloat by means of air-tight compartments The barges in use at Gateshead are also 
built on similar lines 

Owing to the nature of the material for disposal it is essential that the sides of the hopper wells are 
perpendicular to obviate any choking when dumping, it has also been found from experience that the 
section of the keel should be minimised as much as possible, as this also has a tendency to cause choking 
To release the refuse from the hoppers, the doors, which are hinged from the centre, are lowered by chains 
attached to hand cranes fixed on deck 

The doors of the hopper are not water-tight, and when the refuse is dumped the hopper returns to the 
loading berth with approximately 4 feet of water in the wells This water is not pumped out, but the 
refuse is ]ust tipped into it, and as the doors, as stated, are not water-tight, the water is displaced by the 
refuse which is tipped in It is of interest to note that until there is a big sea of approximately 7 feet 
i mining, that is, the waves are at least 7 feet high, the hopper does not get rid of such floating matter as 
tins, bottles, etc All this sort of light floating material is brought back again for a further trip and is 
only got rid of when tipping commences again, thereby sinking the same to the bottom of the wells 

It will be seen from the above information that the doors, hinges and part of the chains are always 
below water and therefore out of sight, and before any repairs can be carried out the hopper has to be 
berthed on the slipway, or the services of a diver have to be obtained 

The mam disadvantage of barging refuse to sea is the long delays that sometimes occur in carrying 
out this work, as it will readily be understood the barges cannot travel out to sea m very rough weather; 
this means storing the refuse until the weather conditions improve, and in consequence a second handling 
is necessary unless sufficient barges are available On the contrary, should the sea be very smooth then 
there is not sufficient .swell or motion to allow the refuse to drop from the bottom of the barges and very 
considerable delays take place , in fact, on some occasions it has taken 23 hours to discharge one of these 
barges , a work which under normal conditions would be completed in 1 hour The best condition for 
carrying out this work quickly is when there is a good swell on the water 

As regards cost, hoppers can be hired at Gateshead to carry out this work at a charge of 16 10s per 
trip and carrying approximately 300 tons of refuse per journey to this, of course, must be added wages of 
the loaders, and this, taking a fair average, will give a cost of about Is 9d per ton, not including capital 
expenditure Middlesbrough disposes of - ' ^ " "' ' 20,000 tons of refuse per annum, by barging to 
sea and their cost is something in the regie x v r ton 

It will be seen that the greatest argument in favour of refuse disposal by barging to sea is the low cost 
per ton 


The pulverisation of house refuse is a mechanical method of disposal which has been adopted by a 
number of towns with varying degrees of success The object of this method is to reduce the heterogeneous 
mass constituting refuse, to a finely-divided material of uniform texture which in this state possesses certain 
valuable properties as a fertiliser, the principal constituents being nitrogen, phosphates and potash 

Some difficulty was experienced in convincing agriculturists of the manurial value of pulverised refuse, 
but time and experience have evidently overcome this prejudice, and the value, more especially for dressing 
heavy soils and growing root crops, is now more or less generally acknowledged 

The cost of this method is claimed to be lower than most disposal methods, but, as in other cleansing 


problems, each town lias its own particular local conditions to contend with and the success or failure o 
pulverisation m any town is very largely dependent on those conditions. Hence it is impossible to dogmatise 
as to the success of this method m general 

Action of the Pulvense) The machine for disintegrating the refuse is known as a pulveriser and, briefly, 
a pulverising machine consists of an outer steel casing and cast iron side plates through which passes a 
driven central shaft, to the latter are attached loose beater arms (or hammers) which are caused to rotate 
rapidly As the rough matter is introduced to the machine it is struck by the hammers whilst in suspension 
and sharply beaten forward against the inner corrugated lining and grids (as they are called) attached to 
the steel case of the machine This causes some disintegration of the larger particles, which rebound and 
are again struck successive blows by the hammers carrying it round in the machine, and gradually breaking 
the particles down Those sufficiently fine now pass through the grids in the bottom of the machine, the 
rest continuing under the action of the swinging hammers until sufficiently reduced The degree of fineness 
of the material can be regulated by varying the grids to suit any particular requirement Owing to the 


\ f 


FIG 10- 


-A Gannow Pulveiifeer 

hammers being loosely attached to the shaft from which they are suspended, hard material, such an pieces 
of steel, cause no damage to the machine, the mass of steel simply forcing back successive rows of hammers 
and causing sufficient noise to indicate its presence; the machine can then bo stopped and the foreign 
matter removed. 

Owing to the rapid revolution of the hammers, a strong current of air is constantly passing through the 
machine, this comes m contact with the finely-divided matter inside the machine, thoroughly permeating 
its substance and by its oxidising action largely removing the smells usually associated with' refuse. 

It is interesting to see the pulveriser at work and to note how large quantities of refuse can be fed into 
the machine and emerge almost instantaneously in the form of a uniform brown mould practically free from 
unpleasantness and ready for use as a fertiliser. 

30 to 3 5 aB ^p Pulveriser 1S Sk)wn ( M S 1Q ) and tte Power required to drive such a machine varies from 

+ A i iFfS lay ; OUt of , a | lant Baling with the pulverisation of house refuse is shown (Fig. 11). It will bo 
noted that the refuse is fed on to a picking belt from which any article desired to be salvaged can bo picked 

:a p ^^^ 

The working of the plant is a mte ample, and with the exoeptwn of mrnor adjustments very little 



mechanical attention is necessary. It should be mentioned that the chief renewals in connection with the 
pulveriser are the beaters 

Pulverisation of Dry Refuse for Tipping In many towns a plant is installed for the pulverisation of 
dry ashbm refuse for tipping By this means the refuse is very much reduced in bulk (losing about one- 
third of its volume in the process) It is also practically odourless after treatment, will not harbour flies 
and vermin and when tipped does not become unsightly, nor is it liable to fire. 

One of the products (frequently nearly one-half of the contents of dry or ashbm refuse) consists of 
fine ash This, if utilised as a base for mixing with offal, garbage, etc , makes a good fertiliser for lightening 
heavy soils Cinders, paper, rags, tins, etc , may be salvaged and are marketable, thus helping to reduce 
the costs of disposal 

Many towns adopt this method of disposal. 

Pulverisation of Wet Refuse This method is in use for the treatment of the refuse from privy middens 
and pail closets. 

In the former case the refuse consists of excreta and ashes, in the latter it consists of excreta only. 
"When mixed with a-shes the refuse after pulverisation makes a fairly good fertiliser especially suitable for 
heavy soils. The addition of fish offal, abatton offal, street sweepings and vegetable waste also assists 
fuither to eniich the manure 

This method is in operation at Bury, where several thousand tons of manure are sold annually (Bury 
Corporation estimate their total all-m costs of refuse pulverisation at 25 kd to 2s IQd per ton) These 
figures show a great saving when compared with 
the cost of refuse disposal by burning. 

Pulverisation of Refuse to an Even Gtade foi 
Ruining This is another method, which is in opera- 
tion at Glasgow The Corporation have recently 
installed a plant in which by means of screening 
and pulverisation before disposal a constant even 
feed to the disposal plant is assured and it is hoped 
by means of such plant an even pressure of steam 
will be maintained. 

Belt Conveyor 


-Jubilee Wagon 

Rails ^ 

It can be easily understood that a refuse disposal -^IQ 11 Lay-out of pulverisation plant 

plant, one of whose principal objects is the raising of 

steam, needs constant watching and stokmg when fed with refuse, the mass of which is a heterogeneous 
collection of almost every conceivable nature. If, however, the refuse is pulverised to an even grade 
before it is fed into the furnaces the above difficulties should be lessened. This scheme is entirely new 
and the Authority hope that by its successful operation great possibilities may be opened whereby pulverisa- 
tion and incineration may be combined, with valuable results Keports from Glasgow on this method 
should be very interesting when available 


The true function of a refuse furnace is to render innocuous house, trade and other refuse, and if 
in the process of incineration, after salvable articles have been withdrawn, the available heat can be 
utilised, a source of revenue is created to offset to a certain degree the cost of transforming the refuse to the 
resulting residue The residue, a vitreous mass of clinker, is innocuous, germ-free and, what is also of 
importance, valuable, so that its accumulation at the disposal point rarely presents serious difficulty 
Other material, such as paper, rags, glass, bottles, metal, rubber, etc., can also be salvaged to form a 
lucrative part in the disposal of refuse 

The refuse having a fuel value is also of great importance and much useful power can be developed, 
but the primary object of disposing of the refuse in a sanitary and efficient manner should be the first 

It is, therefore, not surprising that this method is now very largely adopted and is perhaps the most 
hygienic system, of refuse disposal. 


Disposal Plant The modern refuse disposal plant consists of a rectangular furnace with simple arched 
roof, fitted with a single grate in trade nomenclature a continuous grate divided beneath by a series of 





FIG. 12 Simple type of incinerator 

division walls m order to control combustion over a relatively large grate area Fig 12 shows a simple 
arrangement Its evolution is traced with some difficulty, and commences with the simplest of grates and 
a, refractory lined cell. The relatively high moisture content evidently induced older engineers to evolve 


outer drying heartlis where the refuse received a preliminary heating The resultant nuisance led to closed- 
feed hoppers, with indirect heating, and then to hearths within the cells, where the material was swept 
by the hot combustion products before being pushed on to the bars The drying hearth is partly evidenced 
by the massive curbs which are still a feature, but these are retained for a slightly more useful objective 

The operations of working the furnace are known as Charging and Stoking The former operation 
includes the feeding of the furnace with the necessary amount of refuse and the preparation of the charges 
to follow Stoking is the actual manipulation of the fires and includes the pulling down and levelling of 
the charges, slicing and clmkering Steady temperatures should be the aim of the stoker, but as the 
process requires alternate charging and clmkering this is rather difficult The stoker should, however, 
minimise fluctuations as much as possible and try to maintain a temperature ranging between 1300 and 
2000 F., so that the refuse is rendered thoroughly innocuous Stoking is a skilful operation, and only those 
having the necessary training and skill should be employed to do this class of labour 

It would appear that a system whereby the refuse could be dumped direct into the furnaces from the 
collecting vehicles would be the simplest method of charging, but many disadvantages prohibit this 

Clmkering is perhaps the most laborious work 200 

The clinker which forms in a solid mass on the bars * ? x'x. 

has to be broken up by means of heavy bars and - / \ '' A * 

drawn out into wagons or barrows and removed " j ' } ^ 

whilst in a highly heated state In addition, this ^ - 1 jf _ rt^* 

work is performed by hand labour in front of a hot S^^x r *s. K 

furnace Many systems of transporting the clinker ^ " ^ **** I \ 

from the fires are in use, such as wheelbarrows, track- ^ ( 
less jubilee wagons, jubilee wagons on rails, skeps |f 
on monorails, and conveyors to storage hoppers. 
Advantages are claimed for each system, but in the | 
case of the monorail, storage room is limited. The ; 
charging and clinkermg of the fires should be per- 
formed to a time-table, thus tending to promote 
efficiency, as in common with industrial plants the 

, s i 

operation may mean success or iailure 

. u 


In its present form the disposal plant presents 


' M 

many features which are classified by the combustion Fis 13 Chart showing comparative tempeiatures 
engineer as inefficient, laborious and objectionable attained m a refuse furnace 

It must be admitted that the charge is substantially 

true, and yet improvement has not been simple How easy for the critic to contrast modern boiler practice 
with even a top-charged feed incinerator and 80% heat absorption, with a 30% heat absorption , clmkering 
by hand versus automatic and continuous removal ; the accumulation of dust and debris, and yet the function 
of the disposal plant is exactly defined by its term, and it satisfactorily discharges the principal duty If we 
visualise the production of power, this is purely a by-product of the operation, and as we strive to simplify 
and improve the handling of one of the most difficult materials extant, we must not lose sight of the final 

The present inventive trend is towards simplification of the charging and clmkering arrangements 
Various mechanical clmkering devices have been tried but have left much to be desired As regards clinker- 
mg, there are mechanical grates by Messrs. Heenan and Froude, Ltd , which are being installed at Glasgow 
and Fulham. The grate has been designed to minimise manual labour and loss of temperature through 
open doors, etc , causing inrush of cold air ; it will, so the makers state, undoubtedly provide far better and 
more hygienic conditions of working than have hitherto been obtained 

On the old-fashioned type of incinerator there is usually a distinct drop m temperature during clmkering 
and feeding operations owing to the long periods the doors have to remain open. This affects the rate of 
burning and also the steam-raising capabilities, with a consequent lowering of the efficiency of the plant. 

In the new design of grate these drawbacks will be considerably curtailed, as the period of chnkering, 


it is stated, will take only about tliree minutes compared with ten minutes with hand clinkermg on ordinary 

Fig 15 shows the arrangement of the plant which has been erected at Fulham It will be noted that 
the top feed doors are hand operated, and that the clinker is transported by means of a suitable con- 
veyor In the Glasgow plant, however, the top feed doors are hydrauhcally operated and the refuse is 
fed to the furnaces by a special arrangement of container which determines the quantity of refuse deposited 
on the grate at each charging operation The storage hoppers are located immediately over the furnaces 
and no manual labour is required for feeding the containers, this being carried out mechanically by the 
movement of the top feed doors 

At Glasgow, to enable this mechanical device to function satisfactorily with crude refuse, the refuse is 
first reduced to a uniform consistency by screening and pulverisation This should improve the burning 
in so much as it is possible to maintain more regular fires without blow holes, which are formed by the 

FIG 14 View of incinerators, Brookvale Road Depot, Birmingham 

presence of bulky material such as paper, rags, etc , when burning When the top feeding doors are 
hydrauhcally operated they are mter-connected with the valve for operating the grates, and also with the 
air control valve to maintain the sequence of operations 

The grates consist of ordinary cast iron, firebars carried in cast iron frames on wheels running upon 
suitable rails forming part of the furnace structure, and they are arranged to travel backwards and forwards 
by power-driven gearing, or alternatively by hydraulic power 

At the back of each cell, and above the level of the grate bars, a substantial cast iron bar is provided, 
which, during the backward movement of the grate, pushes the clinker off the grate bars and allows it to fall 
on to a grid, or auxiliary grate below When the grate moves forward again, the hanging scrapers drag 
over the clinker lying on the bottom grate without disturbing it, and fall into approximately a vertical 
position behind the clinker when the grate completes its forward travel During the next clinkermg 
operation these scrapers engage with the clinker lying on the bottom grate and it is dragged forward and 
discharged down the shoot shown at the rear The hot clinker from a previous clinkermg operation, there- 
fore, lies on the lower grate during the whole subsequent burning period, and the air from the forced draught 
fans is passed through it. The air is thus heated, which assists the burning of the new charge of refuse 



the clinker is also cooled, and, moreover, is thoroughly burnt out The heat from the clinker is also fully 
recovered, and this should prove a very important feature of the grate. 






'DUST POOR '-L^- Coven TO CLiHt^a SHOOT 

J? IG 15 Refuse incinerator cell and mechanical oltnkermg grate. 

The mam features of the grate can "be seen in the illustration, and attention is drawn to the door fixed 
at the back of the grate which seals the ashpit during the burning period. A shoot will also be seen below 
the lower grate which is provided to collect the dust which will work through the bars. 


At Glasgow the clinker is discharged into a type of jubilee wagon which runs upon a light gauge railway 
and is moved about by an electric batteiy locomotive The wagons containing the clinker are taken out at 
the end of the building, where the clmkei is discharged into a receiving pit, from which it is moved m due 
course by means of overhead telpher and giab The plant is the largest central plant of its kind m the 
country, consisting, as it does, oi eight units of five cells each, having a total burning capacity in 
the neighbourhood of 500 tons pei day 

Concerning charging, the nearest approach to the avoidance of manual cftort is the use oi certain doors 

FIG 16 Woodall-Duckham refuse disposal plant 

partly operated by gravity , these still necessitate the hand filling of the hoppers What is wanted is, oi 
course, mechanical means which will give continuous flow from a hopper capable of storing at least 
24 hours' supply to the furnaces, and delivering this continuously to the cells If we consider the nature 
of the material which we have to move mechanically, we see the enormous difficulty presented to the 
engineer m the accomplishment of this duty 

Another device which aims to secure more rapid combustion and a higher efficiency from the boiler 
unit to which it is attached is the "Woodall-Duckham plant This plant is shown in Fig 16. The 
furnace consists of a circular receptacle made of firebrick and surrounded by a steel water-cooled casing. 
The refuse is charged by the well-known "producer" method of double doors to avoid emission of gas or the 
ingress of air, and is burned at high temperatures ranging from 2500 to 3000 F Combustion is aided by 


air at a pressure of 28-mch W G , supplied by means of a rotary blower, thus aiming at molten clinker being 
formed during combustion, when it can be separated by a special knife hydrauhcally operated and dropped 
into a receiving cart The operation of slicing the clinker occupies less than a minute, and it is reported 
that owing to this almost negligible time, no undue temperature effect is produced on the knife The 
water coolmg of the furnace is obtained by keeping a supply of water circulating in the ]acket by a small 
rotary pump and this water is afterwards transferred to the boiler for steam-raising purposes 

We see that the best results at present obtained are in the existing type of horizontal grate bar 
furnaces, fitted with forced draught fans, by firing intermittently and at regular periods with a moderately 
thin fire Combustion in this case is assisted with air supplied at 2-mch to 3-inch draught gauge 

In recent years, considerable advantage has been obtained by the removal of the dust from the refuse 
before charging the furnaces This has given better combustion with increasing thermal efficiency, and 
it will be obvious that the removal from the material of debris containing about 50% ash, before it enters 
the furnace is a step m the right direction Another important benefit is the prevention to a large degree of 
dust emission from the chimney 

Scientific instruments also play an important part, and if results are carefully interpreted, are capable 
of giving useful information to those responsible for the management of the works In other words, they 
may be termed the Scientific Watchmen m addition to producing a very useful record of events 

In some instances where a large percentage of the refuse consists of cinders from household grates, 
the salvage of this material provides a profitable adjunct, as such cinders can be disposed of for many 
purposes and incidentally for firing the boilers 


One of the most serious problems confronting cleansing officials is the bulk movement of crude 
refuse, a heterogeneous collection of almost every conceivable nature, varying in mass, possessing an entirely 
unknown angle of repose, and carrying a high percentage of fine dust usually more or less moisture-laden 


A B 

FIG 17 Refuse receiving hoppeis and conveyors 

For this duty our present apparatus is the steel plate conveyor and a hopper for containing the mass. 
Pig 17A is a diagrammatic illustration showing the refuse-receiving hopper and conveyor which proved 
more or less unsatisfactory until the choke beams introduced by this Department became a feature of 
their construction. It will be noticed that the choke beams prevent the obstruction of the refuse at 
the outlet, forcing back the bulky mass into the trough and preventing the choking of the mouthpiece. 

The belt, if unstretched, would form the usual catenary curve between the tumblers, but by inserting 
rollers as shown, excessive curvature is avoided 

So far, our improvements have been limited to a superior design of chain fitted with rollers, the adoption 
of case-hardened chain bushes and dust-proof lubrication of every moving pin and link. The rollers run 
on channels, there is no curvature of the belt, wearing strips are fitted to the channel slat guides and it 
is hoped by these means to secure greater durability. The device is illustrated diagrammatically in Fig 17s 

The writer looks for further improvements to take place in the design of the refuse conveyor embodying 
minimisation of frictional parts, more solid platform belt, avoidance of choking and variable flow. 

Now let us follow the flow graph of a plant treating 200 tons of refuse per day of 24 hours At the 
point of reception, viz , the refuse-receiving hoppers, the flow is irregular and intermittent, so it continues 


to the first process m the cycle, namely, screening, thereafter regularity is the order, but there is a 
halting point the storage of tailings adjacent to the charging hoppers of the iurnaces The collection 
vehicles may discharge at a speed of anything up to 100 tons per hour The maximum velocity whilst 
screening with plants under our control is, say, 30 tons per hour, so that the inflow is readily dealt with in 
a single shift of 8 hours, which includes the salvage and baling of material , but the capacity of the plant 
is equivalent to the incineration of the daily tailings over a period of 24. hours, and thus an accumulation 
of 16 houit,' stock has to be provided for, and, m many instances, the wise piovision ot a considoiablc 
amount of excess storage is included 

Now the secondary graph supplies us with the flow speeds of each element in the conveying system, 
and we observe initially, that it is desirable to have two speeds for the conveyor moving crude refuse in bulk 
within the reception hopper (a) to coincide with the reasonable discharge of incoming vehicles, and (6) 
to provide equilibrium for the screen feed In the alternative, we waste power, but, of Jar greater import, 
we imperil or strain the conveying unit, and may ]amb the progress completely, involving a stoppage, with 
consequent increment in the process charges. Screening is the second stage, and in this operation up to 
45% by weight of dust is removed and discharged Thus at the screen exit, allowing for the separation 
of salvable material, the flow has declined to 110 tons over the 8 hours, or, say, 14. tons hourly If the 
screen capacity can be increased without loss of efficiency, this will tend to lessen the discrepancy and 
promote truer harmony 

Considei a cylindrical screen 6 feet inner diameter, fitted with a helix pitch 2 feet at 10 r p m the 
peripheral speed is 190 feet/mm and the material will occupy a segment, the chord being inclined m the 
direction of rotation If we increase the screen plate surfaces by 50% it does not follow that 50% more 
material can be effectively dealt with, and it is probable that, to secure such a gam, an increment of not 
ess than 75% would be demanded. Generally, we observe that in this direction some improvement may be 
iooiced for l J 

From the screen exit to the tailings storage bunkers, or hoppers, the system of conveyance is by rubber- 
surfaced belts, or by a combined system of belts and elevators The belts, which may be used as picking 
belts should not exceed a speed of 40 feet per minute if used for such a purpose, so that efficient sorting 
of all materials to be salvaged is obtained, and the elevators when used must of necessity run at a speed 
to cope with the tailings en oute to the bunkers or hoppers The chief feature of successful conveyance of 
refuse by rubber-surfaced belts is slow motion This ensures continuance of duty and durability. A 5-moh 



rf*h a * rm Ti g v feet PCT mmUte makes 3 revolutlOM P<* minute and thus a simple dust- 
proof bearing adequately lubricated is all that is necessary, thereby making lor low initial cost The 

sutaf bot Sf'tms ef* TT? ^ 7*1 ^ ^ ^ th fce 7 ** * cC^r" article 
suca as bottles, tins, etc , rolling down the belt 

E , fieCtl 7l, e and l T ^stabution within toe bunkers is difficult, and even aided by movable dwd 
carnages the problem nas not yet been solved satisfactorily Simple storage , s purely a nuctior of 


d:fflcult to segregate ' and 





centage of fine niatenal 3 probably 45% passing through a f-mch mesh, and 55% through a l|-mch mesh, 
the foimer being largely mineral ash, with relatively little combustible matter, wheieas above that size 
the combustible matter exceeds the ash and the product becomes of value 

Now let us consider a mass of unit cube upon its arrival at the screen entrance We will assume the 
fines to be evenly distributed, and we apply primarily the rotary screen separator As the mass passes, 
either by giavitation or mechanical means, forward, the movement is gradual, the laigei particles tend 
to occupy the lower position, and the fines are to some extent pievented from passing the scieen perfora- 
tions This is depicted by (Fig. ISa), and we may assume that the efficiency is in the neighbourhood of 80% 
only Fig 18b shows the reciprocating screen, and the same objection applies, there being probably a 
slightly decreased efficiency in contrast with the lotary method Thus we see that some very definite 
movement of the mass is essential if we are to secme stratification in the order which will assist the 
separation process 

Now considei how we proceed to sepaiation by hand sieving The vibration that we convey to the 
mass is such that large particles come to the suiface The same is evidenced by sudden motion imparted 
to any vessel containing matenals of different sizes Fig 18c depicts what the writer will term a pulsating 
scieen The motion imparted is at right angles to the screen surface By making the pulsations sufficiently 
rapid, definite stratification is possible precisely as in the case of the hand sieve, and by inclining the 
screen plate at a suitable degree the mass moves giadually ovei the surface. 

Fine Material 
on Top \ 

(t>) Reciprocating Screen 

Lar/e Mae/>M 

on "*" 

(a) Rotary Screen, 


(c) Pulsator Screen 
. 18 Types of screen 

The number of pulsations per unit of time, and the degiee of inclination, would be a matter ol 
experiment, and if wo apply the data derived fiom similar screens we should expect that in contrast with 
the rotary screen the screen surfaces could be reduced by at least two-thirds, the power by one-half, >vhilst 
the efficiency could be raised nearly to parity 

Hotary Screen, The screen which has found favour in this Department is the rotary type, 
although many improvements should be looked for in this type of screen. For instance, it should not 
be impossible to impart a pulsating movement to increase the efficiency of the screen. Another addition 
might be a steam or waste heat jacket to dry the tailings and assist combustion Combinations of shakers 
and rotaries, grids and rotanes are also worthy of thought for promoting efficiency. 

The rotary type m use consists of a cylinder, approximately 18 feet in length by_ 6 feet diameter, 
built up of mild steel sections and plates to form a rigid structure, into an inner frame are 
fitted plates peif orated with circular holes to some prescribed dimension. These plates are of a t size 
convenient for handling to facilitate replacement, as it will be readily seen the screening surface wears 
rapidly, due to the material passing over and through the holes 

The perforations in common use for house refuse are f -inch diameter, which have been found in practice 
sufficiently large to extract up to 45% of the original weight of material 

The cylinder above described is rotated about its axis at from 10-15 revolutions per minute with an 


even and steady turning motion Tins cames the matenal up the side of the screen a distance of 
approximately one-third of the ciicumfeience, at which point it falls back due to gravity and then brings 
fiesh material into contact with the scieenmg surface If the material weie not mechanically moved 
through the screen it would remain indefinitely in its onginal position, but it will be appreciated that we are 
also concerned with a treated output 01 quantity, and we must in consequence piovide automatic means 
to make room foi tuithei matenal enteimg This may be accomplished in several ways, piobably the 
most common is the inclination of the scieen from 3 to 4 degrees to the horizontal, the lowest end being 
the dischaige end With this method of motion, there is a combination of two movements, viz , the natural 
tendency for the material to slide down the inclined plane, which whilst not being sufficient to disturb it 
if the scieen is standing, will on slight agitation follow this path, and the side travel of the scieen 
as previously mentioned, its path being upwards and foiwaids, as will be seen on leference to the figure 
In falling vertically it meets the plates at a distance nearer to the discharge or lower end, the distance being 
dependent upon the inclination and the diameter of the scieen. 

Let us now consider how the screen is supported Theie aie two methods commonly employed fen 
rotary screens. 

1. A central shaft with screen mounted on what are known as spiders on which is erected the screen 
cylinder This is employed foi lelatively small screens. 

2 Larger screens are usually mounted upon two or moie tyres, and have no cential shaft, the tyres 
are of fairly heavy construction in order to prevent any distortion and should be turned on the face 
These tyies run upon idlers, the weight of the screen giving the necessary contact, for light work it is usual 
to fit two idlers only per tyre In larger and heavier screens four idlers per tyre are employed, these being 
mounted in pans in a cradle. 

The dnve is accomplished by means of motor-driven geai, engaging with spur gearing fitted to the screen, 
although a later development is that of friction drive by rubber-tyred wheels The spur ring in the foimer 
drive on the laiger diametei screen is made in sections for ease of handling and fitting The motor, is direct 
coupled to a totally enclosed worm reduction gear, mounted on a base-plate so as to form a complete driving 
set The speed of the screen varies according to the class of material to be dealt with In house refuse, 
a speed of 10 to 20 r p m. has been found to be most suitable. 

A recent development is the fitting of rubber-tyred idlers m place of steel , this has had the effect of 
considerably reducing the vibration and prolonging the life of parts of the screen subjected to heavy 


To collect the screened material, the screen is mounted above some form of hopper into which the 
material descends, or in the case of fine dust screenings, such as that from house refuse, it is usual to enclose 
the complete screen to prevent the exit of the dust Where it is necessary mechanically to remove the dust 
to some distant point, it is desirable to bring the screened material to one point before discharge from the 
casing This may be done in various ways, such as a casing, fitted with transporting helix, made of larger 
diameter than the screen Another very effective method is to have the outer casing made ol conical shape 
with the base of the cone towards the point of discharge. 

It will bfi appreciated that a certain amount of fine floating dust is liberated by the agitation ol the 
refuse, much of this dust may be collected by connecting the forced draught fans of the furnaces to the 
casing by means of ducts. These fans extract the fine dust and force it beneath the fires, where it is burnt, 
thus serving a dual purpose The collection of this dust adds much to the comfort of the screening-room 
and also makes the process of salvage much more hygienic. 

Concentric Cylindrical Sot een This type has been used with some measure of success for grading broken 
clmker. It consists of three or four cylindrical wire or plate screens fitted one within the other, usually 
cased with an unperforated cylinder, the whole inclined at a suitable angle and delivering at the lower 
end Each cylinder within the case has the delivery end so extended as to bring the delivery point over 
the appropriate collecting hopper. The screen is compact, and permits of some economy in housing. 
If a magnetic separator be fitted to the front end, it may be that its efficiency will fall as the angle of 
inclination increases, unless some special means of accumulating is employed. 

Gannow Patent Screen This is a rotary screen of the cylindrical type, suspended and driven by a shaft 
running through the centre line of the cylinder On the shaft are mounted four sets of arms Each set 



consists o! four (in this particular case) channel-section steel bars set into a cioss-section cast lion hub, keyed 
to the shaft This arrangement gives four segmented spaces, each separated by the width of the channel 
iron In these spaces aie fitted four individual screens with the space of the above-mentioned channel 
lion between, and this space allows the screened dust to leave the scieen Heiem lies the value of this 

The four separate screens consist of two perforated plates (5) and (c) and one plain plate (a) which is also 
fitted with guide plates pitched to facilitate the travel of the material along the scieen a and b aie 
flat plates, while c is curved to foim the penphery of the screen It will be seen very readily what a 
wonderful increase in scieenmg area can be obtained by this form of scieen as compared with the oidmary 
perfoiated cylinder used foi screening The mechanical advantage is also a very big factor in its favour, 
in that it is much stronger than the hollow cylinder and balance is more perfect 

This screen would be suitable for grading clinker, no experiments have been tued on the scieenmg of 
house refuse, but it may be that undue choking would take place 

By refeience to the figures shown, the description will be made clear 

Genei al If we accept the theory of stratification applicable to either lotaiy or honzontal recipiocating 
screens, it is obvious that means for imparting other than strictly lineal sliding motion to the paiticles is 
necessary This feature has been recognised by screen designers recently, and a rotary scieen for grading 
bioken coke and incidentally separating the dust and fines, has the inner wiies so arranged as to tuin over 
the matenal when it has reached the limiting height 

FIG 19 Gannow patent screen 

An objection to this is the wear on the mesh, but the angular velocity is low and apparently the durability 
is assisted by the use of a relatively soft metal for the screen wires 

A mathematical analysis of the well-known Hummer Screen was undertaken to discover the cutical 
vibratory speed. This yielded some rather peculiar results With a lift of 1 inch the completed upward 
and downward movements were limited to 425 per minute. At any vibratory speed in excess, the gravita- 
tional force was insufficient to permit the screen surface and the material to descend the full permissible 

If the screen surface be automatically depressed by a spring at a speed gi eater than that due to giavity, 
the material would be subjected to a series of rapid shocks, which would assist the stratification. Thus 
advantage has been taken of this feature in the preliminary designs of a pulsating scieen, the stroke suscep- 
tible to minute regulation being arranged to give a definite clearance between material and screen surface. 
It is, of course, more than probable that the action is well known, but in my opinion it accounts foi the 
high efficiency of the Hummer on certain ores I am not sure, however, that on moist materials the screen 
would be an unqualified success It may be that the enforced limitation of the vibrations with a 
spring (if used) which could not be regulated would result in moist fines adhering to and clogging 
the screens, whereas greater freedom, in stroke fixation with a spring which could be regulated 
would obviate the defect. 

Tuangulai section bais veisus wire mesh or perforated plates for screening refuse has on many 
occasions formed a problem for the writer's investigation. To a certain extent one is bound by 
accepted practice and must move wanly in any innovation String, rope, wires, metallic residues, rags, 
etc., in lieu of a more or less uniform mixture, hamper all theoretical considerations Unfortunately, 


practice gives little assistance, being wedded to a common form which gives more or less satisfactory 
results and presumably little trouble 

It may be asserted with tiutli that we are moving towards improvement when we submit a design 
which permits such accessibility as to lender the change of plates or removal of obstacles a matter oi 
minutes instead of hoius 

Chnlei Ctuslniig, Sweating and Stoiage The burning of refuse in furnaces results in a valuable 
by-pioduct known as clinlcei 

This matenal is gieatly in demand foi the many uses and purposes to which it can be put. In 
the ciude state it is used for road-making and filling, and in the crushed and graded state the different 
graduations or sizes are used as aggregate for concrete, foi clmkei asphalt, for clinker concrete bricks, 
paving slabs, keibs and channels, and for a variety of other purposes in connection with the building 

If the clinker is of good quality, and graded to the propei size, it makes admirable paving material 
when used in the construction of asphalt roads Excellent examples of its use in this direction can be 



FIG 20 Clinker crushing, scieenmg and storage plant 

found in the work carried out by the Fulham Borough Council, Hornsey Borough Council and Surrey 
County Council. 

Trinidad Lake Asphalt, the cementing agent or matrix for all forms of asphalt paving, enters very 
largely into the work executed by these Authorities 

On removal from the furnaces the clinker is usually deposited in the open for cooling, a process frequently 
hastened by means of a water spray. It is sometimes advisable to allow clinker which is to be used for 
concrete aggregate a short period in the open for what is generally known as " weathering." 

The modern crushing and storage plant is a simple and compact apparatus, occupying but little ground 
space and capable of handling large quantities of crude clinker 

The crusher is generally placed in a pit just below the ground level and into the small receiving hopper 
fixed at ground level the clinker is shovelled by hand This system does not necessitate the lifting of the 
clinker by the man in charge of the plant, and consequently the output of the plant is considerably greater 
than would be the case if each shovelful of material had to be lifted off the ground to a height for feeding 
into the crusher-hopper. As the limiting capacity of the average crusher plant is the capacity of the man to 
feed material into the crusher, it will be at once appreciated how important a point is the foregoing. It 
should be explained that it is an undoubted advantage to feed the crusher by hand, since in this way the 
operator can mostly prevent such articles as flat irons and other domestic and foreign accessories, which 
would cause injury to the crusher rolls or jaws, from being fed into the machine. Moreover, crude clinker 
is such an irregular material as regards shape and size that it would in any case be desirable to have an 
attendant constantly watching the machine, even if the form of mechanical feed were employed, to ensure 
that stoppage did not occur through large clinkers jamming in the feeding hopper. 


The crushed mateual falls by gravity to the boot of an inclined bucket elevator, by means of which it 
is raised and discharged to a circular screen arianged above the storage bunkers 

The screen grades the crushed clinker into the desired sizes, these usually being |-, - f , f-li-, 11 inches 
and over, each grade falling direct from the screen into its appropriate division of the storage bunkers 

The capacity of storage bunkers is largely a matter of choice, depending to some extent upon 
the local demands for graded clinker The bunkei is provided with a simple form of outlet door and 
is arranged at a sufficient elevation to allow the contents to be dischaiged direct to vehicles 

The space on the ground floor beneath the storage bunker is frequently occupied by one or more 
mortar-mills, these being fed direct fiom the bunkers by shoots and valves, connected with the bunker 
division containing the giade of material it is desiied to employ foi mortar-making 

It is frequently consideied advisable, before screening the crushed clinker, to remove the magnetic 
content, and this is done by means of a magnetic separator fixed between the elevator dischaige point 
and receiving end of the scieen. The magnetic material is deposited either in a special compartment of the 
storage bunker or by shoot to ground level 

A housing over the storage bunker and scieen, and cover to the crusher, together with an exhaust fan, 
completes the whole plant, access being given to the screen and elevator head by means of a suitably 
arianged stairway. 

The pit in which the crusher is housed is floored with chequer plates, and a hatchway and ladder provide 
access to the crusher and elevator foot 

The drive is usually by means of a motor at the giound level for the crusher, and a second motor arranged 
above the screen for the elevator and screen The scieen is mounted on idleis fitted with rubber tyres and 
rotated by spur geaung 

Fig 20 shows a typical lay-out of a plant 



The removal of the fine dust residues from the scieen after it has passed through the perforations seems, 
prima facie, a subject requiring little thought and less investigation The pneumatic system with a totally 
enclosed pipe from the fan to the point of exit may at first thought be considered ideal. In practice, how- 
over, such was not the case with the trial plant erected for the Birmingham Salvage Department, as the pipes 
were 'quickly choked with the dust Many expenments were tried to free the material, but none was 
satisfactory and the makers eventually had to remove the plant. A vacuum system of transpoitation was 
also experimented with and this likewise proved to be unsatisfactory 

The uniformly distributed moisture, together with the free lime of the dust, without any positive binding 
material, would, m the writer's opinion, speedily choke any tubulai system, even if the latter were subjected 
to vibratory action. Thus any metallic surface with which the ash comes in contact ought to be finished 
preferably with a suitable corrosive resisting enamel One instinctively turns to a graphite paint, but the 
objection to this will be the very short life of the surface Again, a stove enamel with a hardened surface 
is unlikely to prove really durable What is required is a metal of the mtro-steel variety, a metal with 
an almost glass-like surface inert to either alkaline or acid corrosives. 


The belt conveyor provides a simple and inexpensive means of transport for the dust, and, unlike the 
tubular system, requires little power for driving, and large overloads can be accommodated without any 
undue ill effect. A belt conveyor may be described as a moving endless belt running over two pulleys 
fixed at each end of the structure with carrying rollers interposed to support the belt for the top and 
bottom travel. The belt which supports the material and by its travel transports the latter from 
one place to another is driven by a pulley actuated by means of mechanical power. The material may 


be fed on the belt by hand, shovel, chute 01 othei means, and is removed from the belt by dischaigmg it 
over the end pulley 01 by deflecting it at some point along the mn of the conveyor Theie is no gieater 
item of impoitance in connection with the belt conveyor than that of the belt and it is advisable to install 
first class belts only, and should the bolt be of textile manufactuie great care should be exercised in the 

The elements of the belt conveyor are, theiefore 

(1) A belt to cany the mateiial and transmit the pull 

(2) Means to suppoit the belt, usually i oilers or pulleys 

(3) Means to drive the belt, usually a pulley or pair of pulleys 

(4) (a) Accessones foi maintaining belt tension, such as " take-ups " 
(&) Accessories foi loading the belt, such as a chute 

(c) Accessories for dischaigmg the matenal, such as a chute or a tripper. 

(d) Accessories foi cleaning and protecting the belt, such as housings, decks, covers, cleaning 

brushes, etc 

The belt is a flexible, jomtless stiucture which runs quietly at any speed, it is not ordinarily harmed 
by the actual conveying of the material it carries. Since the matenal does not come into contact with 
the moving surface of pulleys and shafts in which there are friction losses, these losses are lelatively small 
and the power required for the transfer of the matenal is generally less than in other forms of conveyors. 
The belt with its rollers weighs less per foot of run than other types of conveyors doing the same or similar 
work, and hence frames, bridges and other supporting structures are relatively lighter and cheaper 

Belt conveyois are suited to the carrying of all sorts of material, wet or dry, from the lightest to the 
heaviest, and in any quantity They have been known and used for over a hundred years, but the most 
rapid development in their design and use has probably occurred in the last thirty yeais. 

The belt must have a ceitain flexibility in order to wrap around the pulleys, width enough to carry 
the required quantity of material, and strength enough to bear the weight of the load and transmit the 
pull in the conveyor. These conditions can be met by bands of metal, leather or woven fabric Leather 
belts are expensive and do not resist wet and abrasion well enough in conveyors and elevators to justify 
their greater cost Belts of hemp fibie are used to some extent in Europe, but in this country practically 
all conveyor and elevator belts are made of cotton fibre. They are of several forms . 

1. Rubbei-covered belts aie made of layers or plies of cotton duck cemented together by an elastic 
compound. In " friction surface " belts the outside of the belt is covered by the thin layer of compound 
adhering to the outer plies , in rubber-covered belts an extra layer of rubber is attached to the outer plies 
beyond the thin coating of " fnction rubber." No attempt is made to waterpioof the individual cotton 
fibres, the layers of rubber being depended upon to keep moisture out of the belt. 

The choice of this type of belt may be nanowed down to 

(a) Ordinary canvas duck belts with no special thickness of rubbei on carrying face 

(6) Full or straight ply canvas duck belts with extra thickness of rubber along the whole face 

of belt 

(c) Graduated type, which is smiilai to No 2 except that the plies graduate down in number to 

give increased rubbei thickness at the centie of the belt foi tioughmg purposes 

The strength of the belt lies in the duck, a cotton fabnc which for conveyor and elevator belts differs 
from ordinary sail duck, or canvas, in the fact that the strength of the warp threads is considerably greater 
than the weft threads. The strength of duck depends, not only on its weight, but also on the degree of 
twist in the threads, and the cementing action of the lubber depends upon the openness of the weave as 
well as on the quality of the rubber 

2 Stitched canvas belts are made of layeis or plies of cotton duck folded together to give the required 
width and thickness, and then sewed through and through with strong cotton twine. To waterproof the 
fibres and to reduce internal wear, the made-up belt is impregnated with a mixture of oil and gum. 

3. Balata belts are made of duck with the fibres of the cotton waterproofed by impregnation with, a 


liquid solution of balata, a tree gum similar in some respects to lubbei. The impregnated duck is folded 
and lolled undei pressure to make a belt of the required width and thickness, the balata gum acting as a 
cement to hold the plies togethei 

4 Solid woven belts consist of a number of layeis of warp (lengthwise) thieads and weft or filler (cross- 
wise) threads woven and mteibound together in a loom to make a structure of fabric of the necessary width 
and thickness Most of them aie wateiproofed like stitched canvas belts, but some are impregnated with 
a rubber solution and then coveied with a rubber sheathing. 

Supporting idlers consist of cast lion rollers in various foims and combinations. The idleis for each 
width of conveyoi belt are made up in sets or units, each set consisting of a complete troughmg idler mounted 
upon its batten board, 01 a complete return idler with its side bracket With this design of idler it is possible 
to arrange the spacing of the idlei sets on both the loaded and return sides of the belt to the greatest advan- 
tage, and is a gieat impiovement ovei all conveyor systems where the return idlers are fixed to the underside 
of the troughmg idler batten boards. 

The troughmg idler sets consist of a series of cast iron rollers with bored and faced hubs, and turned 
on the outside of the rim, mounted upon solid drawn hollow steel spindles, which are fixed in bored cast 
iron brackets bolted to the batten board. The number of rollers per set and the width of face of the indi- 
vidual rolleis are dependent upon the width of the conveyor belt The upper ends of the inclined side 

Central Thickened or 
Graduated Cover i 

Trou$.hin& \ 

' Id/ers Thin Rubber Coyer 

L , , J Section of Conveyor Belt 



PIG 21 Conveyor belts and idlers 

roller tubes are provided with special nipples to be used m connection with giease guns or specially designed 
large size compression grease cups of cast iron, which force the grease through the hollow spindles to the 
centres of the loose roller hubs, where holes aie dulled through the wall of the tube to allow of its emission. 
Distance pieces are provided to maintain the spacing between the rollers where necessaiy. The batten 
boards are usually of machine-dressed deal and provided with holes at either end ready for fixing to the 
conveyor stringers The angle of the inclined troughmg rollers is preferably i educed to 25, which has 
the effect of prolonging the life of the conveyor belt by reducing the internal stress, and the gaps between 
the rollers are in every case reduced to a practical minimum in order to lessen the tendency of the belt 
to crack along the line formed by squeezing the belt between the rollers when it is running fully loaded 

The return idler sets consist of a series of cast iron rollers with bored and faced hubs, tuined on fche 
outside of the rim, and mounted upon horizontal spindles, which for all widths of conveyor belt up to and 
including 24 inches wide is a solid drawn hollow tube supported m fixed bearings of cast iron and for all 
sizes above this width is a solid spindle supported m bored bearings of cast iron of the ball and socket type 
which allows for any settlement that may take place m the conveyor framework during the life of the con- 
veyor. These ball and socket bearings are lubricated by means of independent Stauffer lubricators and 
the rollers are fixed upon the spindle. 

Fig. 21 shows the type of* idler, belt and method of drive usually found in conveying installations. 

The drive for a belt conveyor consists of one or two pulleys around which the belt wraps, suitably 
mounted on shafts and bearings, and driven from a source of power through belts, chains, geais or other 


means of power transmission The simplest cluve is that in which the belt wiaps half-way round the end 
pulley, this is usually at the head or dehveiy end of the conveyoi towaid which the material moves, but 
it may be at the foot 01 loading end of the conveyor. If 180 of belt wiap is not enough to duve the con- 
veyoi, it may be necessaiy to get a greatei wrap on the driving pulley by the use of a snub 01 leverse bend 
pulley For still groatei dnvuig contact, the belt may be led around two pulleys, both of which ai e duveis. 

Conveyoi belts in service stretch more 01 less, and it is necessaiy to have means to " take up " 01 remove 
the slack as it is foimed At some point in the conveyor, a pulley is mounted on a shaft running in bear- 
ings winch are adjustable in position either by a t,eiew or by a weight The usual position for the " take 
up " is at the foot end, where the belt is under less tension 

The simplest discharge is over the end pulley; sometimes a chute may be requiied there, often it is not. 
If the dischaige is to be at some point short of the end of the conveyor, the matenal may be deflected side- 
ways from the conveyor by a scraper set diagonally acioss the belt, more frequently this is done by invert- 
ing the belt or running it in S foim through a tupper. In the tapper 01 " throw-oil," as it is called, the 
material leaves the belt as it reaches the top of tho upper pulley and is caught m a chute which directs it 
to one side, or by means of a by-pass gate, back on to the belt again if the material is to be carried past 
the trippei Trippeis may be fixed or movable, or travelling and self-ieveising, and may be operated by 
hand or power 

The belt is the most expensive part of a belt conveyor, often costing more than all the lest of the machinery 
and accessories combined At the same time, it is the most vulnerable part, it is subject to abrasion from 
impact of the material and to a number of injuries from negligence or accident. Injury at the loading 
point can be avoided by proper design of the chute, other mishaps can be prevented by care m operation 
and maintenance To lessen the risk of certain other injuries it is necessaiy to provide means to clean the 
belt fiom adheung particles, to cover it where it is exposed to the weather and to prevent it from being 
cut by objects falling against or upon it. 

Assuming that the centre line of the conveyor is m proper alignment with the end pulleys, a flat belt 
may run crooked if the axis of the idlers is not square with the inn of the belt, or if both edges aie not 
under the same tension, or if the belt is badly made to begin with , but if the idleis are set square with 
the travel, a normal belt, run flat, tends to run stiaight The evidence on this point is that side guide 
idleis aie never leqimed on the return run of belt conveyors unless the frame is out of line. 

Howevei, if the belt is run over tioughmg idlers of any kind, there comes a tendency to run crooked 
The tendency of inclined pulleys to steer a belt or deflect its couise depends upon the angle of inclination 
and the proportion of the belt width in contact with them The effect of side guide idlers is generally bad. 
They wear the belt at its most vulnerable place and open the way foi dirt and wet to get between the plies 
of fabuc. If the belt is badly out of line, the pressure agam&t the idler may be enough to bend or fold 
the belt for an inch or two all along the edge so that a ciack develops there and splits the belt In general, 
the right way to make belts run straight is to use flatter tioughmg Just as 30 troughmg is better than 45 
tioughmg, so is 20 better than 30 in keeping the belt centred on the idlers and running straight 

Besides the normal duty of conveying material, a belt has to check the impact of material at the feed 
point and impart to it the belt's own velocity in the direction of travel It is therefoie of importance that 
pioper attention should be given to the design of the feeding chutes 

If belts could be fed with material moving at belt velocity, cutting and abrasion would be at a minimum, 
but this is seldom possible in practice The best that can be done is to deliver material through a chute 
pointing in the direction of belt travel and at such an angle that the horizontal component of the velocity 
in the chute will be equal to belt speed. 

The slope of an inclined conveyor is usually limited by the tendency of the material to roll down lull ; 
hence, screened or sized material cannot be carried on angles as steep as where the lumps in a mixture 
rest on a bed of fines An intermittent feed is objectionable when the angle approaches the maximum, 
single lumps fed to the belt may not be picked up promptly, but may tumble around between the skirt 
boards for a time, until a flat surface happens to rest on the belt. Conditions like these have fixed tho 
angles at which it is practicable to convey various materials They may be determined by experiment with 
some of the material and a piece of belt, but it is well to remember that when the angle of incline 
approaches the maximum for any niatenal, there is a dangei that the material may at times slip. 


The simplest dischaige from a belt conveyoi is over the head pulley When belts handle materials 
like wood chips, fine coal, etc , which are not abrasive, and can be earned with little or no tioughmg, it is 
possible to dischaige them at various places along the rim by plough or scrapers set diagonally across the 
belt This method of dischaige is not lecommended when the belt is handling icfuse, as the wear and 
tear on the belt is too great A better arrangement for discharging the material at any point on the run 
of the belt is a travelling tapper in which the travelling motion can be done by power or hand, depending 
on the frequency at which the tripper is to remove. 

To reduce the wear and tear on the belt due to its passing round the pulleys on the tripper, it is advis- 
able to keep the pulleys as large a diameter as possible and a good propoition is 4 to 5 inches in diameter 
for each ply in the belt 

Some matenals cling to the belt and it is desirable to install some method to clean it Stationary brushes 
are not a success, they fill up with dirt and fine stuff and soon become useless Strips of belting set diagonally 
against the under side of the return belt have been found satisfactory on some belts feeding certain materials. 
Eevolvmg brushes are moic satisfactory, but means must be provided for adjusting the biush against the 
belt, and it must work against the travel of the belt and at a speed sufficient to throw the fine stuff out of 
the bristles and keep the brush clean. Where the belt is handling crude refuse, tailings or screened dust, 
it is not usually necessary to provide any special cleaning arrangements and geneially they aie to be avoided 
if possible as they are subject to rapid wear and need regular attention 

In order to prevent matciial fiom dropping on to the letiun belt, it is advisable to cover the space between 
the conveyor stringers by a floor or deck of plank or light sheet steel 

All drive drums, tension diums and snub drums should be ciowned on the face, the crowning to be 
at least inch per foot of face , they should also be 2 inches wider on the face than the belts up to about 
18-inch belts and 3 inches for 24- or 30-mcli belts and 4 inches moie in wider belts 

Generally, the speed and capacity of belt convcyois depend entirely on the nature of material to be 
handled and the width, and shape of the belt Matenals like giain could be conveyed at the highest speeds, 
as such materials would not be damaged by being delivered at the highest velocity The limit of speed 
is, therefore, only set by the resistance of the air to the passage of material Speeds of 300 to 500 feet 
per minute are common for such materials Foi conveyance of dust we have found 100 to 150 feet per 
minute a suitable speed 

In general, great care should be taken in the installation and maintenance of the belt. The absorption 
of oxygen by rubber causes what is known as drying, the effect of which is loss of tensile strength and stietch 
of rubber, and this manifests itself by fine cracks in the surface of th.e belt Belts also deteriorate rapidly 
when exposed to heat 01 when carrying hot materials Other important points to observe aie the splice not 
being square with the belt, speed of belt too fast, pulleys too small at drive, wide gaps between idlers, belt 
too thick foi its duty, alignment not correct, too many side guide idlers, excessive " take up " tension, 
lack of decking, etc , all of which tend sciiously to inteifere with the efficient service of the belt conveyor 


Another mechanical means of transporting the dust is that of the aenal ropeway. Like the band con- 
\eyor, it is not expensive to run, and large quantities of material can be transported at minimum cost. 
Fig. 22 shows a plan and profile of the aerial ropeway installed at Tyseley Works. 

The ropeway is 775 feet long, with a capacity of 15 tons per horn, in 5 cwt net loads, involving a dispatch 
of CO loads pei hour, or one load every minute, and with a hauling lope speed of 200 feet per minute the 
carriers are therefore spaced 200 feet apait along the line 

The average gradient against the load is about 1 in 18, whilst the steepest gradient against the load is 
about 1 in 17. 

The loading, driving and tension terminal, which is about 30 feet long, complete with steel framing, 
together with the necessary driving gear, including driving, fleeting wheel, veitical and horizontal shafts, 
bevel gearing, and also special reduction gear, is joined up direct to the electric motor shaft by a 
suitable coupling The mam driving gear including bevel gearing, with reduction gear and motoi, is placed 
at the top of the terminal framing, so as to be well out of the way of floor traffic. 

The lopeway carrier boxes are loaded by gravity from a hopper by means of a suitable chute and valve, 


and as soon as the carnei "box lias been loaded, the man in charge allows it to run along the fixed loading 
rail, down the inclined part of the loading lail, and near the outgoing end of the terminal wheie 
the lopeway carrieis automatically engage with the hauling lope, a suitable engaging lamp and special 
guard being provided for the purpose, so as to ensuie automatic attachment of the rope gnpper io the 
hauling lope 

Automatic tipping geais are piovided on the ropeway, one on each side, so that loaded buckets can be 
tipped either on the forward 01 letuin side of the lopeway as required These tipping gears are absolutely 
self-contained, requiring no guy lopes 01 other means for anchoring them down to the ground, such as is 
necessary with other types of tipping gears 

The carriers on this ropeway are all fitted with a rope gnpper, which is made foi automatic negotiation 
of any angle stations there may be en toute, also automatic leturn aiound the rotuiii terminal, and automatic 
engaging with the hauling rope when sent away from the loading station as already named, as well as auto- 
matic disengaging fiorn the hauling rope when each carrier comes back empty to the loading station, and 
aftei hemg automatically disengaged from the hauling rope each carrier is then run by gravity to the 
loading point as lequned 





FIG. 22 Aerial ropeway 

It will be readily understood what a large saving this means in labour and attendance generally, as the ' 
carriers are never touched by hand from, the time of leaving the loading point until they arrive back again 
empty and stand ready for the next load. The chief item of renewal is the carrier rope, but with care and 
particular attention to the lubrication and guide rollers, efficient and economical service is assured 

General, Other forms of transport include electric, steam, petrol and horse-drawn vehicles, jubilee 
wagons, each, being useful in their sphere and according to existing conditions. 


A magnetic separator provides us with a means for removing ferrous metal at a point before salvage 
by hand of other material is attempted 

A brief description of an electro-magnetic separator will be of interest. By reference to Fig. 23, A is 
a soft iron core wound with many turns of insulated wire, S If now a current of electricity is passed 
through the wire, the core, A, becomes magnetised and capable of picking up pieces of iron. The magnetism, 
lasts so long as the current is passed through the wire In practice, magnetic separation assumes a variety 
of forms Fig 24 shows a simple separator It consists of a drum, mounted and rotated about a hori- 
zontal axis Within are placed magnets as shown in Fig 23 and so arranged that part only of the circum- 
ference is magnetised when the current is switched on This magnetic field remains stationary in space 
in spite of the rotation of the drum Therefore, if any material containing iron, such, as tins, etc., is passed 



under the drum, it is picked out at 0, transferred by the rotation of the drum to D, and here discharged 
into a chute or other receptacle. 

There are two types of magnetic separators used in the Birmingham Salvage Department, known as 
the " Kapid Patent Screen Type Separator " and the " Eapid Pulley Type Separator " Either type is 
suitable for extracting magnetic materials from house refuse or clinker, "but the screen type, which has 
been developed by this Department in conjunction with the Kapid Magnettmg Machine Co , Ltd , is more 
efficient with regard to cleanliness and percentage of extraction than the pulley type 


FIG 23 FIG 24 

Principles of magnetic separation 

The following description will be more clearly understood by referring to Fig 25, in which the screen 
type separator is shown It is fitted about the non-magnetic extension plate of a rotary screen and half 
envelops the extension. The magnetic substance when passing in the vicinity of the magnet is attracted 
to the inside face of the rotary extension, carried upwards and automatically discharged into a chute which 
diverts the tins and other ferrous metals It may also be mentioned that extraction is aided by means 
of magnetic feelers fitted to non-magnetic slats fixed to the inside face of the extension plate, whilst the 
discharge can be regulated by specially designed throw off magnetic feelers 













FIG 25 "Rapid " patent screen type electio-magnetic separator 

In connection with this type of screen, a combined electric blower and motor can be fixed on an adjust- 
able platform so that an air current can be directed at an opening in the tins discharge chute This opening 
is roughly about the centre line of the screen and any paper or straw, etc., which may be carried down by 
the tins is blown back into the screen and discharged on to the picking belt The combined electric blower 
is arranged with a fantail mouthpiece which is directed at the opening in the chute and this opening is 
made adjustable to suit the required conditions 

The arrangement of the switchboard for controlling the Kapid Patent Screen Type Separator is shown 
in Fig 26 Fig 27 shows the connections of the Eapid Patent Potentiometer Pattern " Drum Type Crank 
Handle Operated Controller " of the totally enclosed type. This controller is known as the " Midget " non- 



26 Arrangement of switchboard 
for electro-magnetic separator 



I " _ J ' 5? 

I ' **) I* 


1 lr "l- 

- fwvv* WW-A*/W WV(A-i - 
latao, i 

27 Diagram of patent improved 5M8W, potentio- 
meter controller for highly induced cm rents 






3O-35 R, R M.. 



FIG 28 "Rapid " patent electro-magnetic separator pulley. 

pi, Af\ is^ 

r r f\ 





PILOT ^x-^LJ ^' -f, D c SUPPW, - 

FIG 29 Outline of shunt break switch 
and pilot lamp 

N I,R, 

Fro. 30 < Diagram of switch connections. 


reversing type and is arranged with, four points m one direction fitted with spring return and complete 
with all necessary series of non-inductive resistance units It will be noticed that the mams are connected 
to + terminal and terminal and that the magnetic separator is across terminals M and M I} all other 
switch and fuse gear, etc , being connected to the mains 

With regard to the pulley type of separator, the action is somewhat different. In this case, the terminal 
head pulley is replaced by a magnetic pulley When material is m the vicinity of the magnetic pulley at 
the discharge end, the ferrous metal is attracted to the face of the belt and carried to the back bottom 
position, whereas the non-magnetic material, such as paper, bones, clinker, bottles, cinders and the like, is 
discharged, due to gravity, in the front of a diverting chute placed in a suitable position under the pulley, 
for separating the iron from the non-magnetic material Fig 28 shows this design and application 

When using high permeability steel, the field collapses very quickly when the current is broken, and 
this produces a high discharge voltage which very often breaks down the insulation 

In certain cases where the induction kick is high and there is a possibility of damage being caused, 
the installation of a patent controller instead of the shunt break double pole switch is advocated The 
latter is shown in outline in Fig 29, and diagram of connections in Fig 30 

With regard to the patent controller, advantage is taken of the retentivity in the specially high perme- 
ability steel used, which forms the magnetic circuit, and it is claimed that a greater magnetic strength 
on contact surfaces is obtained, which would not be possible with any other type of control 



It has been shown how the scrap tins and other metals are separated from the house refuse and it will 
be readily appreciated that their bulk is relatively large when compared with their weight. The present 
practice is to compress recovered tins into bales of convenient size either with or without the removal of 
the tin, and then pass to the smelting furnace for further treatment to make commercial steel 

To achieve the compiessmg of scrap tin, some form of press is used, which may be mechanical or hydraulic. 
The hydraulic system is economic, moving parts are relatively small and there is little or no danger in 
overloading the presses Mechanical plants are also manufactured, which have the merit of being simple 
and economic 

To understand the principle of hydraulic methods of pressing, it will be necessary to consider some of 
the underlying principles of hydraulics * 

First water (which is the fluid used on the hydraulic plants under discussion) is to all intents 
and purposes mcompiessible. 

Secondly, the pressure exerted at any one point is exerted equally on all surfaces 

By reference to Fig 31, assume box Y is fitted with two plungers, A and 
B, the area of A being twice that of B and the box being completely filled 
with water Now suppose a known weight, W , is placed on the plunger B, 
it would be found that in oider to keep plunger A stationary, it would be 
necessary to place on top of it a weight equal to twice W . 

To carry this still further, any number of plungers the size of A may be 
put in the same box and without increasing the size or number of plungers B, 
each plunger of size A would sustain a weight equal to twice W That is, 
supposing in the box Y there are 1 plunger B and 6 plungers A, the total j ia . 31 principle of 
weight which the weight W on plunger B would sustain would be 12 times W the hydraulic press 

Hitherto, the weight has been considered to be stationary, now let it be 

supposed that it is desired to raise the weight on A some definite amount, it would be found that the 
plunger B would have to be moved down by an amount equal to twice that which it is desired to raise 
the weight on A, and in the second case, viz , 6 plungers, 12 times as much Thus the weight 


remains constant but the distance passed through alters m direct ratio to the weight to be lifted or 

The simplest plant consists of a set of pumps and press box as shown m Fig 32. The hydraulic pump 
for an installation of this size would be of the two-plunger type, a larger diameter plunger for the early 
stage of compression, that is, a plunger which is capable of pumping a large quantity of water against a 
small pressure head, and a second plunger of lesser diameter for the final compression This type of pump 

FIG 32 Simple type of scrap baling plant 



FIG 33 Hydraulic acctruaulatois for baling plant 

FIQ-. 34 Scrap metal baling press. 

whilst offering no advantage in power economy, has the advantage in the early stage of compression of 
giving quantity and later reduced quantity and increased pressure. 

The press box is shown in Fig 34 It consists of a cast steel or cast iron box approximately 4 feet 
deep by 26 inches m diameter, or such area and depth as would hold roughly 18 cubic feet of loose scrap, 
into this box a table is fitted and connected to the hydraulic ram It is usual to arrange this box below 
ground level, so that the top of the box may be at a convenient height above the floor lor ease in handling 


Rigidly connected, to the box or container is the hydraulic cylinder, into which water is pumped by 
the pumps mentioned previously, exerting pressure on the hydraulic ram connected to the table 



The method most commonly adopted to make a water joint capable of withstanding the heavy pressure 
imposed, is by means of a U leather either fitted into a groove turned in the cylinder or into a recess with 
a covering gland. The size of the hydraulic ram is determined by the pressure at which it is desired to 
work the pumps, but it may be taken that the total pressure on a bale having an area of about 3i square 
feet should not be less than. 50 tons to ensure a satisfactory bale, that is, one which will hold together by 
compression alone, without the aid of wires or other binding material 

The output of a plant of this description using a 6 h p motor to drive the pumps should be about 3 tons 
per day of 8 working hours It is possible to obtain a much larger output from the press by increasing the 




FIG 35 Scrap metal baling plant 

size of the pumps and with the addition of an accumulator and mtensifier This system is shown in Figs 
35 and 36. Fig. 36 shows the scheme, into which is incorporated a paper baling press in addition to the 
scrap press. On reference to Fig 35 it will be seen that the pumps do not pump the water direct to the 
scrap press as shown in Fig. 32, but into the accumulator. 

The accumulator, whose function is to absorb the work done by the pumps when the presses are at rest, 
consists of a cylinder and ram much the same as the press box, but usually of somewhat larger dimensions 
m order to obtain sufficient capacity for water The ram is loaded with heavy weights, against which 
the pumps must work when filling the cylinder, and the maximum working pressure obtainable is determined 
by the amount of loading placed upon the ram 

An, accumulator may be built to give any desired pressure, but that most used in scrap bundling plants 


is between 700 and 2000 Ib per square inch, the pressure used depending upon the size of the rams employed 
in the scrap "bundling press To the accumulator is fitted a duplex valve which when the accumulator has 
reached a predetermined height is full of water , the valve opens by means of a tappet arrangement and 
allows the pumps merely to return the water to the suction tank until such time as the accumulator falls, 
due to some of the water being used, when the valve closes and the pumps again pump into the accumulator 
By this means much power is saved, as when the stored quantity of water is sufficient the pumps are pumping 
against atmospheric pressure only and not against the weight of the accumulator. 

It may be mentioned that when an accumulator is employed it is usual to install a pump having two 
or more plungers of equal diameter, and not of different diameters as in the previous scheme A general 
idea of the accumulator can be obtained from Fig 33. On the right-hand side at the bottom can be seen 
the duplex valve operated through the rod in connection with the accumulator casing By reference to 
Pig 35, it will be seen that the accumulator is in direct communication with the press box 

Fig 35 also shows an mtensifier working in conjunction with the accumulator system. The object of 
the mtensifier is to increase the final pressure on the bale when using only light pressure from the pumps. 


JFiG 36. Combined paper and scrap baling plant 

This is obtained by having two rams of different size, rigidly connected, the water from the accumulator 
being on the large diameter ram while the smaller diameter ram is connected to the press box. With 
this device any desired magnification of pressure can be obtained, as the difference of pressure is m direct 
ratio to the two diameters It will be seen that with the mtensifier we have similar conditions as mentioned 
in the first scheme, that is, a large quantity of water at low pressure (large plunger) for first compression 
and high pressure, and small quantity (small plunger) for final compression A general idea of the 
mtensifier can be obtained from Fig 38. 

The operation of the accumulator and mtensifier is controlled by valves which are placed near to the 
press box in order to be easily manipulated by the attendant. 

Assuming the press box to be full of tins, the operation of the valves is as follows the valve is opened 
which connects the accumulator to the press box, thus admitting water under the pressure of the accumu- 

When the tins have been reduced m bulk by this pressure, the mtensifier is charged by opening another 
valve, which brings the large ram into communication with the atmosphere, thus allowing the smaller 
cylinder to fill with water from the accumulator. This being done, the valve is closed and another valve 
opened which connects the larger diameter ram with the accumulator , this causes the pressure on the 



smaller diameter ram to increase and be forced out into the pipe leading from the accumulator to the press 
box m which mam it is prevented from returning to the accumulator by a non-return valve which is self- 
operating, being placed between the intensifier and the accumulator After the tins have been fully com- 
pressed the valve which was first opened is closed, also the valve from the accumulator to the intensifier, 
and the valve is opened which connects the press box with the exhaust or return mam This allows the 
press ram to fall It is usual to allow the ram to fall a short distance only, sufficient to allow of the lid 
being opened and the valve closed again, the lid of the press box removed and the valve connecting the 
accumulator with the press box opened to push the bale out of the box for removal The exhaust valve 
is then opened and the ram allowed to fall to its full depth ready for recharging 

In Fig 36 is shown a plant in which is incorporated a paper baling press The operation of this is 
exactly similar to that of a scrap baling press, the difference being in the container The size of the con- 
tainer is approximately 50 cubic feet, having an area about 8| square feet and a depth of 6 feet The 


A ' 

FIG 37 Vertical pumps. 

FIG 38 Hydraulic intensifier for baling plant 

final size of this bale when under a total pressure of about 30 tons would be approximately 3 feet 6 
inches X 2 feet 6 inches X 1 foot 6 inches and would weigh about 2fc cwts. 

The box or container for holding the loose paper is usually built up of mild steel plates and sections, 
and not as is the case with the scrap press of cast iron or cast steel This is not made so strongly, as the 
pressure is not taken up by the box but by a beam across the top against which the paper is pressed. Unlike 
the metal scrap, the paper will not hold together without some method of binding This binding is done 
while the bale of paper is still under pressure The binding is usually of soft iron wire passed round the 
bale and the ends are twisted up so as to prevent the bale opening. A paper-baling press is shown m Fig 39. 

In the operation of this plant it will be understood that there must be considerable movement of water 
from place to place, for while the pressure is applied with a stationary column of water, the various vessels 
have to be filled and to do this water must pass along the pipes The velocity of the water in these pipes 
should not exceed 100 feet per minute at 700 Ib pressure per square inch Owing to the great pressure 
which is employed, large diameter pipes are not generally used, as the thickness of metal necessary becomes 

another consideration to be made with regard to high velocities, i e , that due to shock 



us imagine a column of water which weighs perhaps 5 cwts moving at a high velocity, to be suddenly stopped, 
it will be seen that this would impose a tremendous strain on all parts of the machinery 

Again, let us suppose that the accumulator, weighing, say, 30 tons, is at the top of itn travel, perhaps 
12 feet above ground Open a large pipe suddenly and allow it to remain open until the accumulator IH 
2 feet from the ground, close the pipe suddenly, and try to imagine the enormous blow that the 30 tons 
would strike Fiom this it will be readily understood that it is advisable to have hydraulic machinery 
moving at slow speeds 

A real evil to hydraulic work is that of grit and dirt m the water system, and every precaution should 
be taken to guard again&t it Not only do these impurities cut the valves and Heatings, but should a very 
small piece of grit get below a valve, the high pressure on one side against a low pressure on the other allows 
a high velocity to be attained by the water and it is almost impossible with normal capacity plants for 
the pumps to keep pace with the attendant leak This evil also has the effect of allowing the water, whore 
it passes through, to wear away the valve m the form of small grooves, known as water cu1 H. 









"" " 






Tin \ 
Press 1 




/"""""s ' 


Low Pressure 

Hi/fy Pressure 

FIG 39 Paper baling press 

FIG 40 P- 

'imgemenl of paper and 

It is therefore most important that all the water for hydraulic plants should be HoCt, thoroughly strained 
or filtered, the strainers or filters kept clean, and every precaution taken to avoid duat and dirt getting 
into the system at any point. To the water should be added a soluble lubrication so as to reduce the wear 
and tear of leathers, packings, rods, rams and valve-faces to a minimum 

Another important point in the design of the presses is a coppered ram enclosed in a protector of Oliiiicso 
lantern pattern The ram being coppered lessens the wear and tear on the leathern and tho ormoliue 
prevents grit or other foreign material fiom scoring the ram. The plant described is tho one fitted at tho 
Montague Street Works of the Birmingham Salvage Department and is made by Messrs John Shaw and 
bons (balford), Ltd 

A diagrammatic arrangement of the hydraulic baling plant at the Tyseley Works in illustrated in Pig, 40. 
lie plant in this case was made by the Leeds Engineering and Hydraulic Co., Ltd., Rodley, 


h^^^Tfr 688 ' \ S ltS Tf 6 ^> is peiated ^ 8mi&U& ^chamcal means as distinct from 
hydraulic pressure, the most usual form being that of a belt drive 

Fig 41 illustrates a mechanical press, from which it will be seen that it consists of a press box fitted with 



a hinged lid, centred at one end and balanced When closed it is effectively locked with a hinged bar. 
The box is cast diagonally to provide a larger opening for filling than would obtain with a horizontally cast 
box A press box, size 3 feet 8 inches X 12 inches X 12 inches, makes a bale of cans 12 inches X 12 
inches X 8 inches up to 12 inches thick, and weighing approximately 40 Ib 

The ram has a cast-iron or steel head at one end, and a hinged crosshead at the other to carry sets of 
pulleys on each, side of the ram Steel hausers are fitted ovei these pulleys and form the equivalent of two 
sets of pulley blocks, one on each side of the ram On the winding shaft three scrolls are fitted, two of 
which are for pressing, and one foi returning the ram. The ends of the pressure hausers are attached to the 
larger pressure scrolls at the commencement of the pressure operation, and on the smaller scrolls at the 
finish, thereby exerting a greater pressure as the bale is compressed, and thus offering a greater resistance 
to the ram (this takes the place of an mtensifier in a hydraulic plant). The return scioll at the conclusion 
of the pressing operation returns the ram to its original position. Automatic stops at each end of the stroke 
and brakes aie provided to prevent over- winding The stops can be adjusted to allow the ram different 
lengths of travel, thereby giving bales of 8 inches, 10 inches and 12 inches thick, according to a pre- 
determined setting 

After the lid is raised, a handle is moved to put a friction pulley in action to return the ram, and a lever on 

[By courtesy of Me&sra Spencer and Cool, Ltd 
FIG 41 Stanclaid scrap metal baler. 

the side of the press is used to lift the bale into position for the operator to remove it The whole operation 
of filling, pressing and removing one bale occupies approximately 2| to 3 minutes, but the manufacturers 
state that in practice the output is about fifteen bales per hour, if the tins are placed conveniently A 
leather belt is used for driving from the motoi, engine or shafting The belt cannot exert a breaking 
pressure on the mechanism, and acts as a safety device, in that if any undue pressure is applied, the belt will 
either slip or break The stress on the gear wheels, which are machine cut, is very gradual and repairs are 
therefore reduced to a minimum The ropes require renewal when they fray, but this is only a minor cost 
The power required for driving this press reaches a total of 3 H P when the compression of the bale is 
reached, but previous to this state of compression the horse power exerted varies from | to 1 Fig. 42 
shows a press similar in construction to the one described above, but is of larger capacity, and therefore 
constructional details are of more generous dimensions This particular press will handle from 2 to 2| tons 
of tins per day of 8 hours. Presses of larger capacity are also made to suit requirements 


Hand or power presses may be used for paper or rag baling A press of this type is illustrated in Fig 43, 
and such presses are simple, quick and powerful When the quantity of paper or rags assumes sufficient 
importance to warrant it, a mechanical press will, of course, be more efficient These presses are capable 
of producing a bale weighing 2 or 3 cwts , and two operators can produce five such bales pei hour. The 
presses work on the same principle as the tin presses, but are vertical and are filled from the front After 


[By couitesy of Messrs Spencer and Cook, Lid. 
FIG 42 Heavy scrap metal baler 

[By courtesy of Messrs. Spencer anl OyoJs, Ltd 
FIG. 43 All steel hand baler for paper and rag*. 

[By cow test/ of Messrs Spenc er and Cook, Lid 
FIG 44 Power baler Jor paper and rags 



the door is closed, the remainder of the material is filled in from the top, the lid wheeled over, and the bale 
pressed The doors are then opened and the wires fastened round the bale Bales cannot easily be 
removed from box presses even if the sides are tapered, unless adjacent sides of the bale are freed On 













Fio 45, Lay-out of paper and rag baling plant 






1?iu 40 Lay-out of tin and paper presses. 

the presses illustrated m Fig. M, the front and back are freed when the doors are opened One end is 
released by raising a lever, which allows an end of the box to fall away and thus leave the bale free for 

A typical layout is shown in Kg. 45. ]?ig, 46 shows a simple layout of tin and paper presses 
Such mechanical presses are made by Messrs Spencer & Cook, Ltd , Stalybridge, nr Manchester. 



The picking belt is usually a band conveyor and as such has already been described Other forms 
such as the steel plate, tray and grid types, are also successfully used The speed, however, of any type 
should not exceed 40 feet per minute so as to provide efficient picking 

Considerable quantities of saleable material are recovered from the picking belt, and this material not 
only provides a substantial source of income, but it is also a means of maintaining a continuous supply of 
raw material to several important industries 

The chief articles possessing a marketable 
value and which may be recovered are ferrous 
and non-ferrous metals, bones, rags, bagging, 
paper, proprietary bottles and jars, etc To 
obtain a continuous outlet for the profitable 
disposal of these materials, it is essential that care 
be taken in the preparation and packing of the 
material prior to its sale 

Non-ferrous metals should be sorted into the 
following grades brass, aluminium, lead, copper, 
zinc, spelter, pewter, etc , care being taken that 
any iron or other inferior metal is not mixed with 
the grades, as otherwise the customer will want 
considerable allowance from the amount charged. 

A good market exists for rags and bagging, 
but wherever possible the former should be washed 
and sterilised before being sold Unwashed rags 
lose approximately 40% by weight after washing 
and drying, but the market value is thereby in- 
creased considerably Woollen rags should be 
extracted and washed separately, and it may be 
found more profitable to collect all good-sized 
cotton rags and sell them for wipers Coloured 
rags should be separated from white rags and 

wrW C-K^I IT, j 4. wllen wasllm g' ^6 latter a quantity of bleaching 

powder should be used to impart a more presentable appearance. to 

market" ^^1^777 ^ ^^ f f &per 1S mtlrel7 de P e * dent U P* &* state of the waste paper 
recovery and packm ^ merchants are not able to P a 7 a pnce sufficient to repay the cost of 

the^frket ' ^ CaiPetS ' ^ ' ^^ ^ thorou S M y *d before pressing into suitably-sized bales, ready for 

FIG 47 

-Adjustable hood and suction pipe of paper 
recovery plant 


m f ^ ars * ommaild a Iead 7 sale if they are delivered to the packers m a clean con- 

Where the Department does not wash the bottles, etc , before selling, they should only be sold to 

^ ^ f *W ^ ^ befo^ar: 

-las?eta Tutf r "f^i 6 / 1 * 1 ^ 8 Wiuc \ ma y ^ reco *d and sold, including skins, rubber, broken 
profit ' P UP n State f the Waste markets lf their re covery to show a 

Bn quautlty f matenal re <*red and sold at one Salvage Depot in 

Bnmmgham during the year ended March 31st, 1928 Total amount of refuse dealt with 37,736 tons. 



Pi ice Realised 

s d 

Bottles and Jars 12,845 doz 165 5 8 

Skins 161 ,, 17 2 1 

T C Q Lb 

Brass 7 4 11 243 18 6 

Lead 1030 23 4 6 

Aluminium 2 6 2 15126 

Copper 1 8 2 11 66 8 3 

Zinc 2920 45 13 

Pewtei 331 21 1 

Spelter . 1 19 40 19 

Rubber 1608 18 5 1 

Rags . 105 19 235 6 9 

Paper . 83 5 60 14 9 

Bagging and Caipets 69 11 3 197 14 

Bones . 100 3 491 18 6 

Woollen Bags 100 100 

Light Iron . 92 18 2 113 5 

Woollens . . 8 15 106 16 

Broken Glass . . 44 6 16 5 11 

Gold . - 1 12 

Silver . - 12 5 1 

Miscellaneous . _____ 10 

522 17 2 3 2030 3 

One man and four youths were engaged upon the recovery of these materials and a bonus was paid 
to them upon sales , it is interesting to note that so effective is the bonus scheme in eliminating petty 
pilfering, etc., that during a period of nine months over 170 ounces of silver and 4 ounces of gold were 
recovered and sold from the picking belts. 


The scarcity of fats in almost every country during the late war was responsible for quite a number 
of suggestions and processes having for their object the extraction of oils and the preparation of fertilisers 
from garbage note the distinction purposely separated either at some cost or as an act of implied duty. 
It may at once be-said that current values of oil and fertilisers are such as effectively to prohibit such pro- 
cesses now, except in a few instances. Usually the lefuse was caiefully sorted and the sepaiated gaibage 
dried in suitable apparatus, whereupon low grade solvents were admitted, the mass was digested and finally 
the solvent and abstract were withdrawn and separated by distillation in the usual way. The residue 
after grease abstraction was ground and sold for fertilising purposes, its value being a matter of pure specu- 
lation Within the same category, mention may be made of steaming processes which liberate certain 
oils which can be isolated in the usual way, but the difficulty of the waste effluent is by no means easy, 
and if allowed to accumulate this forms a very objectionable product 

The raw material referred to above is usually termed " garbage," which term is generally understood 
to cover such organic food wastes as occur in, say, houses and hotels. In America the treatment of such 
garbage even to-day is the basis of many highly successful businesses 

The subject matter of this item is totally distinct from organic wastes such as meat and fish-market 


Atmospheric pollution in its various forms is a problem which has engaged the attention of responsible 
authorities for a considerable time One form of such pollution which is constantly becoming more intense 
is that of dust issuing from industrial chimneys So serious has this become that Local Health Authorities 
have now acquired powers for taking legal action against parties causing such pollution Smoke abatement 


Fia 48 View of picking belts, Brookvale Road Depot, Birmingham 

EIQ. 4.9 Another view of the picking belts, Brookvale Road Depot, Birmingham. 



lias ahcady leceived consumable attention and much ingenious apparatus is in opera ion to pi event the 
nuisance of excessively heavy smoke emission Interest is now centred on the contiol or elimination oi 
the dust which, issuing from mdustiial chimneys, causes both ^convenience and monetary loss in the 
cuvnonmenta, besides constituting a nuisance in the legal sense. 

Obviously one contributor to this atmospheric pollution is the refuse disposal woiks where the natuie of 
the refuse destroyed, consisting principally of ashes, paper, vegetable matter etc collected from al souices 
IB such as to make the production of dust and gats unavoidable, and although high chimney stacks are 
usually provided to convey the gases torn the burning refuse to the atmosphere, the dust .particles earned 
m the gases are not sufficiently dissipated in the atmosphere to prevent then settlement, particularly in 
congested areas, where considerable nuisance is caused j lctrinoa i 

As an experiment, therefore, the Davidson Gut Collector was applied to a fom-oellref^e disposal 
plant fitted with a foiced draught fan and connected to a Babcock and Wilcox watei-tube bo le The 
grit collector is of the shunt suction type, and consists of two e e jn ents~a , primary separatoi of volute 
shape, and a secondary collector inter-connected by relatively small ducts, and all of steel construction 


Fia 50 Gnt collector, as installed at the Montague Street Depot of the Birmingham Corporate 

Salvage Department 

The inlet of the primary sepaiator makes connection to the mam flue after the gases at a temperature 
of about 500-700 Fahr have passed through the Babcock and Wilcox boiler Under the action of the 
draught power set up by a 265 feet chimney stack, the gases naturally try to follow a path *gj^** 
the la J of the primary separator, the casing of this separator being of volute formation Due to centn- 
foLlfTce the dust paiticles, which are heavier than the gases, are foiced out against the periphery of 
tSvolut^ Cand as the radius of the casing deceases, the centrifugal foioe mcreases omtal rt attains 
a mr X unum at the minimum radius At this point a tangential slot is arranged connecting with a 
Docket f which a steel plate duct communicates with the secondary dust collectoi and as the teim 
"shunt rtion'' implies, a certain quantity of the gases is shunted through this duct from the primary 

tc the secondary collector This collector is also of volute formation, and a similar action takes 



e seconary 

as in the primary separatoi, with the exception that the grits ; winch have been gas-borne from 
separator, and forced down partly by gravity and partly by the conical formation of the cas ng 
the volute into which the guts are fust discharged, follow a spnal path to the dust out et at the 
nttom of the collector, leaving the gases which have borne the grits, and form a vortex in the centre of the 
' to S^wids thrW a gas outlet, and through a further steel duct making connection to 


the side of the pumaiy separator This dusb comes tinder the action of the diaught powei exerted by 
the chimney stack over the piimary separator The volume of gases which, enteis the pumary sepaiatoi, 
apart from the small quantity which passes through the slot in the same for the purpose of conveying the 
guts to the secondaiy collector, passes thiough the side of the pnmaiy separator through a biick connection 
joining up to the main flue iiinnmg to the chimney stack 

As will be understood fiom this description and the perspective (Fig 50), the action of the grit separator 
is entuely controlled by centnfugal foice and the natural draught of the chimney, and theie being no moving 
parts whatevei in the plant, upkeep and attention are i educed to a minimum 

Natuially, the mteiposmg of this apparatus between the boiler and the chimney stack could not be 
effected without a loss in diaught power on the refuse burning plant Normally an induced diaught fan 
would have been requued to overcome the icsistance to the flow of gases set up by the collecting apparatus. 
In this case, the Salvage Department were fortunate in having a high chimney stack, producing a maigin 
of draught over their requnements, which margin was sufficient to cover the resistance set up by the 
collecting apparatus, which is about 6 inch water gauge with a volume of approximately 40,000 cubic 
feet of waste gases flowing per minute This feature has eliminated any running cost for the collecting 

Attached to the dust outlet of the secondary collector is a dust receiver which is fitted with glass inspec- 
tion coveis, which enable one to observe the continuous fall of fine grits into the container, from which 
periodically they are emptied 

An examination of these grits shows that approximately 35% of the quantity caught is sufficiently 
fine to pass through a 200-mesh screen, whilst 92% of the total will pass through a 60-mesh screen 

Prom figuies which have been obtained during the operation of the plant it has been proved to be a 
highly successful innovation in the prevention of dust pollution of the atmosphere, and, further, it should 
be noted that the installation of the apparatus has permitted the fitting of soot blowers, with consequent 
facilities for dispersing accumulation of grits in the various gas passages, flues, etc , connected with the 
refuse plant The installation of these soot blowers would, of course, have been prohibitive without a 
satisfactoiy means of preventing the grits from passing up the chimney stack to the atmosphere. 


PROFESSOR JAMIESON lias said that applied mechanics is that branch of applied science which not 
only explains the principles upon which machines are designed, made and act, but also describes their 
construction and application. 

Another authority says, " Mechanics is that science which treats of the action of forces upon bodies 
and the effects which they produce " 

The foregoing, the writer thinks, will be sufficient explanation of this science to enable us to recognise it 
in the various forms of engineering, etc , dealt with in this book 

Units of measurement are first necessary before calculations, etc , can be carried out, and though many 
interpretations of these have been put forward from time to time by various authorities, I think the render- 
ing by Professor Jamieson in his elementary treatise on applied mechanics, and which the writer recommends 
all to study, is simple and to the point, viz. : 

" Force is any cause which produces or tends to produce motion in the matter upon which it acts." 

Again, force is that which changes or tends to change the state of rest of a body or of its uniform motion 
111 a straight line (Strong) 

British Engineering has adopted the pound avoirdupois as the Unit of Force, and the measurement 
therefore of a force of 9 Ib means a force equal to the weight of a mass which contains 9 Ib 

Matte? Anything that affects any of our senses we define as matter, and it is found under three 
conditions, viz 

Solids Iron, wood, steel, glass 
Liquids Water, mercury, oil. 
Gases Air, oxygen, coal gas, steam. 

We recognise solids by the fact that, unless acted upon by some extraordinary influence, such as heat 
or percussion, they have a tendency to keep their original shape and size 

Liquids, on the other hand, alter their shape continually, to suit the vessel in which they may 
Le contained. 

Gases have no size or shape 

Matter is composed of minute portions called particles, molecules and atoms, particles being larger 
than molecules, molecules larger than atoms, and atoms the smallest or indivisible portions of matter. 

Some idea of the size of a molecule is obtained when we imagine that we can continue dividing and 
le-dividmg matter in this case, say water, until one more division alters the state of the body, the com- 
position of water being 2 parts of hydrogen gas to 1 part of oxygen gas When we come to the division 
where liquid water turns into gas we can assume that we have reached the portion called a molecule. In 
other words, that point where water is liquid and one more division forms a gas will give us a molecule 
of water. 

There are many properties of matter, some of the important ones being as follows 

Weight, tenacity, elasticity, divisibility, hardness, porosity and impenetrability. 

These properties are possessed by solids. 

9 113 


In liquids we have viscous and mobile, and gases heavy gas, such as fire damp m coal pits, or light 
gas, such as hydrogen 

Forces can be shown graphically by lines, the direction of the line representing the direction of the force, 
and the length of line to some particular scale giving its magnitude 

In addition, we must locate the point of application. The following diagram shows all the essentials for 
graphically showing a force 

Draw a line A B, 4 inches long, assuming that each inch represents 10 Ib. and parts of a Ib we have 
a force equal to 40 Ib 

A .B 

5 10 20 30 40 

il I I 

t I i l I l i i i I I I 

Place an arrow-head anywhere on the line to represent the direction. Then either A or B could represent 
the point of application 

Several forces can be shown acting m any direction by adopting the above method, m addition, one 
force can represent the combined action of several forces, or, conversely, several forces can be components 
of a single force 

If we replace the action of several forces acting on a body by a single force, we are said to have found 


Force diagrams, 

the resultant of the sum of the forces, and by splitting up the single force into other forces or components 
we deal with the Composition of Forces. 

Parallelogram of Forces. Let WX and WZ (Fig, 51) represent in magnitude and direction two forces 
acting upon a point 

Suppose we complete the parallelogram WXYZ, we find the diagonal TFT which represents a force 
equal to WX and WZ combined 

By drawing these lines or forces to some particular scale, say J inch equals 1 Ib , we shall be able to 
see what force acting along the diagonal WY will place the series m equilibrium (Fig 52) 

WZ = 2J inches = 18 Ib. 
WX = 3 =24 Ib. 

and at an angle of 60 degrees to the horizontal 

We find after completing the parallelogram that the diagonal WY when measured by scale = 21-75 Ib. 

By combining the first resultant with a third force and finding a second resultant which we combine 
with a fourth force, and so on, we can find the resultant of any number of forces which enter into the 
problem. We must, however, remember that all forces acting upon, any body must be in equilibrium to 
prevent that body having any tendency to revolve, and the line of action of all forces must meet in a point. 

A very important force is the force of gravity 3 or the attraction of the earth to all other bodies. 

All bodies, as a matter of fact, attract each other with forces directly proportional to their masses and 
inversely proportional to the squares of the distance between them 

The attraction of the earth practically overwhelms all others, and as the direction of attraction is 



towards the centre of the mass, under the action, of gravity all things tend to fall towards the centre of 
the earth 

We have in a body a point through which the resultant of the gravities would pass no matter what 
position the body assumes this point we call the centre of gravity. Eegular bodies have their centre 
of gravity in the centre of their mass, but it is not always necessarily situated in a solid portion of a body, 
but is simply the mean central point of the mass 

Should we support a body at its centre of gravity it will be in equilibrium 

Centre of gravity of triangle bisect two sides, draw to opposite angles, and where they intersect is 
the centre of gravity (Fig 53). 

Bguate. Draw lines to opposite angles; intersection equals centre of gravity (Fig. 54). 

The centre of gravity of any irregular-shaped "body can be found by cutting the profile of the body 

JIG 54 


FIG 55 
Centies of gravity of plane figures. 

FIG 56. Moment of force 

out of cardboard and suspending the latter from several points, at the same time hanging a piece of 
cotton weighted by a small weight from the point of support and carefully marking a line on the piece of 
cardboard along the line taken up by the cotton Continue doing this at the several points of support 
and where the marks all cross each other is the centre of gravity of the section (Fig 55). 

Other forces which the student should become acquainted with are cohesion, adhesion, and capillary 

The attraction of the molecules to one another of the same or m the same body is cohesion. 

The attraction of molecules or particles of different bodies one to another is adhesion ^eg , chalk on a 

Capillary attraction is a form of adhesion in liquids and it is made use of in the wick of an ordinary 
oil lamp or candle. 

Moments of force are used m the design of machines, and, in fact, m all structures. That is, the force 
acting in any particular direction is multiplied by the yeiyendwular distance from its line of action. 


Suppose we take a body of any shape resting on the point B and we apply a force in the direction 
shown, the moment of the force as applied to that point is equal to AB + force (Fig 56). 

If we use scales or measurements to represent the force and distance AB we can very easily find out 
any particular moment we require In structural engineering we invariably use inches for distance AB 
and tons or Ibs for force 0. Our answer, therefore, would be in ton-inches, or pound-inches, whatever the 
case might be 

If we have two equal forces acting in opposite directions such as is found m motor-car steering wheels, 
letter presses, or capstans, we have what is known as a couple, and the moment in this particular case 
would be equal to the product of one of the forces multiplied by the length of arm from one force to the 

The student should make himself conversant with examples of composing and resolving forces, triangle 
of forces, etc. 

Work If a person lifts a package weighing 8 Ib from the ground to a height of 3 feet, we say that 
that person has accomplished 24 foot-pounds of work, that is, the pressure exerted, multiplied by the 
space passed through in any direction gives us a definition of work 

In British practice we use the pound avoirdupois as the unit of weight and the lineal foot as that of 
distance These two multiplied together give us the unit of work, that is, the force X distance e g. I Ib. X 
1 foot = 1 foot-pound. It is a very convenient unit. 

If the resistance on a level road is 100 Ib per ton, how much work is done by a petrol tractor in drawing 
a load of 10 tons 200 yards ? 

We know the tractive force is 100 Ib per ton, 

. the total pull is 100 Ib. X 10 tons, and the distance = 200 yards X 3 = 600 feet. 

. . the work done is Force X Distance. 

= 100 X 10 X 600 = 600,000 foot-pounds 

Should the distance vary whilst the force acts through a known distance, then the work done will equal 
the product of the average resistance and distance 

We now come to Power, and this is nothing more or less than the rate of doing work. We use 33,000 
foot-pounds per minute as our unit and call it a Horse Power. 

Therefore, to find the horse power of any machine when working, we divide the number of foot-pounds of 
work which it does by 33,000. Setting it down as a formula, we have 

TT Force X Length 

Horse power == _ nnn ,.. - 

r 33,000 X Minutes 

Example If we require to raise 80 cubic feet of water to 250 feet in 1 minute, what horse power 
engine will be required? Assume the weight of a cubic foot of water to be 62 5 Ib. 
80 cubic feet of water will weigh 62 5 X 80. 

^ , , . F x L 5,000 X 250 ft 

vv ork done per minute = ^, = 

. TT F X L 5,000 X 250 _ _ 00 , 

. . Horse power = _> = = 37-8, say, 38 h p 

33,000 x M 33,000 X 


The basis of the science of kinetics consists of three laws, described, or rather formulated, by Sir Isaac 
Newton, one of the greatest mathematicians England, or the world for that matter, has produced. Unfor- 
tunately, much>of his work was destroyed by accidental burning, but in his chief work, called " The 
Prmcipia," he gives us his three laws of motion, as follows * 

1. If a body be at rest, it will remain at rest unless It is compelled by some external force to change 
its state, and if m motion, it will continue to travel in a straight line unless acted upon by some outside 


2 Every motion, or change of motion, is proportional to the acting force, and takes place m the 
straight line along which the force acts 

3 To every action there is always opposed an equal and contrary reaction. 

Briefly stating the above, we have 

1 Change of state is due to external force 

2 Every force produces its own result 
3. Action and reaction are equal 

Motion itself is opposite to rest The parts or molecules composing all bodies are in continual agitation, 
and the hotter a body becomes, the more violently are its molecules agitated. 

Our next important item is : 

Friction, or the resistance that a body meets from the surfaces on which it moves It is a well-known 
fact that trying to push a packing case loaded with material and lying directly on the pavement or ware- 
house floor is very much harder than if the case was supported on rollers , and much harder on a rough 
road than on a boarded floor. The reason is that the rough road or pavement has much larger protuber- 
ances than the boarded floor, and these interlock with the protuberances on the packing case Even if we 
take two polished pieces of glass, place them under a microscope and examine them closely, we shall notice 
a minute roughness all over the surface, though we may not be able to locate this by touching, and I think 
we may take it for granted that no substance exists which can have a perfectly smooth surface. 

Friction destroys motion it cannot generate, and always acts in a contrary direction to that in which 
a body is moving Now the latter quality is very useful to the engineer when used in the form of braking 
power on motor-cars or tramcars, but, of course, in the bearings of wheel spindles or any revolving shaft, 
it is very necessary to reduce friction to its utmost For this purpose we well grease or oil the bearings, or 
otherwise we should soon realise that friction produces heat, and if allowed to continue, the shafts would 
become so hot as to cling to the bearings, or, in engineering parlance, would " seize " 

Other cases where friction is a friendly agent is m the action of driving ropes, pulleys and driving wheels 
of locomotives , but for friction, these would slip and make no progress. Neither could a person walk but for 
friction between the feet and the roadway 

In the revolving of shafts, spindles, cart wheels and motor-car wheels we have rolling friction, and 
should we fix the wheels of a cart and slide downhill, we should have a good example of sliding friction It 
is quite simple therefore to distinguish the difference between sliding and rolling friction We might also 
notice that static friction, where the force tends to prevent the setting in motion of two bodies at rest, is 
different from kinetic friction, where there is a resistance tending to arrest the motion of one body over the 

Should we requne to find the static or kinetic friction between two bodies, we can do so by a very simple 
experiment, by taking a weight, say, of 20 Ib , which we call W 
and attaching a thin cord, pass the same over a pulley and affix a 
small scale pan (see Fig 57). 

Assume the surface AB is an oak board. We now add small 
weights to the scale pan until the weight W just starts moving. 
The weights required to do this measure the friction between the 
surfaces, that is, the weight in the pan equals the factional re- 
sistance. Supposing that the weight in the pan amounts to 8 Ib , 

, , .1 ,. , i ru 1,4. 8 Ib. . FIG. 57 Method of ascertaining 

then the ratio between the friction and the weight is 2olb~ coefficient of friction 

We call this fraction the coefficient of friction, and if the 20 Ib. 

weight and suiface on which it acts were oak, then we would speak of the coefficient of oak, on oak, 

as 4. . 

There is something else to remember while on the subject of friction, especially with regard to tip-up 
wagons, and that isthe angle of friction This is the angle made by a plane with a horizontal surface 
at the moment when a body that is placed on the inclined plane begins to slide. The following examples 


are taken from a well-known work on the subject, but I should advise the student to experiment for himsu 
with various materials and surfaces 

Oak on elm fibres parallel to motion 
Wrought iron on brass 
Steel on cast iron 
Brass on cast iron 
Hard on soft limestone 

of Friction 


Anglo of Junction 






House refuse usually requires an angle of at least 45 degrees before it will slide. 
Laws of Friction . 

1. Friction is independent of the extent of the surfaces in contact. 

2 The amount of friction is proportional to the pressure between the two .surfaces in contact. 

3 For ordinary velocities friction is independent of the velocity with which one body movew ovc 
the other 

4 Statical friction is greater than kinetic friction 

5 Statical friction is increased after the two surfaces have been in contact for some little time 

6 Rolling friction is less than sliding friction 

7 In rolling friction, the resistance is proportional to the weight, and inversely proportional to th 
radius of the wheel. 

8 The work done in overcoming friction is transformed into heat or energy. 


The Nature of Heat When we stand in the sunshine or in front of a fire it feels hot If we take hold 
of some ice or snow it feels cold Heat is the name given to the cause of these and the like sensations In the 
fust case, heat enters our body, in the second, it leaves it, and our sensations make us aware of its transfer- 
ence. What, then, is the nature of heat ? This question can be more fully answered when we have studied 
some of the effects which heat causes and some of the methods by which heat can be produced, and we 
shall then be able to appreciate the meaning of the statement that HEAT is one form in which ENERGY 
becomes known to us We will, however, at once consider this statement a little more in detail 

Work and Eneigy If a body, under the action of a force, moves in the direction in which the force acts, 
work is done on the body. Thus, when a man lifts a weight he applies foice to it and does work, when 
a cannon ball penetrates a target it exerts force on the target and does work, bemg itself stopped in the 

The capacity that a body or system of bodies has for doing work is called Energy 

Thus, the statement that heat is one of the forms of energy, implies that heat is one form which the 
capacity of a body for doing work may take 

Now a body may have energy because of its position relative to other bodies and of the forces which 
act on it. Energy in this form is called Potential a stone at the top of a cliff the weight of a clock 
which has ]ust been wound up, or the coiled mainspring of a watch, all possess potential energy. 

Again, a moving body possesses energy; a falling stone can do work Energy in this form is called 

Transformation of Eneigy Energy can change from kinetic to potential or vice lersa. 

A stone at the top of a cliff has no kinetic energy, relative to the cliff its energy is all potential. As 
the stone falls it loses potential energy, for this is proportional to its height above the earth, bemg measured 
by ^vz, where w is the weight of the stone, z its height , at the same time it gains kinetic energy, for this is 

1 2 

measured by ^ , where v is the velocity, and this increases until the stone reaches the ground, g is the 


acceleration due to gravity and is equal to 32 2 feet per second. 

We can show that for any body the gain in kinetic energy is equal to the loss of potential. 
Assume a weight of 10 Ib to be at a height of 50 feet above the ground . 

Potential energy = wz = 10 X 50 = 500 ft Ib 

Now let us allow this stone to fall to the ground, that is, convert its potential energy into kinetic energy, 
in other words, transform the energy 

We have given above the formula for kinetic energy as 

First of all we must find the velocity of the stone on impact, that is, when it strikes the ground or when, 

in this case, it has fallen 50 feet : 



The velocity is found as follows . 

v* = 2gs, 
where s = space passed through, therefore, 

v z = 2 X 32-2 X 50. 

Fow substituting the above for v 2 and retuinmg to our formula for kinetic energy, we get 

|10 X 2 X 32 2 x '50 


= 10 X 2 X 32 2 X 50 
~ 2 X 32-2 

cancelling out we get 10 X 50 

= 500 ft Ibs. 

"We thus see that although the stone has lost all its potential energy in falling, it has converted it all 
without loss or gain into kinetic energy, 

When the stone has reached the ground it has apparently lost its energy, for it lias no potential energy, 
as it can fall no further , it has no kinetic energy, as it is at rest Careful observation would ahow, however, 
that another change has taken place, the stone has been heated, and were we able to measure this heat, 
we should find that all the kinetic energy has been converted into heat energy, again without loss or gam. 

Heat and Woik Various experiments can be made to show that there is some connection between 
heat and work Thus, when a man hammers a piece of metal for a short time we find that the motal 
has become heated. You may rub a piece of steel with emeiy paper until it is too hot to hold, the woik 
which you have expended having been converted into heat 

We have seen that theie is no loss of energy due to conversion, and also we have previously alatod that 
heat is one form of energy a body may have for doing work, we may, therefore, safely say that " Heal and 
work are convertible one into the other." 

This rule is a very important one in our study, and should be firmly impressed as it forias a ImHW ol 
almost all our woik in this subject 

Effects of Heat When heat is applied to bodies it produces, amongst other effects, tho following : 

(1) Change of dimensions 

(2) Change of internal stress 

(3) Change of state 

(4) Change of temperature. 

We will briefly consider each of these. 


V , lume n bemg teated " In la down ^ rai *s of a railway a 

con raand rt i l ^^ for ^ ^ e ^ re of a art IS P ut on ^ as it cools it 

contracts and holds the wheel tightly together. 


o f e ff om P anied *y ^anges in the stresses or internal forces between 

in rof a fir * " ,f " ^ ^ C0 ^ ts > li 1S s ^ ect to S reat force. An air balloon placed 

nd but he 

HEAT 121 


Many substances can exist in the three states of matter solid, liquid and gaseous changing from one 
to the other on the application or withdrawal of heat A lump of ice melts and becomes water when 
sufficient heat is applied , apply more heat and the water becomes warmer and after a time it boils, 
being converted into steam. 


Place the hand in a bowl of cold water, it feels cold , apply heat to the water it gets warmer , in scientific 
language its temperature is said to rise Or, again, put a led hot piece of iron into a vessel of water, the iion 
is cooled and the water heated, heat passes from the hot iron to the water, or the temperature of the iron 
has been decreased and the temperature of the water incieased 

Temperature ct Temperature is the condition of a body on which its power of communicating heat to, 
or receiving heat from other bodies depends " 

If, when two bodies (a) and (&) aie put into communication, heat passes fiom (a) to (&), then (a) is said 
to be at a higher temperature than (6), and should there be no transference of heat, then both bodies aie at 
the same temperature We can thus deteimme which of the two bodies is at the higher temperatuie. 
We cannot, however, yet say whether the difference is gi eater or less than between two other bodies, neither 
can we compare the temperatuie observed at one point with another observation of temperature made 
elsewhere, unless we can transport the same thermometer For such purposes, we need a scale of 

The Fixed Points on a Thei mometei The tempeiature at which ice melts is found to be always the 

The temperature of steam emanating from boiling water is also constant when under atmosphenc 
pressure, and thus we have two fixed or unvarying points on a scale which we may use. 

Scale of Temperatw es, The difference in temperature between these fixed points is very considerable and 
we need some means of sub-dividing it so that we may compare any two temperatures more closely , these 
sub-divisions are called degiees 

Definition. " A rise of tempeiature of 1 is that use of temperature which causes the mercury to expand 
by some definite fraction of the total expansion between the freezing and boiling points of water '' 

There are three scales of temperature in more or less common use 

1. The Fahi enheit. The number of degrees between the two fixed points is 180, thus the temperature 
changes by 1 F when the volume of the mercury of a mercurial thermometer alters by 1 /180th pait of 
the total increase between freezing and boiling point On Fahrenheit's scale the freezing point is maiked 
32 degrees , the boiling point is thus 32 plus 180, = 212 

2. Centigrade Scale The number of degrees between the two fixed points is 100 On the Centigiade 
scale, freezing point is marked 0, boiling point 100 

3. Eeaumut's Scale The number of degrees between the two fixed points is 80 On Reaumur's scale 
freezing point is maiked 0, boiling point 80. 

The Fahrenheit scale is the scale most commonly used /"~-\ A B 

in engineering , the Centigrade is used for scientific work, \^_j 

while the Reaumur scale is still largely employed on the c- t /. , 00 ,., 

r* , & J L J Fahrenheit 32 212 

Continent ^ Centigrade o TOO 

Comparison of Scales As we shall often meet with the Reaumup o BO 

Fahrenheit and Centigrade scales, we must know how to Freezing Boiling 

compare one with the other The Reaumur scale may be Point> Point 

dismissed from, mind, as in this country it is rarely met pj G 53 .Temperature scales, 


From Fig 58 it will be seen that the distance between 

A and B is the same for each scale, and, this will apply when we ta2e any point between A and B* 
We see then that each scale has some definite relation to the other. 


To convert F. to C 

(F - 32) X 5 

Example. Convert 212 F. into a corresponding leading on the C scale. 

To convert C. to F. 

(0 X 9) , qo 

v _. plus 32. 

Example Convert 100 C. into a corresponding reading on the F. scale. 

Li) plus 32 = 180 plus 32 = 212 F. 

This method applies for any tempeiature above zero point on the F. scale 

Soui ces of Heat Among the sources of heat available for our use, we may reckon . 

(a) The Sun 

(&) Chemical action. 

(c) Mechanical sources. 

(d) Electrical currents. 

(e) Change of physical state 

(a) The Sun. Of the above, the sun is by far the most important Directly or indirectly the sun is the 
source of nearly all the available energy we possess 

(6) Chemical Action Many chemical actions are accompanied by the production of heat , first among 
these we place combustion. 

(c) Mechanical Sources Of these, friction is the chief, 

(d) Electrical Currents. When an electric curient passes through a conductor the latter is heated 

(e) Change of Physical State Just as it requires heat to melt ice, so heat can be obtained by freezing 
water The molecules of the substance in the liquid form possess more energy than in the solid; absorb 
this energy and the liquid becomes solid. When steam condenses to water, heat is given out 

Heat a Quantity Heat is a physical quantity, if it requires a definite amount of heat to laise 1 Ib of 
water from 39 F to 40 F. it will require the same quantity to raise a second pound If the two pounds 
be mixed, they require twice the amount of heat previously requued to raise the temperature of each 
separate pound. We can add together the two amounts of heat as we could add the two pounds of watei , 
we are justified then in speaking of an amount or quantity of heat 

The Unit of Heat We must measure the quantity of heat by some one of the effects it produces. Water 
is chosen for this purpose and the unit of heat is " The amount of heat required to raise 1 Ib of water 1 F " 
This unit is known as the British Thermal Unit and is written B.Th U. 

Sensible Heat So far we have only considered that heat which when applied, raises the temperature 
of a body This heat is known as sensible heat, so we may say that 

" Sensible heat is that heat which when applied to a body, raises the temperature of that body " 

We can, however, add heat to a body without raising its temperature and this heat is made much use 
of by engineers, that is, in its application to power, as we shall see presently. 

Latent Heat " The heat which when applied to a body changes the state of that body without changing 
its temperature is known as ' Latent Heat ' " Thus, if we place a pan of water over a burner we shall 
notice that the temperature rises until 212 F. is reached, and even though the heat of the burner is still being 
applied, the temperature does not rise The water, however, is gradually converted into steam. This heat 
is that which is known as latent heat. 



Latent heat is always expressed as so many B Th TT. per pound of the substance being considered 
MecJiamcal Equivalent of Heat Joule's eqmvalent -Doctor Joule after many yeais experimental work 
found that 772 foot-pounds of work was done in raising 1 Ib of water through 1 F This figure ^s since 
been checked by various people and it is now generally agreed that Dr Joule's value was a trifle low and 
the figure of 778 foot-pounds of work for 1 B Th U is taken It is still, however known as Joule s equiva- 
lent. Thus, whenever 1 B Th U of heat is given to or taken from a body, 778 foot-pounds of work have 
been done by the agent giving this heat, or by the body if giving up the heat to another body 
Steam.Tho action of heat in the formation of steam may be illustrated by diagrams (Fig 59). 

Let the cylinder (stage one) contain 1 Ib of water at 32 F and let the pressure of the atmosphere 
be represented by a weighted piston, then, if the heat be applied to the water, the temperature will 
rise higher and higher, though the piston will remain stationary until the temperature of the watei 




the heat, the water shows no fuither increase of temperature by the thermometer, 
but steam begins to form, and the piston com- 
mences to ascend in the cylinder (stage two), rising 
higher and higher as more and more steam is formed, 
until the whole of the water is converted into steam 
In stage one the steam did not begin to form until 
the tempeiatuie reached 212 3? Evidently, there- 
fore, this is the lowest temperature at which steam 
can exist undei atmospheric pressure 

In stage thiee, as soon as the last drop of 
water disappears we have 1 Ib of steam occupying 
the least possible space or volume at the given 
pressure, % e. } atmospheric jjressure 

If the steam be surrounded by a vessel con- 
taming an indefinite supply of cold water (stage 
four), then the heat will be extracted from the 
steam by the surrounding water, and the steam 
will be condensed to water, the same in every 
particular as to weight and properties as the water 
with which we staited If the temperatme of the 
water is now the same as its temperature before 
starting, then the whole of the heat taken away 
when the steam is condensed is equal to the whole 
of the heat added duimg the opeiation The series 
of changes has, therefore* been brought about by the addition or subtraction of heat only. 

No heat having been lost, the gam of heat of the surrounding water must equal the loss of heat by the 

^I-E^Stf rp~=L--^ 
(\ t.-x-v'j/. i r. OA *" i/ 


59 formation of steam. 

this water, raising its teniperatui, 
^ * , loss of heat of steam and water equals gain of 

to the loss of heat of the steam, ^ * , loss of heat of steam an waer equas gin f g ^ 

We have so far been content with the general statement of the action of heat ^^^^^ ' 

water is 62 5 Ib 

, , 
62-5 Ib. of water will stand 1 foot high. 

lib. ^- 5 feet high. 

= 0-016 foot. 


Let the pressure of the atmosphere be represented by a piston lesting on the surface of the water and 
loaded with a weight of 14-7 Ib. per square inch (this being the pressure of the atmosphere) 

The area of the piston being 1 square foot, the total weight on the piston will be 14-7 X 144. = 2116-8 Ib 

1. On applying heat to the water it will at first gradually rise in temperature from 32 to 212 F 
before evaporation commences as previously explained. 

Then 212 32 = 180 = the number of heat units or B.Th U. requned to raise 1 Ib. of watei from 
32 F to boiling point undei atmosphenc pressure, since from our previous definition it required 
1 B Th U. to raise 1 Ib of water through 1 F. 

2. Steam now begins to foim and the piston to use , and on continuing the heat the water is event- 
ually converted into steam at a temperature of 212 J 1 and the piston continues to rise until the steam 
occupies a volume, under the piessure of the atmosphere, of 26-36 cubic feet as found by experiment. 

The heat expended m evaporating 1 Ib of water into steam after the water has been raised to 212 F 
is found to be 966 B Th U. This is known as the latent heat of steam at atmospheric pressure 

The total amount of heat put into the water is therefore 180 + 966 = 1146 B Th U. and has been 
used as follows 180 B Th U to raise the temperature from 32 to 212 F and 966 B Th U. to con- 
vert the water after leaching 212 F. into steam 

"We will now consider what share of the heat has been expended on 
each operation 

The heat expended in doing the external work of raising the piston undei 
a pressure of 2116 8 Ib through a height of 26 36 016 foot = 2116 8 x 
26 344 For as we saw at the commencement of the chapter, w X z = 
foot-pounds of energy 

w in the above being represented by 2116-8 Ib 
m,. $0076 Ft *~l~^ I 2: the height the weight has been raised 

PIG 60. Formation of steam ^ 55,765 foot -Ib. of work. 

If we divide this by the mechanical equivalent of heat, ^e ,178, we 
shall mid how many units of heat have been converted into work 

55 = 71-6 B.TKU 

So far, we have accounted for the heat in two of the operations 
26 S&l' m raiSmg tlle temperature of the water from 32 to 212 F. Secondly, in raising the weight through 

We have, therefore, only accounted for 180 + 71 6 B Th U = 251 6 B Th U 

Now we know that the total amount of heat applied was 1146 Subtracting 251 6 from 1146 we get the 
amount oi heat used in overcoming the internal resistance of converting the water into steam = 894 4. 

I he neat has therefore been used as follows 

1. In raising temperature of water from 32 to 2 12 F 180 

2 In overcoming the internal resistance . . . " ". 894 4 

3 In raising piston .... . . ' 71 ,g 

Total Heat ... . IUQ Q B.Th TJ. 


1. Introduction. The question of Combustion should be carefully considered by all who have to deal 
with the disposal of refuse by burning When combustion is good, many advantages accrue as against 
when combustion is moderate or bad. For instance, more heat is available for sundry works purposes and 
there is less danger of polluting the atmosphere with soot and smoke Again, when the refuse is burnt 
and good combustion prevails, the clinker so produced will be hard, innocuous, and suitable for many 
industrial purposes. 

Combustion may be defined as the combination of dissimilar substances, producing heat and light One 
of these substances is oxygen and the other the fuel used A given quantity of oxygen is required for 
every pound of fuel, so as to burn the fuel completely, and with different fuels the amount of oxygen required 
varies With an insufficient supply of oxygen complete combustion is prevented, while with an excess of 
oxygen, heat is wasted to that amount required to raise the excess air to the temperature of the escaping 
gases from the chimney It should also be stated that different fuels require different furnaces and no one 
furnace or grate bar is equally good for all fuels. 

2. Matter. Matter is anything that occupies space and can exist in three forms, viz solids, liquids 
and gases. Matter is the substance of which all bodies consist and is composed of molecules and atoms. 

3 Molecule A molecule is the smallest possible portion of matter which is capable of separate existence 
without changing its nature 

4: Atom An atom was formerly defined as " the smallest particle of matter which so far has never 
been split up into anything simpler " 

Chemists always keep the proviso " so far " in the definition, and then: reticence has been justified in 
that now it is well known that the atom is composed of simpler bodies known as protons and electrons 

The relation between the atom and the molecule may be best understood by regarding a molecule as a 
brick wall and the atoms as the bricks composing the wall If a drop of water were divided and sub-divided 
until it could only ]ust be seen by the most powerful microscope, even then it would still consist of thousands 
of molecules forming a tiny drop If we could separate one of these molecules it would still be water, 
although invisible to the most powerful microscope it would still be the brick wall. But this brick wall 
(i e , the'molecule of water) would be composed of three bricks (or atoms) two of the bricks being exactly 
alike, ^ e , hydrogen atoms, and one brick different the oxygen atom So that we have, by further division 
of the molecule, broken it down into two entirely different substances oxygen and hydrogen. 

Some idea of the size of the average atom may be obtained in the following manner Assume it to be 
possible to puncture an electric light bulb so that 1 atom per second could rush in, it would take approxim- 
ately 14: years to fill it 

5. Elements An element is a substance composed of one kind of matter only and cannot be changed 
into anything else, except by the addition of some other body For example, iron, carbon, chlorine, 
aluminium and sulphur cannot be decomposed or changed into anything else other than by adding something 
else to them. 

6. Compounds. Compounds consist of two or more elements chemically united, which can be broken 
down by suitable means into simpler elementary bodies composing them For example, water under the 
influence of electrolysis is broken up into two gases entirely dissimilar from each other, and from the water 
which they formerly composed 

7. Chemical Combination Chemical combination is essentially different from mere mixture, and is not 



only accompanied by a change of appearance, but also by an evolution of heat The term, mixture will 
be explained later Hence the chemical combination of two or more elements results in the production of 
a substance whose chemical properties, and generally speaking its physical properties, are completely 
different from those of the elements entering into its composition Thus when carbon is heated in oxygen 
they combine to form a compound of totally diffeient properties from either, viz , carbon dioxide = C0 2 

Again, hydrogen and oxygen when exploded, by an electric spark, say, combine to form water vapour , 
suitable analysis of this reveals the fact that the water vapour molecule is composed of two atoms of hydrogen 
combined with one atom of oxygen , so in the original gases one volume of oxygen must have combined 
with two volumes of hydrogen. Hence, the molecule of water is indicated by the symbol H 2 

8 Combination by Weight Under similar conditions of pressure and temperature equal volumes of all 
gases contain the same number of molecules. From this it follows that at the same temperature and under 
the same pressure the volume of any gaseous molecule is the same, whatever may be the nature and com- 
position of the gas An equal number of atoms may now be said to be contained m a cubic foot of oxygen 
and a cubic foot of hydrogen, and as oxygen is 16 times heavier than hydrogen it is safe to assume that the 
weight of an atom of oxygen is 16 times greater than an atom of hydrogen The atomic weight of an element 
is said to be the ratio between the weight of an atom of that element compared with the weight of an atom 
of hydrogen, the latter being stated as 1. 

The following table gives the symbols and atomic weights of the constituents of most fuels 

Element Symbol Atomic Weight 

Hydrogen. . H 1 

Carbon ... 12 

Nitrogen N 14 

Oxygen . 16 

Sulphur . S 32 

Amongst other uses the atomic weights of the elements enable us to determine the composition 
by weight of any compound, i e , its molecular weight. 
For instance : 

1 atom of X atomic weight, 12 = 12 parts by weight of 0. 
2 atoms,, Ox ,, ,, 16 = 32 0. 

4A jj ;j }) ^^2' 

12 """"" 32 

/. C0 2 comprises .- . or 27 3% carbon and j . or 72 7% oxygen. 

Molecular weight of C0 2 44. 

9 Mixtures Substances which when mixed together do not chemically combine are said to be 
mixtures as distinct from chemical compounds and the mixture so produced may be separated into its con- 
stituent parts by mechanical means , the properties of the mixture are essentially the specific properties of 
the substances composing it. For example, if finely divided iron and sulphur are mixed together a grey 
powder results ; but this can be proved to be only a mixture by treating it with carbon disulphide, when 
the sulphur dissolves, leaving the iron behind On evaporating the CS 2 (carbon disulphide) the sulphur 
is also left unchanged 

10 Union of Elements The process of burning or combustion is an everyday occurrence, but very few 
realise that this process is a chemical reaction which follows definite laws. 

It has already been stated that when chemical combination takes place between two substances heat 
is produced, and the student may verify this by the simple experiment of adding a little water to a quantity 
of sulphuric acid. The water and acid unite with each other and a rise in temperature is caused 

A great affinity exists between the atoms of certain elements, and when brought together under favour- 
able conditions chemical union is unavoidable. For instance, oxygen combines very readily with carbon, 


and when these two elements unite so that heat and light are evolved, combustion is said to have taken 
place The resultant gas, which may be either carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide, is termed the product 
of combustion If in the oxidisation of the carbon the oxygen is taken from the air, as is usual when 
burning coal m a furnace, then the nitrogen of the air passes off with the gases in its natural state and 
is termed a product of combustion, although in itself it does not aid combustion 

It may now be stated that when the heat caused by chemical combination is such as to raise the resultant 
substances to a temperature at which light is produced, the act of combination is said to be Combustion 

11 Weight of Ait Carbon dioxide, as already mentioned, is chemically united in the proportion by 


weight of 12 parts carbon and 32 parts of oxygen From this it will be seen that or 2| lb of oxygen 


are required to oxidise completely a pound of carbon The theoretical amount of air required to supply 
the 2| lb of oxygen is calculated on the basis of air containing 23% by weight of oxygen, therefore, 
100 32 

"oo" X T x = 11 6 lb. of air per lb of carbon burnt 
AO 12 

The chemical combination of 1 lb of carbon and 11-6 lb of air may be shown as follows 

1 lb of carbon _ f J 2 X 3 _ 3 7 lb - C0 2- 
11 6 lb of air ~~ 1 f ' !f iif 8 9 lb N. 

From this it is obvious that 11 6 lb of air completely combines with 1 lb of carbon In this amount 
of air there is present 2 7 lb. of oxygen, which is that constituent of the air which actually combines with 
a pound of carbon, giving 3 7 lb of C0 2 . The other constituent of the air, % e the 8 9 lb of nitrogen it 
contains, is inert and passes off with the C0 2 unchanged 

So much for complete combustion, but it is possible that the combustion may be incomplete If there 
is an insufficiency of air, or, what is the same thing, an insufficiency of oxygen, a lower oxide of carbon 
CO, known as carbon monoxide, may be formed 

One pound of carbon burning to CO obviously requires only half the oxygen necessary to form C0 2 , 
that is, one atom of carbon combined with only one atom of oxygen, whereas in C0 2 , two atoms of oxygen 
are so required. 

In other words, 1 lb of carbon oxidised to C0 2 requires 11 6 lb of air as against only 5-8 lb to produce 
the lower oxide CO 

In practice, however, it is usually found that twice as much air is used per pound of fuel over that 
required theoretically 

12 Calonfic Value. The calorific value of a fuel is determined by its chemical composition, and the 
quantity of heat developed by the complete combustion of such fuel is known as its calorific or heating 
value This value is measured in heat units called British Thermal Units (B Th U ) and a British thermal 
unit is defined as being the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water through one 
degree F House refuse has a calorific value ranging from 3000 to 6000 B Th U per pound. 
__ By means of an instrument called a calorimeter the heat value of a fuel can be determined. 

The figures below give the value of one pound of the elements. 

Carbon burnt to carbon dioxide, 14,500 B Th.U. 
Carbon monoxide, 4,400 ,, 
Hydrogen water, 62,000 ,, 

Sulphur sulphurous oxide, 4,030 

It will be seen by reference to the above figures that a great loss of heat is experienced when carbon is 
burnt to carbon monoxide, CO, instead of to carbon dioxide, C0 2 

For calculating the calorific values of fuels, Dulong's formula is generally accepted It Is expressed 
as follows 

145(0 + 4 28(H - ~] + 28S) = B Th.U. 
\ "/ 


Example. What is the calorific value of a pound of fuel the analysis of which is as follows : 

Carbon ....... 78 per cent. 

Hydrogen 4 

Oxygen ....... 6 

Nitrogen ....... 1 

Sulphur .1 

Ash 10 

Solution : 

145(0 + 4 28( / H - ) + 28S ) = B Th U. 

\ o/ 

145(78 + 4 28(^4 - %} + 0-28 X 1) 

\ o/ 

145(78 + 13 91 + 28) 
145 x 92 19 

= 13,367 B Th U. 

13 Theoretical Evaporative -Power The theoretical heating value of fuel is the heat which such fuel 
develops when burnt under ideal laboratory conditions and is stated m heat or thermal units. In England 
and America the British thermal unit is adopted and, as previously stated, is the amount of heat required 
to raise the temperature of 1 Ib. of water through 1 F. On the Continent of Europe the " Calorie " is used 
This is expressed as the amount of heat required to raise the tempeiature of 1 kilogramme of water 1 0, 
To convert British thermal units per pound of fuel into calories per kilogramme of fuel, multiply by Jive 
and divide by nine 

A common evaporative standard is desirable when carrying out fuel tests so as to obtain comparnlivo 
evaporation values, as in many cases the temperatures of the feed water and steam pressure vary consider- 
ably It is usual to express the evaporation m " number of pounds of water evaporated per pound of fuel 
from and at 212 B 1 ," and this expression is known as the theoretical evaporative value of the fuel To 
find the evaporative value of any fuel it is necessary to divide the calorific value of the fuel in British thermal 
units by 966 the latter figure representing the latent heat of steam at atmospheric pressure. From tliw it 
will be gathered that 966BThU are required to convert 1 Ib. of water at 212 F. into steam at 
atmospheric pressure 

Example ~A certain coal has a heat value of 13,793 B.Th U. State the theoretical evaporative value 
ot a pound of such fuel 1 

Total heat units of coal = 13,793 B Th U. 
Latent heat of steam at 212 ]?. = 966 B Th.U. 

13 793 

~- == 14-28 Ib. evaporation 

'^1$ C omlust n -V^ ideal theoretical conditions the temperature, above zero, of 
burning carbon should be approximately 5000 Jf and that of burning hydrogen 5800 P It IB waotk al v 
impossible, however to obtain these temperatures owing to heat lossef, the cbe of which is due to tl^ 
excess of air passed to the fire, usually about 100% more than that theoretMy i^i red to 
complete combustion. This excess air entering the fire at a temperature of 
at a temperature varying from 350 to 700 Jf It is thus seen that a 




Introduction Fuel is the commercial source of energy, therefoie a study of the combustion of fuel, and 
the means of preventing a waste of heat by guarding against those conditions that tend toward incomplete 
combustion, is most desirable Heat lost by imperfect combustion is a total loss, and ignorance and 
carelessness in the stoke-hold should be avoided. The Power Engineer has a most serious problem to 
overcome successfully in the burning of soft fuels without the formation of black smoke, and this problem 
depends foi its solution chiefly upon the intelligence and education of the stoker in performing his duties 

Coal is the fuel most generally used, and owing to its varying composition its behaviour in the furnace, 
like house refuse, varies considerably Anthracite, which contains only a small percentage of volatile matter, 
is difficult to ignite, and a keen draught is therefore required Bituminous fuels contain a large percentage 
of volatile matter from which smoke is readily formed unless correct conditions prevail They are easy to 
ignite, consequently a lesser draught will be sufficient House lefuse, having a lower calorific value than 
most other grades of fuels, can be successfully burned at a high rate of combustion under suitable draught 

Changes During Combustion Bituminous coal, which consists of liquid, gaseous and solid substances, 
gives off, when heated to a sufficiently high temperature, water, tar, oils, ammomacal liquors, hydiocarbons 
and compounds of hydrogen and oxygen. These are called volatile substances, and the remaining portion 
of the coal which is not vaporised by the application of heat is coke and ash, the coke being referred to 
as the fixed carbon of the coal The process of separating the gases and vapours from the solid matter 
is called distillation 

Volatile Substances and tliew Combustion The volatile substances comprise combustible and non- 
combustible matter. , 

The principal constituents of the non-combustible class are water, oxygen and nitrogen, which, when 
the coal is burned, are liberated as water vapour and the respective gases 

The combustible matter compuses the various hydrocarbons occurring in coal and is driven off in the 
application of heat as gases or vapours, principally as methane and ethane gas and the vapouis as tar, 
naphtha and sulphur 

There are several varieties of coal having widely different compositions and the quantity and quality 
of the volatile matter released on coal distillation are, of course, dependent on this feature and on the con- 
ditions under which the coal is distilled. For instance, in high or low temperature carbonisation the 
presence or absence of air greatly modifies the composition of the resultant products. 

In an ordinary boiler furnace, sulphur, water, etc., vaporise and mix with the gases to form a readily 
combustible mixture This combustion may be either complete or incomplete and to attain the former 
it is essential that > 

1 There should be a sufficiently high initial temperature. 

2 Plenty of air (for the supply of oxygen). 

3 An intimate mixture of the volatile substances with the air supplied. 

The structure of a flame may be studied by observing a jet of coal gas burning or that of a candle. 
Take a candle flame as an example The body of the candle is composed of tallow or wax, 
which is a hydrocarbon. When heat is applied this hydrocarbon melts and travels up the wick by 
10 129 


capillary attraction Heat having been applied to the wick, the hydrocarbon now vaporises into the inner 
blue cone shown at C (Fig 61) An mixes with the flame on all sides, providing the oxygen which combines 

with the hydrocarbons at C, which latter undergo incomplete combustion, 
in other words, there is not sufficient oxygen for the complete combustion 
of the hydrocarbons ; the hydrogen combines with all the oxygen to form 
water, H 2 0, and the carbon is left as tiny glowing particles which supply 
the luminosity of this part of the flame, B These incandescent carbon 
particles rise, combine with more air and are oxidised to C0 2 . This C0 2 
mixed with the water vapour produced at B forms the faintly luminous mantle, 

Similar conditions obtain in the burning of a jet of coal gas, excepting in 
this case the portion A of the divisions contains a quantity of the unburnt 
gas giving the somewhat black colour in contrast to the surrounding cones 

If a glass tube is placed m the centre of the flame C some of the unburnt 
FIG 61 Structure of ^ ^ rawn o ff -f^g C ools down before it emerges from the tube and 

candle flame & y , , IT .- , , > .-, 1,1,. 

does not ignite owing to loss or temperature , if, however, the gas is heated, it 

may be lighted at the end of the tube. 
This illustrates two vital principles of good combustion in a boiler furnace 

1 A combustible gas cooled below its ignition point cannot be burned by the addition of air. 

2 A combustible gas when supplied with sufficient air can be burnt if its temperature is raised 

Butning of Carbon As already explained, the burning of carbon is its chemical combination with 
oxygen, and to bring about this union a temperature of about 1800 F is required The temperature in 
refuse furnaces being about 1800/2000 F it is obvious that care is needed in stoking to see that this 
temperature does not fall in order to ensure proper combustion The temperature of the furnace can 
be ascertained approximately, by studying the colour and temperature table which follows. Assuming 
that a temperature of 1800 F. is maintained together with a sufficient air supply, the carbon burns to C0 2 - 
If there is not sufficient air CO is formed. Manifestly, therefore, in the latter case, the carbon is capable 
of uniting with a further atom of oxygen and forming the higher oxide, C0 2 . 

In an ordinary fire grate the air rises through the bars and the oxygen combines in the lower layers 
of the fire with the carbon of the coal to form C0 2 As the C0 2 and more oxygen of the air continue to 
rise through the fire, there is thus a progressive formation of C0 2 . If the refuse is fed on the bars of an 
incinerator in too thick a layer, in parts there will not "be sufficient oxygen to form C0 2 , and as a result 
of such, only CO will be formed 

The passage of C0 2 over the red hot carbon results in the reduction of 1 molecule of C0 2 and the result- 
ing formation of 2 molecules of CO as illustrated m the following equation 

C0 2 + C = 2CO. 

The reduction of C0 2 requires as much heat as is developed when CO is oxidised to C0 2 , hence the 
net production of heat is the same whether the carbon is directly oxidised to CO or part of it is oxidised 
to C0 2 and finally reduced to CO 

As to whether carbon monoxide passes from, the furnace in that form or as carbon dioxide is directly 
dependent on the temperature If the latter is sufficiently high, the CO will combine with more oxygen 
to form C0 2 and will pass from the furnace in that state 

Good furnace work, therefore, comprises the following axioms 

1 Good combustion is complete combustion 

2 To obtain this, there must be enough air to supply the requisite amount of oxygen. 

3 This oxygen must be distributed uniformly throughout the furnace fuel bed 

4 A sufficiently high temperature is essential. 


Colow and Tempeiatwe Table The following table shows the appearance of the fire in relation to its 

1300 F. . , . Dull red 

1835 F Bright red. 

2200 F. Orange. 

2380 F. . . White. 


Smoke is the result of bad combustion and may be the partly condensed vapours of the fuel produced 
by distillation, or the residue produced when the hydrocarbons are incompletely carbonised In the latter 
case, infinitesimal parts of carbon are liberated, and mix with the air, and are emitted as smoke. This 
state of affairs is very objectionable and many authorities take drastic steps to stop such nuisance. 

The formation of smoke is due to 

1 A restricted supply of air 

2 Too low a furnace temperature, which prevents the chemical association of hydrogen and carbon 
with the oxygen 

3 Heavy firing of green fuel, thus cooling the furnace 

It is well known that hydrogen has a greater attraction for oxygen than carbon, and this being the case, 
if the full supply of oxygen for oxidisation is not available or the temperature of the furnace is too low, 
then the carbon is liberated in minute particles and passes up the chimney as smoke If, however, sufficient 
oxygen is available and the correct temperature applies, then the particles of carbon will burn to complete 
combustion, and m so doing give out a bright flame 

The conditions involved in the production of smoke may readily be studied by the aid, when burning, 
of an ordinary paraffin lamp Under favourable conditions, such as a clean and trimmed wick, a suitable 
glass which acts as a chimney, and a regulated flame, then a state of complete combustion is effected, and 
a bright luminous flame is obtained This state of affairs shows that the correct temperature and a sufficient 
supply of oxygen are available. Under these conditions no smoke is produced, but interfere with these 
conditions by restricting the air supply (on most burners there is an air regulator) and smoke is produced. 
Again, smoke may be produced by turning the wick too high, in which case the supply of air is not sufficient 
for the gases produced, or by taking away the glass, which allows an unrestricted supply of air to be 
distributed unevenly, thereby lowering the temperature and liberating the carbon in the form of smoke 

Prevention Smoke which is caused by heavy firing may be prevented m two ways 

1 By keeping the fuel in a layer sufficiently thin so that carbon monoxide as formed is completely 
burned to C0 2 or its formation is prevented altogether 

2 By admitting enough air over the fuel bed to oxidise completely the rising CO to C0 2 

This necessitates a brisk fire, for if the temperature is too low no oxidisation of the CO will take place , 
thus heat is lost by the escaping CO and by the admission of excess air. That the CO is being properly 
burned to C0 2 may be detected by the presence of the lambent blue flame occurring over a brisk fire 
when this condition is being maintained In the case of a large grate area and slow combustion owing to 
the low temperature, there is usually a considerable amount of CO present Lessening the grate area to 
speed up the combustion will remedy this There is danger in admitting more air, as it is obviously 
probable that the temperature will be lower Smoke caused by the escape of unburut hydrocarbon 
is observed at the chimney as being yellowish in colour, the flame in the furnace having a similar 


Oxidisation of Hydrocarbons In the complete oxidisation of hydrocarbons the following conditions are 


1 A sufficiently high temperature 

2 A sufficient supply of air 

3 An intimate mixture of the air with the gaseous hydrocarbons 


The presence of thick volumes of black smoke is not necessarily evidence tliat a largo amount of carbon- 
aceous matter is escaping unburnt and represents no great loss of efficiency 

This can be explained by the fact that the hydrocarbons were burnt to CO or C0 a and the products 
rendered invisible, but in so doing the air took away more heat from the iuniace than would have 
been formed by the small amount of carbon that would have appeared in the smoke 

The presence of smoke itself, although not producing a serious loss of heat, is indicative of conditions 
under which poor combustion is taking place As has been previously pointed out, a low temperature in. 
the furnace, or a thick layer of fuel in the furnace, are conditions appertaining to the production of black 
smoke, and these are the conditions representing imperfect combustion. 


Natural Draught The primary object of a chimney is to provide sufficient draught under natural 
draught conditions to facilitate the burning of a fuel, and the intensity of the draught IH governed by 
the height of the chimney and the difference in density between the gases in the chimney and the ontmdo 
an*. It is well known that hot gases are lighter than cool gases, consequently the path of the air will bo 
through the chimney by way of the furnace Natural draught usually demands a high chimney and IN influ- 
enced largely by outside atmospheric conditions Take the following example. The gases within a stank 
200 feet high have a temperature of 500 F The weight of a full column of this gas having a cross-ace lion 
of 1 foot is approximately 8 67 lb., and the weight of a similar column of outside air at GO" F. is about 
15-3 lb The difference between the weights of these two columns, viz , 15-3-8 67 = 6 63 lb per .square 
foot. Draught pressure is the name given to this difference of pressure. 

The pressure of the draught is usually expressed in inches of water, and by dividing the weight of a 
cubic foot of pure water, viz , 62 2786 lb by 1728, the weight of a cubic inch i.s obtained, 

Thus, 1 inch of water corresponds to a pressure of 036 lb per square inch. The draught pmsmire in 
measured by means of a draught gauge, one form of which is shown herewith (Fig. 62). 

It is quite a simple affair, consisting in its simplest form of a smooth bore glass tube 
ATMOSPHERE^ bent into the form of a U, the length of the legs depending upon the pressure to bo 
/ /^ measured In service, it is partly filled with cold water and fixed in a vortical plane, 
rZ f one leg being coupled to the pipe or duct in which pressure is to bo read and the other 

- J end being left open to the atmosphere The measure of pressure, if positive, is indicated 
by the water being depressed in the leg coupled up to the pipe, and elevated in the 
| - f other leg, which, being open, has only atmospheric pressure acting on its .surface. The 

-J- _ f difference in level of the surface of the two columns of water is the measure of pressure 

m inches of draught gauge. The reverse would of course apply if the pressure in the 
pipe were negative , the water m the leg open to atmosphere would bo depressed and 
the water in the leg connected to the pipe raised. 

_ Draught Calculation The rate of flow of hot gases within the chimney is do- 

Era 62 Draught pendent upon the height of the stack and the difference m weight between a column 
gauge. of these gases and a similar column of outside air To find the draught of a chimney, 

divide 7-6 by the absolute temperature of the outside air and 7-9 by the absolute 
temperature of the hot gases, the difference between the two multiplied by the height of the chimney in 
feet gives the draught in inches of water Expressed as a formula this would read - 

3 _ rr/ 7 6 7 <t 
where a a \^ ~y 

d = Draught pressure in inches of water 
H = Height of chimney in feet above grate. 
t = Absolute temperature of outside air. 
T = Absolute temperature of chimney gases. 


Absolute temperature is obtained by adding 460 to the observed temperature 

Example A chimney is 200 feet high ; what is the intensity of the draught, the external air being 
60 F and the gases within the chimney 600 F 

/ 76 7*9 

Proceed by the formula 200( _. , ,,, ~ , 

J \60 + 460 600 + '. 

= 200(0 0146 - 0074) 
= 1 44 inches 

Artificial Draught Modern practice has shown that with the more intense draught produced by 
mechanical means not only can a greater evaporation be obtained per pound of fuel burnt, but that other 
fuels which have been regarded as unsuitable for steam generating purposes can be successfully and 
economically used Shortage of steam, emission of black smoke from the chimney and difficulty in burning 
some fuels can also be overcome 

The emission of black smoke is a clear indication that the combustion conditions are faulty, and the 
shortage of steam may be due to inefficient combustion Difficulty in burning the fuels may also be the 
result of faulty draught conditions. Artificial draught in many cases is resorted to in order to make the 
plant more successful in dealing with these troubles 

Artificial draught is produced by means of fans, blowers, air compressors or steam jets, and is known 
as forced draught or induced draught, according to the manner in which it is employed In a forced draught 
installation the air is forced into the furnace or ashpit by suitable means , in an induced draught system a 
partial vacuum is created in the root of the chimney or uptake 

An artificial draught plant not only provides adequate draught to enable thicker fires to be used with 
a consequent greater rate of combustion per square foot of grate area, but also increases the temperature 
of combustion in the furnace or cells The thick bed of fuel will tend to increase the efficiency of the boiler 
plant, since the time taken for the air to pass through a thick bed of incandescent fuel will be longer than 
with a thin bed, consequently the air will mingle more intimately with the fuel, thus allowing more of the 
oxygen m the air to combine with the combustibles in the fuel, and thereby reducing the amount of air 
required per pound of fuel 

Forced Draught In the induced draught system the air for combustion is drawn through a fuel bed, 
whereas forced draught sets up a pressure under the fires, thus forcing the air through the fuel With this 
system, the function of the fan ends when the air for combustion has been forced through the fuel bed, 
the remaining duty of overcoming the resistance of boilers and flues being performed by natural draught. 
With a forced draught system the pressure that can be maintained below the nres is governed by the 
necessity of preserving a slight vacuum above the fires Unless this condition is maintained, flames, smoke 
and hot air will be blown through every opening and crevice in the combustion chamber This not only 
results in a considerable heat loss, but makes the vicinity of the fronts of the furnaces and boilers uncom- 
fortably hot. The pressure usually required at the fan outlet for forced draught is between 2- and 3-mches 
draught gauge, but where the duct is unusually long and of curtailed area, slightly higher pressures are 
required to overcome the additional resistance 

Forced, Dt aught System (Steam Jets) The mam advantage of steam jets is the low first cost, but against 
this must be set the high steam consumption involved, amounting to a figure of 4 to 5% of the total steam 

An application of the steam jet principle is one used in connection with the Meldrum furnace. By 
means of a specially designed blower the steam is forced into the ashpit, which is of the closed type, and 
a pressure from a 1- to 3-inch draught gauge can easily be obtained 

The fire bars used in the furnace vary in thickness according to the class of fuel being burned, so as to 
prevent the fine parts of the fuel from falling into the ashpit The Meldrum furnace and steam jets are well 
known to the cleansing profession in connection with the burning of house refuse 


Ejector Di aught, In this system the draught power is produced indirectly and the power consumption 
is higher for a given duty than with induced or forced draught The chimney is constructed with a throat 
of reduced area, through which the average velocity is between 8000 and 10,000 lineal foot per minute as 
against an average velocity of 1500 to 1800 lineal feet per minute with ordinary parallel chimneys A 
result of this is that the dust trouble is accentuated, and also a loss of power is represented by this veiy 
high velocity 

Induced Dt aught In this system, as the name implies, the gases are induced to the stack by way of the 
furnace boiler and flues by means of a steam jet or fan placed at or near the base of the stack Another 
system to increase the draught is by increasing the height of the chimney, but this is usually expensive 
and in many cases the foundation of the existing stack will not allow of such increase of height Usually 
the steam jet system is operated by means of exhaust steam, as live steam for this purpose is too expensive 
A common form of an induced draught system worked by exhaust steam is that of the locomotive, and this 
system is also employed on transport vehicles having the locomotive type of boiler The Ian, however, is 
the means usually employed for induced draught and the intensity of the draught can be governed to meet 
most conditions providing the fan is of sufficient capacity 

Certain rules are necessary for the successful application of induced draught, such as 

1 The path of the gases to and from the fan should be as easy as possible. 

2 A suitable velocity is most desirable and sudden changes of velocity and direction of gases 
should be avoided 

3 Infiltration of air should be prevented 

If the flues are of ample size and the path to the fan is easy, there is less resistance to the How of gases, 
consequently there is a greater efficiency Sudden changes of velocity and direction should be avoided, 
as a change of velocity means a loss of heat equal to the difference of pressure required to set up these 
velocities, as measured by the draught gauge, and a change of direction necessitates overcoming the inertia 
of the gases in the original direction and the establishment of the velocity in the new direction. 

One of the chief causes of a low boiler plant efficiency is infiltration By infiltration is meant air passing 
through faulty brickwork, dampers, etc , the intensity of the draught is usually higher with induced draught 
than with natural conditions, therefore any leakages m the brickwork will allow a greater quantity of air 
to flow through the flues The brickwork should be pointed carefully, and the dampers should bo a good 
fit, otherwise the draught power will be lessened, and the power consumed increased 

Balanced Draught The balanced draught system possesses the advantages of both f oreed and induced 
draught, and is used largely in modern power stations. The forced draught takes care of the fuel bod resist- 
ance, and the induced draught takes up the load from the top of the fuel bed, and thus only deals with 
the resistance of the boiler and heat-saving devices, if fitted. Balanced draught provides a means of burning 
fuels under the best conditions, the draught over the fire being balanced, and all that is necessary Is to 
maintain a slight vacuum in the combustion chamber to prevent the escape of gases In largo stations it 
la usual to make each boiler unit self-contained, that is, to provide each boiler with its own forced and 
induced draught fan. 

Natural Draught 

1 A high chimney is necessary for a moderate draught 

2 The gases usually leave the boiler at a high temperature with consequent heat losses 

3 Weather conditions affect the intensity of the draught 
4. Natural draught is usually of low intensity, thereby 

(a) Limiting the application of economises and other efficiency increasing accessories. 

(b) Keqmrmg thin fires, thus limiting the rate of combustion per square foot of grate area. 

(c) Preventing the efficient combustion of low grade fuel 


Mechamcal Draught- 

1 Does not require a high cliininey 

2 Is not dependent on the temperature of the waste gases. 

3 Is not affected by weather conditions 

4 Can be adjusted to suit the varying steam Demands , ( t , w , onomiml ( , niln,s(ion of low 

5 Can be adjusted to suit the intensity of the draught icqum 

cTn successfully deal wrth the h lg h ctaugtt reared by .,..!.-. l-ml,,- will. ll,,.i ..... ... ..... .!. mr 

heaters and re-heaters 

ht Hstom is 

Advantages of Mechamcal Draught -Providing the mechanical draught Hysto 
installed, and completely under control, inferior fuels can be Huoco.ssfully nud o (-. mm. 
. ,1 .1 . i i .c i -cc i +o o-f romburt Lion. OvvLni? to i?niat(H' iHl-t'tiHitv and 

furthermore, the system can be varied for different rates oi cojuuun . p ,, ..HHI.,.] 

uniformity of draught, much more steam can be generated per Hour than would!, ; I s w , , atu u 
draught Again, less lir is used, being somewhere in the region oi 17 1 b UKmnHt 2 lb. por jxmn ! of u 1 
usedf It naturally follows that, owing to this less quantity of air a, Inglior funmoo Umipcra ,,ro H O u a 
able, with a consequent result of more effectual combustion and economy of fu.;l. (.IimaUo ooih1,iimH 
affect the draught produced by a chimney, but such is not the case where mo.luuuenl monnH uro pr(,vi(ltl 
for draught purposes 



THERE are almost endless types of boilers, and it is not within the scope of this chapter to deal fully 
with all or any of them 

One of the earliest of boilers was that invented by Neweomen in 1711, which on account of its shape 
was called the Haystack or Balloon boiler (Fig. 63) It was formed with a hemispherical top and an arched 
bottom, and unlike earlier types, which were made of cast iron, was made of wrought iron The fir? was 
placed beneath the arched bottom, the hot gases surrounding the lower part of the boiler. 

To increase still further the heating surface, James Watt made his wagon boiler (Fig 64) In this 
boiler the top was cylindrical and the sides curved inwards 

The hot gases passed from the grate, underneath the boiler to the rear, through the left-hand flue to 

FIG 63 Haystack boiler 

FIG 04 Wagon boiler 

the front, then through the right-hand flue to the rear, and so to the stack. This was called the " wheel 
draught " by reason of the gases passing completely around the boiler. 

In the larger sizes a flue was placed within the boiler The products of combustion first passed beneath 
the boiler to the rear, thence through the centre flue to the front ; on reaching the front the gases divided 
and passed to the chimney by the side flues. This form of draught was called the " split draught." 

Although such boilers as the above gave excellent results for the duties imposed on them, they could 
not stand the higher pressures that became common In fact, to-day we are finding difficulty m getting 
material for boilers to withstand the increasingly high pressures which are becoming popular 

About the beginning of the nineteenth century the cylindrical boiler was introduced, and as to shape 
this boiler brings us almost to present-day practice 

The earliest forms were the plain cylindrical and the egg-ended boiler, the difference being in the form 
of the ends those of the former were flat and of cast iron, the latter hemispherical and of wrought iron. 
These boilers, like those previously mentioned, were externally fired 

Still the pace for steam demands could not be maintained, and the demand for increased heating surface 




led to the introduction oi the internally fired boiler The introduction of this boiler we owe to a Cornish 
engineer named Trevithick, and his boiler was and is still known as the Oornish boiler (Fig 65) It is 
interesting to note that not only are many of this type of boiler still working, but that they are giving 
results which compare favourably with many of the more recent designs of boiler 

The coal is burnt on the grate bars, 0, passed through the flue to the back, where they divide and return 
to the front end by means of the side flues, L, in the brickwork At the front, the hot gases uniting pass 


FIG 65 Cornish boiler 


FIG 66 Lancasliire boiler 

downwards and through the flue, F, in contact with the bottom of the -boiler This arrangement reduces 
the temperature of the gases before they come into contact with the bottom of the boiler, where sediment 

Even this boiler did not satisfy the demand for power, and to obtain more heating surface and grate- 
area, a second flue tube was inserted This type is known as the Lancashire boiler 
(Fig. 66), and to-day is a great favourite where pressure up to 160 Ib per square inch 
is sufficient. 

The shell is made of courses of plates each about 3 or 4 feet wide and so arranged 
that each course is alternatively an outer and inner belt. Each end plate is cut m 
one piece The front plate is joined to the shell by angle rings and the back plate 
flanged to join the shell. The end plates are stayed to the shell by what are known 
as gusset stays, G. 

The plates forming the flue are generally flanged outwards and connected together as F IG 67 "Adamson" 
shown m Fig. 67, a ring being inserted between the flanges This form of joint is ring joint 

known as the ** Adamson Ring Joint," from the name of the original inventor. 

The Lancashire boiler is sometimes modified in order to obtain more capacity This form resembles 
the Lancashire boiler from outward appearance ; the difference in construction is that after the furnace,, 
the two tubes join into one, shaped something like a kidney, and is often referred to as the kidney tube; 
in this tube are arranged a number of conical tubes known as Galloway tubes (Fig 68). 


Next came the Water Tube boiler, still in an endeavour to meet modem steam requirements These 
boilers are built with, much larger steaming capacities than any of the former types, chiefly on account of 
the good circulation of the gases and water, and also by reason of the fact that it is possible to get a much 
larger heating surface into the same space They are also able to withstand much higher pressures than 
the shell or flue type by reason of the much smaller diameter of the parts. 






FlG 68 


PIG. 69 Babcock and Wilcox Boiler 

Water tube boilers may generally be divided into two classes, those with, vertical OT nearly vertical 
tubes and those with horizontal or nearly horizontal tubes 3hg 69 shows a Babcock and Wilcox boiler 
which falls within the horizontal or nearly horizontal class. 

This boiler consists of a number of mild steel tubes placed m an inclined position and connected with 
each other and with a horizontal steam and water drum by vertical passages at each end, while a mud drum 
is connected to the rear and lowest point of the boiler. 


The boiler is suspended entirely independent of the brickwork from wrought iron girders resting on 
columns This does away with straining from any unequal expansion and permits the brickwork to be 
removed, if necessary, without disturbing the boiler 

The furnace is placed under the front and higher end of the tubes, and the products of combustion 
pass up between the tubes, down through them again, then once more up through the spaces between the 
tubes and so to the chimney 

As the water inside the tubes is heated, it tends to rise towards the higher end, and rises through the 
vertical passages into the drum above the tubes, where the steam separates from the water. 

Some of the advantages claimed for the water tube boiler are as follows 

(1) Better circulation 

(2) Safety (bursting of one portion does not affect entire boiler). 

(3) Better combustion, 

(4) Small space occupied for large steaming capacity. 

Choice of Boileis The mam considerations in choosing a boiler may, stated briefly, be 

(1) The amount of water to be evaporated 

(2) The space available 

(3) The working pressure 

(4) Character of fuel 

(5) Character of demand. 

(6) Water supply 

Evaporation. It is usual to state the amount of water to be evaporated in pounds per hour. 

A Lancashire boiler can evaporate up to 9000 Ib of water per hour , above this size they become some- 
what large and difficulties of transport and manufacture make their use rare Water tube boilers may 
be built up to 30,000 and 40,000 Ib per hour, and, being sectional, transport is not difficult. 

Space Available For a given evaporation the water tube boiler occupies much less ground space than 
the Lancashire type, although more head-room is required for water tube boilers 

Working Pressure For working pressures of 180 Ib per square inch and above, the water tube boiler 
is to be recommended, as for high pressures the plates of a Lancashire type have to be made very heavy 
due to the large diameter, whereas with the small diameter of the component parts of the water tube, much 
less thickness of metal is required, added to which is, of course, the greater safety of the water tube. 

Charade*) of Fuel The Lancashire boiler is admirably suitable for low rates of combustion, that is, 
anything up to 25 Ib of coal per square foot of grate surface per hour, and with this rate of combustion 
it will be seen that, owing to the restricted grate area, good fuel must be used in order to obtain maximum 
evaporation On the other hand, with the larger grate area permissible with the water tube and the greater 
space available for combustion, a much higher rate of combustion may be employed, with the consequence 
that a much lower grade of fuel may be burnt without lowering the efficiency of the boiler. 

Character of Demand Where the demands for steam are irregular and heavy for short duration, the 
Lancashire is ideally suitable, as the large steam space allows of sudden draw of steam without decreasing 
the pressure to any large extent In cases where quick steaming is of first consideration, that is, where 
the demand or time of demand can be anticipated, the water tube would be recommended, as an idle boiler 
of this type can much more quickly be got under steam 

Chaiacter of Water Supply If the water with which it is proposed to feed the boiler contains a con- 
siderable amount of scale-forming salts (commonly known as " hard water "), the Lancashire boiler has a 
distinct advantage owing to it being more accessible for cleaning, and further it can take a much greater 
thickness of scale without impairing the boiler 

It is essential that good water should be used for the water tube and, of course, this has undoubted 
advantage when applied to the Lancashire type 

Water Supply Before using any water for feed purposes, have an analysis made by a competent 
chemist, as often water which appears excellent is totally unsuitable for boiler feed water and its use 
might easily be attended with disastrous results 


Care of Boilers The law demands certain requirements regarding the care of boilers and it would bo 
well if everybody who is m charge of boilers paid special attention to these requirements. By being in 
charge is meant those actually responsible and not of necessity the man working the boiler, * e , the stokei . 

The following is an extract from the Factory and Workshop Act 1901 

1 ' (1) Every steam boiler used for generating steam in a factory or workshop or in any place to which 
any of the provisions of this Act apply must, whether separate or one of a range (a) have attached 
to it a proper safety valve, and a proper steam gauge and water gauge to show the pressure of steam 
and the height of water in the boiler, and (6) be examined thoroughly by a competent peraori at leant 
once in every fourteen months 

(2) Every such boiler, safety valve, steam gauge and water gauge must be maintained in proper 


(3) A report of the result of every such examination m the prescribed form, containing the pro- 
scribed particulars, shall within 14 days be entered into or attached to the general register of the factory 
or workshop, and the report shall be signed by the person making the examination/' 

FIG 70 Lever weight safety valvo 

Whilst the above are fairly stringent rules they do not in any way cover the care of a boiler. 

Before proceeding with the care of boilers it will be as well if we get some idea of tho various fitting, 1 -! 
which are mentioned in the above Act, together with several others which are to bo found on almost any 

Safety Valves These are of various designs, lever weight, dead weight, and spring loaded, and are 
shown in Figs 70, 71, and 72 

With the former is incorporated a high and low water alarm, that is, should tho water got too low in 
the boiler the float sinks and causes the safety valve to open The same applies when the water reaches 
too high a level, the other float rises and again opens the safety valve, when tho blowing oft of tho steam at 
once attracts the attention of the attendant and he is able to act before any serious damage results. 

Fig. 71 shows a spring loaded valve, these valves are invariably used on boilers winch arc subject to 
any movement, such as locomotive boilers, marine boilers and steam wagon boilers 

Fig. 72 shows a dead weight valve Safety valves should be lifted by the steam at least once per day, 
for if they are not worked regularly, they are liable to become set either through corrosion or dirt, and when 
required will not blow off at the desired pressure, which may have fatal results. 



It is essential that the safety valve should not in any way be tampered with, things should not be hung 
on the lever end, or dead weights, and any adjustments should be made by a competent person 

Boilers are often fitted with two safety valves of different types, m which case one should be set a 
little in advance of the other. This is a practice to be recommended 

Steam Pressure Gauge. This is shown with dial removed in (Fig 73) It is fitted m the steam space 
of the boiler at or near the highest point and consists of a bent tube which the pressure tends to straighten 

FIG 71 Spring loaded safety 

FIG 72 Deadweight safety 

These should be occasionally checked against a standard 

and so operates the pointer through the quadrant 
gauge as only a small variation is allowed 

Water Gauge (Fig 74) shows the usual form of water gauge. It consists of three cocks, a top or steam 
cock, a bottom or water cock and a try cock The top or steam cock is connected with the bottom or 
water cock by a glass tube The top fitting is in communication with the steam space of the boiler, and 
the lower fitting in communication with the water space. When both steam and water cocks are open 
as shown, water flows into the glass tube and shows the level at which the 
water is standing in the boiler The try cock is normally closed but should 
be periodically opened to try the fittings It is also advisable to blow 
through the fittings systematically two or three times each day. This should 
be done in the following manner . First close the water cock and open the 
try cock, allow this to blow through until satisfied that a clear passage 
exists, next close the steam cock and open the water cock, allowing this to 
blow through to remove any sediment which may have become lodged in the 
passages. When confident that all is clear, close the water cock and try 
cock, then open the steam cock and finally open the water cock, when water 
should rise fairly quickly m the glass. Any reluctance on the part of the water 
to rise should be investigated, as false levels are perhaps the most fruitful 
source of accidents to boilers 

Feed Check Valve This fitting is shown in Fig 75 It is connected to FIG 73 Steam pressure gauge 
the boiler just below the working water level and the water is conveyed 

by an internal pipe some distance into the boiler, usually about 8 or 10 feet beyond the furnace tubes 
m the Lancashire or flue tube type, and a short distance beyond the front headers of the Babcock type 

This valve is so arranged that whilst water may enter the boiler it is impossible for the water to be 
forced out by the pressure of steam m the boiler. It is also possible to close the valve so that nothing can 
enter the boiler. By control of this valve the supply of feed water is regulated. 

Bkw Down Valve. Fig 76 shows a common type of valve for this purpose; it is- placed at the lowest 
part of the boiler, and is used for emptying the boiler and also for blowing out any sediment during the 
working of the boiler. This procedure is very necessary when the feed water contains salt, as the only 


method of reducing the concentration is by blowing down. It is advisable to blow about 1-2 inches of 
water out of the boiler each day, m order to remove a considerable amount of the sediment This practice 
would not, of course, be adopted if it is known that the water does not contain impurities, as it is 
wasteful of heat 

Fia 74 Water gauge 

PIG 75 Feed check valve. 

FIG 76 Blow down valve 

FIG 77 Fusible plug 

FIG. 78 Mam stop valve. 

Fusible Plug. Fig 77 shows a fusible plug which is inserted in the furnace crown, of the boiler. It is 
composed of a metal cone held in place by a metal having a low melting or fusion point. Should the furnace 
crown become dangerously hot, this metal melts, allows water to damp the fire and at the same time relieves 
pressure in the boiler 

Covenng of Boiler and Pipe Surfaces. The bare top of a boiler and steam pipes are a source of great 
heat loss To overcome some of this loss the pipes should be covered with some non-conducting material, 


magnesia covering with a protection of canvas is commonly employed, sometimes a more fibrous material 
is used on account of its greater mechanical strength. 

A bare pipe will radiate heat at the rate of 3 B Th U per hour for each square foot of uncovered surface 
for each degree F. difference of temperature between the steam and the surrounding air This loss is 
considerable in even a small station when taken over the year 


The first duty of an attendant when taking over a boiler which is working is to see that tie water is 
at its proper working level 

Feed pumps and/or injectors should be tried and if not working properly, steps should be taken to have 
them put right 

Never empty a boiler while the brickwork is hot Avoid if possible pumping cold water into a hot 

Do not allow dampness to get into flues as this causes pitting and corrosion o the shell If any pitting 
or redness is found at times of cleaning, the parts should be thoroughly cleaned and hmewashed at regular 
intervals ; this will generally arrest the corrosion 

Internal Gonosion This results from the chemical action of impure feed water It may occur in 
several forms such as general wasting of the boiler plates, which it is difficult to detect and if suspected 
should be confumed by the dulling of a small hole m order to gauge the thickness of the plates, or it may 
occur as pitting or local wasting 

Grooving is also a common form of corrosion This is the result of combined chemical and mechanical 
action, and is most commonly found in boilers of the Lancashire and Cornish types It appears at the 
edge of the angle iron on the front plate around the furnace tubes or in the root of the angle ring at this 

Grooving is not readily detected, and what may appear but a fine crack may extend for a considerable 
depth and if allowed to continue is likely to produce serious results 

Incrustation This is the formation of a scale or sludge by the impurities in the feed water which are 
precipitated by the rise in temperature or left behind as the result of evaporation of the water 

A thin coating of scale may not be harmful to the boiler, but if a thin coating will form, so will a thicker 
one in course of time, and being a poor conductor of heat, not only causes considerable wastage of fuel, 
but also allows the plates next the furnace to become overheated, and if this takes place to excess the boiler 
will collapse with fatal results to boiler, surroundings, and possibly life 

This incrustation may be prevented by seeing that the water entering the boiler contains no scale- 
forming salts. This is done by chemical treatment before the watei enters the boiler This method, 
however, whilst having everything to recommend it, is hardly worth the expense, where there is passably 
good water, and very small plant In this case the boiler should be thoroughly cleaned of scale regularly, 
the period between cleaning being determined by experience Never loosen the scale by blowing down a 
boiler under pressure and filling up with cold water. This does undoubtedly loosen the scale, but at the 
same time it will cause serious injury to the boiler and is therefore a practice which should not be 




To cover the entire subject in this chapter would be to attempt the impossible ; it is therefore my object 
to stress the extent by which steam raising plant efficiencies can be increased in refuse disposal works by 
the introduction of suitable instruments, providing always that such apparatus receives the attention which 
it demands and deserves Appreciating the advantages to be denved fiom instruments during the raising 
of steam, it will be apparent that their fuithei introduction for use with the main power plant and its 
vanous auxiliaries will have most beneficial results 

Modern refuse disposal works practice is undoubtedly incomplete unless scientific instruments are in 
use The introduction of these has covered a lengthy period, in view of which considerable losses have 
been, and aie still being, constantly incurred 

Recent developments demand that the efficient opeiation of any important unit shall be governed by 
the results obtained from a sequence of suitable instruments, whereas in the past many engineers have been 
satisfied with the occasional installation of pressure gauges 

The object of this chapter is to emphasise the use of these instruments in connection with under- 
takings such as the City of Birmingham Salvage Department, at the same time showing how efficient 
control and operation can be procured with reasonable ease by their introduction 

Admittedly refuse incinerator plants aie installed to render innocuous refuse from innumerable sources, 
and, after salvable articles have been withdiawn, if the inherent heat can be utilised in the process of 
incineration a valuable source of revenue is created. This substantially affects operating costs, but it is 
essential that the primary object of refuse incinerators, i e , the disposal o refuse m an efficient and 
sanitary manner, should not be lost sight of 

The inception of refuse disposal plants was the simple form of furnace in which refuse was burned 
to destroy its offensive nature and reduce its bulk. This process was not only slow, but expensive 
and wasteful, no consideration being given to the recovery or use of the heat which the material possessed. 

To overcome these objections, and with a view to expeditious incineration, high chimneys were intro- 
duced, thus increasing the draught at their base, at the same time materially assisting in the dispersion of 
the products of combustion in a manner which reduced fume nuisance to a minimum. 

Mechanical draught appliances were introduced at a later period, these being responsible for the more 
rapid incineration of the refuse and the creation of higher temperatures These improved conditions were 
responsible for the appreciation that a considerable amount of heat could be extracted from the gases and 
utilised for steam raising and power generation to drive forced or induced draught fans, and other important 
auxiliary machinery. 

Further, with the advent of the electric vehicle, the demand for cheap electric current was increased 
by the necessity of regular charging at a reasonable cost, this being naturally responsible for a heavier 
steam consumption 

To-day, it is universally acknowledged that instruments are essential to efficient steam production, the 
function of such apparatus being to produce regular and reliable data relating to pressure, temperature, 
carbon dioxide (C0 2 ), draught, fuel consumption and steam production. These two latter are doubtless 
the most important features, inasmuch as they definitely indicate whether results are efficient or otherwise. 

The average working efficiency of industrial boilers in this country is below 60 per cent., which statement 



is made on good authority and cannot be seriously questioned It will be appieciated that much lemains 
to be done in connection with the introduction of instruments, it being the exception rather than the rule 
to find boiler houses equipped with a comprehensive range of apparatus for producing data Few people 
are acquainted with the output and leaving losses of steam raising plant, hence efficiency is an unknown 
quantity, and it is undoubtedly an apt illustration of " where ignorance is bliss, etc " 

The importance of measuring the output of steam raising plant consuming high grade coal will be readily 
admitted, also the necessity of arriving at the vital ratio " Ib of water evaporated per Ib of fuel burnt " 
Further, steam generation is equally important when refuse is used as fuel, the calonfic value of which con- 
stitutes its most important asset It may be argued that refuse does not cost anything, but nevertheless, 
the fact that labour, capital and depieciation charges aie ever present cannot be denied, such costs being 
substantially reduced when the inherent heat of the material is recovered In explanation, one should 
possibly stress that these charges remain stationary whatever the amount of the steam generated may be, 
in view of which the greater steam production is responsible for the lowering of the overall cost pei ton 
produced Those in charge of refuse disposal plants will appreciate fiom the foregoing the necessity of 
the selection and arrangement of a comprehensive sequence of instruments 

Ptesswes The pressure gauge, as the name implies, indicates pressures of boilers, steam and water 
mams and other auxiliary equipment Gauges of the most popular type are of the Bourdon design, con- 
sisting of a bent tube, elliptical in cross-section, one end of which is closed and connected to a quadrant 
by means of a lever The tube is filled with a suitable fluid, and when pressure is exerted upon this, the tube 
tends to straighten, and through a pinion and quadrant gears movement is transmitted to the pointer 
piopoitionate to the pressure, this being indicated on the gauge dial An instrument of this type is 
illustrated by Fig 79 Dials should piefeiably be of a generous size, and in particular cases, illuminated. 
A feature which should not be overlooked, is that connecting pipes should be at least |-inch m diameter 

Coming to the question of recording pressure gauges, these serve an exceptionally useful purpose in 
providing the engmeer-in-charge with a continuous check upon his stokers A dual advantage is forth- 
coming by the introduction of this recorder, first, inasmuch as the engineer is in a position to criticise the 
previous day's operations, and secondly, the instrument has a wonderful moral effect upon the stokers, 
who feel that they are under constant automatic surveillance, realising that the production of mdiffeient 
results will undoubtedly entail, metaphorically, the heaping of coals of fire upon their heads Alternatively, 
boiler attendants producing good results have reason for self pride, and a certain amount of appreciation 
in such instances on the part of those in authonty would undoubtedly be well placed. 

The haimful effects of a rapidly fluctuating boiler pressure are probably common knowledge, but never- 
theless it should be stressed that, quite apart from the loss of efficiency experienced, unnecessary strains 
are set up, these often being responsible for leaky seams A specimen chart taken from a pressure recorder 
at the Birmingham Salvage Department's Brookvale Road works is reproduced in Fig 80 The diagiam 
is admittedly by no means perfect, nevertheless it will be seen that the changes have been gradual, and 
liave not occurred at relatively short intervals 

Eegarding the installation of gauges in connection with high pressure services, the advisability of pro- 
viding for suitable bosses on steam and other mams, should be borne in mind These should be of such size 
as to ensure the entire absence of leaky connections. 

Evaporation One of the principal features in every section of the industrial world is undoubtedly 
*' Output," and m connection with steam raising plant "Production" is not one whit less important 
Output in connection with boiler plants can be determined by one of two methods, these being either by 
measurement of the water fed into the plant or the steam leaving it The former is by far the simpler 
proposition and the one for which a decided preference has been shown up to the present time Never- 
theless, whether water or steam be measured, the instruments installed for the purpose should be capable 
of producing a record of production throughout the day, at the same time providing a definite indication 
of the total quantity of water or steam measured. 

Becords from meters of this description, together with a knowledge of the heat value of the refuse burnt, 

serve not only to promote further steam production, but are also useful when comparing the varied methods 

of firing, or types of furnaces, and the efficiency of one shift with another The efficiency of a stoker can be 

more readily estimated by the joint consideration of records appertaining to pressure obtained and water 









80 Steam pressure chart 


evaporated during his shift than by the foimer alone, though the value of the pressure record should not 
be disciedited 

The types of meters in general use aie : 

1 The " V " notch or Weir type. 

2 The pressure type, in which a differential pressure is produced by an ounce in a thin plate inserted 
between flanges in the piping, the pressure difference being produced by the fluid when flowing through 
the orifice, and transmitted to the instrument by means of a pipe connected to the flow and return 
sides of the metei . 

The boilei feed water at the City of Birmingham Salvage Department is measured by the " V " notch 
type of meter, the principle of which is the measurement of the flow by the height of the water when it 
passes over the notch, an instrument of the " Lea " type being installed for this purpose The water, 
on its way to the boiler feed pumps, is airanged to gravitate over the " V " shaped notch, the height of the 
water being transmitted to the recoidei through the agency of a float, the rod of which controls the motion 



JFio 81 Lea lecordcr tank 

of the recording pen This operation, combined with the motion of a clock, also operating an integrator 
which totals up the amount of the water used, produces the permanent record. No wear takes place on the 
"V" notch, and a negligible amount of attention is required by the recorder The zero of the instrument 
can be readily checked at such time as the feed pumps are stopped. (See Fig 81 ) 

The movement of the float, which rises or falls according to the depth of water flowing through the 
notch, is transmitted to a revolving drum by means of a rack and pinion. Upon this drum is cut, in the form 
of a spiral groove, the curve connecting the rate of flow with the depth of flow through the " V " notch in 
use. A pin connected to the same member as the pen-arm engages in this groove, so that as the curve 
drum revolves according to the rise or fall of the float, the pen moves across the chart in direct proportion 
to the rate of flow The total quantity may be obtained from the chart by taking the area of the diagram 
between any two time ordinates and multiplying by a factor, which is given for each instrument. 

The spiral curve on the revolving drum is calibrated in Ib. per hour, and with the beak in the arm which 
carries the pin serving as an indicator, the rate of feed at any instant can be read off a very extended scale. 
This feature is found veiy useful when conducting a short boiler test. The instrument is also provided 
with a scale showing the depth of flow. By means of this and the correct formula or table of figures the 
accuracy of the apparatus can be rapidly checked 

The recorder is unaffected by the hottest and dirtiest water, in fact the notch tank serves as a dirt and 
grease separator, preventing to a certain degree such injurious matter from entering the boiler (see Fig 81). 
The accuracy of the apparatus is guaranteed by the makers to within 1% 

Professor James Thompson of Belfast, in papers xead before the British Association in the year 1858, 
pointed out the accuracy of the " V " notch method, and later this has been substantiated by many scientists. 



Eeference to Ejg 82 will make cleai the arrangement relative 
to other parts of the boiler plant, while Fig 83 illustrates the 
apparatus itself 

The flow through the notch tank is automatically controlled in 
accordance with the demands of the feed pump by means of a 
double beat equilibrium valve, actuated by lever and float in the 
hot well end of the tank By this arrangement, not only is the 
water integrated as in ordinary meters, but a permanent diagram 
is produced by the instrument which gives a lecord indicating the 
times at which vaned demands for steam take place, also indicating 
the manner in which the operator has regulated the feed supply 
Buefly, a complete daily record is pioduced so fai as steam 
production is concerned 

The chait record is invaluable to the engmeei-m-chaige, mas- 



FIG 83 Feed watci rccorclei and tank 

much as it shows him at a glance the regularity or otherwise with 
which the boilers have been fed, and if the instrument is placed 
within easy access of the stokei, he can leadily observe the degree 
of success of his efforts to maintain a constant feed It may also 
be mentioned at this juncture that water fed into the boilers at a 
rate greater than the heat units are dissipated in the furnaces is 
mvanably responsible for a diop in the steam pressure 

The two specimen charts were taken on the recorder installed 
at the Brookvale Road Works of the City of Birmingham Salvage 
Department Pig 84 is an example of megular feeding, showing 
that the speed of the feed pump has been varied considerably, while 
round 8 a m it was stopped for half-an-houi Fig 85 shows how 
the boiler feeding has been much improved, being more or less 
constant according to the load on the boiler, this undoubtedly 
promoting efficiency. A feed water regulator is of course an ideal way of maintaining a regulai feed, 
and with one of these installed the meter record would approximately follow the boiler load The total 


4. > 

0- P 

S M 








in /3 

? C 

ifc O 

5 f5 

S- J 

o s-^ 






- ^ 




























quantity of watei fed to the boilers is represented by the area of the diagram, each square inch 
equalling so many pounds of water The area may be calculated by means of a plammeter or stated 
approximately by counting the number of small rectangles, each of which represents 1000 Ib. For 
instance, in Fig. 84 the area is 11 82 square inches and one square inch = 14,524 Ib therefore 11 82 x 
14,524 = 171,674 Ib of water fed to boilers. 

The recorder fulfils the useful role of policeman over the 
feed water regulator , any eriatic behaviour of the latter, such 
as a sudden rise or fall of line, would indicate immediately 
that the feed water regulator required attention This instru- 
ment appeals chiefly to the engmeer-m-chaige by virtue of 
its extreme robustness and the simplicity of its mechanism 
It is in no sense a delicate piece of apparatus and it is hardly 
possible for it to break down 01 get out of ad]ustment 

For boiler feed purposes the instrument is usually cali- 
brated in Ib weight, in prefeience to gallons. This being so, 
it might be thought that with a change in temperature of the 
watei the accuracy would be seriously affected The apparatus, 
however, possesses an unique compensative action, owing to 
the fact that when the temperature increases, the density of 
the water is reduced, consequently the float sinks slightly, 
and thus the instrument records a less weight, which is correct. 
Alternatively, when the temperature falls, the float rises owing 
to the increased density of water, and the instrument records 
a slightly greater weight, which is also correct This automatic 
action of the float tends to pioduce tiue records, by weight, 
over a laige range of temperatures The compensation, though 
not absolutely perfect, suffices for all practical purposes. 

Tempei atures Further recent developments in the scientific 
operation of steam raising plant include the collection of data 
relating to the temperature conditions at various points on the 
boiler plant The measurements of temperature may be taken 
continuously or at regular intervals, according to the particular 
demands of an installation Temperatures can be continuously 
recorded by the introduction of instruments of the transmit- 
ting type, these being arranged with daily or weekly charts, 
while for occasional readings thermometers of the ordinary 
stem type, or preferably dial type, can be installed Such instru- 
ments are illustrated by Figs 86 and 87 

Recording instruments are recommended for use with feed 
water before it reaches and on leaving the economiser, also in 
connection with flue gas temperatures at the inlet and outlet 
ends of the latter. A two-pen recorder can be utilised with 
distinct advantage for these purposes, such arrangement 
being recommended in view of the fact that two diagrams are 
obtained on one chart, allowing of more ready comparison than 
would otherwise be possible 

Information should be secured appertaining to the temperature of the gases on the way to the chimney 
after leaving the boiler plant, which, when considered in conjunction with the percentage of C0 2 obtaining 
at the same point, enables the engmeer-m-charge to determine his " leaving losses." 

Temperature indications, as distinct from records, are usually found sufficient for such points as the 
side flues of Lancashire boilers, and the different passes of water tube boilers. Distance thermometers 
with their dials placed in accessible positions are much to be preferred to the ordinary mercury-in-glass 

FIG 86 Temperature gauge 


steam laismg 

instruments Readings should be secured and logged penodically At this junctuie it should be stressed 
that conveniently located dials are obviously responsible foi much more accurate readings than stem theimo- 
meters, which, for observation purposes, necessitate sciambling over the tops of boilers and other obstiuc- 
tions, usually with the aid of a duck lamp A furthei disadvantage of the glass stem instiument is its 
liability to breakage 

Where supeiheaters are installed it is an advantage to fit an indicating thei mometer in the pass immedi- 
ately before and after this unit By companson of the readings at these points and that from the instru- 
ment placed in the superheater steam mam, it will be readily apparent whether efficient results arc being 

Possessing the data seemed by the introduction of the aforementioned instruments and having carefully 
noted the efficiency of each individual portion of the plant, the heat balance can be determined This 
provides the engineer with information enabling him to consider the plant in the nature of a commercial 
proposition, * e , in pounds, shillings and pence, which, it will bo agreed, is the most important featuie in 
Given careful consideration of the vanous leadings obtained, faults can be located and 

rectified immediately, and, in many cases, sub- 
stantial economies eflected, in view of the fact that 
on many plants the inefficiency of the economiser, 
superheatei, or the presence of air leaks is not 
detected until the plant is taken off load for 
periodical inspection 

Instruments installed should be reliable and 
accurate, and capable of maintaining such effici- 
ency over a long period of working without 
constant repairs or adjustments One instrument 
out of commission often destroys the usefulness 
of the whole sequence and an inaccurate unit may 
render a compiehensive boiler test ineffective, 
from, which the importance of selecting first-class 
instruments will be appreciated 

The disadvantages of the glass stem thermo- 
meter for boiler house work have already been 
commented upon, and it may be said that these 
are rapidly losing favour in modern steam practice. 
Several types of distance thermometers are 

t 4. i T. >T i marketed, and one highly appreciated is that 

manufactured by Negretti and Zambia This is known as the mercury-m-steel type and opeiates on the 

pnnciple. A steel bulb containing mercury is connected by a fine bore steel 
the dial. The mercury is introduced under high pressure and 
temperature of the range. Connected directly to the centre of the 
or gears, is the pomtei, or pen-arm in the case of a recoider 
3 their robust nature, enabling them to withstand a maximum 
guaranteed accuracy being within 1% under all conditions 

;ure changes, and instruments can be arranged 
bulb without affecting the accuracy. Many designs 
in procuring suitable fitments for cither piping or 
for temperatures up to and including 1000 J 1 ,, but to 
combustion chambers approximating 2500 F., it is necessary 

_ type 

latter instrument operates is the employment of a thermo-couple 
. One end of the thermo-couple is exposed to the tempeiature 

terminating m a suitable socket and connected to a calibrated millivoltmeter by 
Low voltage currents are generated by the thermo-couple and translated by 

87 'Tempeiature recorder 

* If *edate 

Vlbratl > 


of bubs are 


to be 

a smtaeio 
suitable electric 


scales to iccord or indicate the temperature. Instru- 
ments of this type can be located at convenient points 
for observation at considerable distances from the 
thermo-couple, this constituting no mean advantage. 

Carbon Dioxide (CO Z ) The chief constituent of fuel 
is carbon the introduction of oxygen in a suitable 
ratio being necessary to effect combustion Chemical 
action is said to take place when the various elements 
combine or decompose with the evolution of heat. 
Combustion is said to occur when chemical action 
takes place with the evolution of light and flame as well 
as heat. When fuel is thrown upon a fire the volatile 
matter is the fiist to be expelled, this consisting of 
gases, liquids and solids, which are membeis of a large 
class of compounds known as hydrocarbons 

The application of sufficient heat results in the 
breaking-up of the constituent elements, the carbon 
vapour combining with the oxygen in the atmospheie 
to foim fust, caibon monoxide (CO), which in the 
process of combustion combines with more oxygen, 
forming carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) Given perfect combus- 
tion the resultant percentage of carbon dioxide would 
be 21%, but in actual practice this is unattainable, 
12% to 15% being considered quite satisfactoiy when 
using coal as fuel 

The introduction of insufficient air is responsible 
for incomplete combustion and inefficient burning of 
refuse, which, in this case, is fuel. Excess air results 
in the oxygen passing through, and in doing so, a 
considerable amount of heat is absorbed and the gases 
are diluted without furthei aiding combustion Never- 
theless, it is pieferable to pass a slight excess of air 
rather than the revcise, to ensure the quantity of 
oxygen essential to the complete combustion of the 

Household refuse can hardly be icgarded as good 
fuel, and must receive air at a good pressuie, particu- 
larly on account of the thick fires and low calorific 
value When a fire is charged, the percentage of carbon 
dioxide falls, owing to a considerable amount of excess 
air passing thiough the open doois into the furnace 
instead of through the fuel bed, resulting in a sub- 
stantial temperatuie reduction and dilution of the gases 
as previously mentioned 

Boiler plants are designed to geneiate steam from 
the products of combustion of the available fuel, and 
economical operation can only be secured by conseiv- 
ance of the maximum available heat in the fuel, it 
therefore being most important that, first, the fuel 
refuse be completely buint, and secondly, the maximum heat transference be effected. 

Having in mind the foregoing, the advisability of analysing the combustion gases will be readily admitted 
Instiuments normally selected for this duty are C0 2 recorders of the electrically conductive or chemical 


absorption type, which in some cases have attachments enabling the user to determine the amount of 
carbon monoxide present 

A typical record taken at the Brookvale Road works from a " Cambridge " combined temperature and 
electrical C0 2 instrument is reproduced m Fig 88, the upper tiace representing the temperature of the gases 
leaving the boiler, the lower one being a record of the carbon dioxide percentage obtaining at the same point. 
It will be seen that the two are practically identical in character, indicating that the variations in the 
carbon dioxide were caused by excess air, probably admitted through the furnace doors when these weie 
opened for cleaning or charging the fires, the existence of such conditions obviously being responsible for 
the reduction in the temperature of the leaving gases. 

The reduced percentage of carbon dioxide with an approximately constant tempeiaturc indication 
points to an insufficient air supply and consequent incomplete combustion, in which case a fair amount of 
caibon monoxide would be present in the exit gases In view of the foiegoing it will be appreciated that 
the most advantageous point for the introduction of a C0 2 recorder is in the mam flue befoie reaching the 

chimney as previously mentioned when dealing with 

The " Shakospear " patent apparatus made by 
The Cambridge Instrument Co. is one of the electrical 
carbon dioxide type of instruments, and is shown in 
Fig. 89 

This particular instrument contains two platinum 
wire spirals which are individually encased in metal 
one coil being surrounded by air which is saturated 
with water vapoui and the other exposed to the flue 
gases The two spirals form two arms of a Wheatstone 
bridge On closing the circuit the spirals are heated 
and dissipate their heat to the metal casing forming 
the cells , it is obvious that these respective resistances 
of the spirals depend on the thermal conductivity of 
the gas surrounding them. Therefore a change in the 
amount of C0 3 in the gas surrounding the open spiral 
will affect its resistance, which will bo recorded by the 
kick of the galvanometer needle, the scale of which 
is calibrated to read the percentage of C0 2 . The 
flue gases are aspirated through the soot filter and over 
the meter The indicator is enclosed in a metal casing, 
thus protecting it fromdustand fumes and the galvano- 
meter needle is visible in the upper half of the case 
: ' Hays," which is briefly described below, is typical, the 
<?., the absorption of the C0 2 gas by caustic potash 

FIG 89 C0 2 and Temperature Recorder. 

Of the chemical types of C0 2 recorders the 
principle in all cases being practically the same, 

A sample of flue gas is drawn into the instrument by means of a water aspirator, after fiist being cleaned 
by passing through soot niters A definite known volume of gas at atmospheric pressure is dealt with at 
each operation The gas sample is then forced into the absorption bulb, where the C0 2 is absorbed by 
coming into contact with the freshly exposed surfaces of steel wool which is packed into the absorption 
bulb The surfaces of the wool are thoroughly wet by the caustic solution with which the bulb is filled, 
and which is forced out by the operation of the instrument into the caustic solution container. 

Inside this container is a rubber bag filled with water and connected to bellows which operate a pen-arm. 
As the gas forces the caustic solution back into the container, some of the water in the bag is forced out, 
creating an air pressure in the bellows, which moves the pen over the chart. The extent of pressure m the 
bellows, and consequently the movement of the pen, are determined by the amount of absorption that takes 
place, since that will govern the amount of caustic returned to the container. 

The cycle of operations is repeated at regular intervals and a series of radial lines is traced on the 




This particular mstiument is also fitted with mechanism for recording the draught on the same chart, 
and the relationship between the draught and C0 2 may thus be seen for any penod of the day. 

Draught. Draught constitutes a very important factor in efficient power production, since it is 
responsible for the intioduction of the oxygen necessary to combustion. Natural draught usually necessitates 
the construction of high chimneys and high capital expenditure, producing only a moderate draught which 
precludes, or at least limits, the adoption of many heat-saving devices, leaving the steam user no option 
but to work the boilers with thin fires Further, such conditions are largely influenced by the elements, 
and on not a few occasions the greater demand for steam coincides with the worst natural draught conditions, 
e g , the theoretical diaught of a chimney stack 125 feet high, with the atmosphere at 60 F , and gases, 
after passing through an economiser, at, say, 350 F , is five-eights of an inch draught gauge only 

Mechanical draught admits of a con- 
siderable variation in accoidance with 
the desired rate of combustion. Undei 
such conditions it is possible to carry 
thicker beds of fuel than with a natural 
diaught, and it should be borne in mind 
that owing to a gi eater resistance, the 
an passes through the bed of incandes- 
cent fuel at a reduced velocity, mixing 
moie intimately with the fuel, allowing 
the oxygen to combine mote completely 
with the combustibles, thus promoting a 
greater furnace efficiency 

" Forced Diaught Fans " can be in- 
troduced, these supplying air to the 
system at a pressme below the furnace 
giates. Alternatively "Induced Draught 
Fans " (normally located adjacent to 
the base of the chimney) can be installed, 
these units drawing air thiough the fires. 
In many generating stations it is not 
unusual to find a combination of the two, 
to obtain the condition generally known 
as " Balanced Draught " Standaid 
piactice with fuinaces burning lefuse 
includes the provision of mechanical 
draught by forced diaught fans, noi- FIG 90 U-Tube water gauge, 

mally designed to cieatepiessure varying 
from \\ inches to 3 inches draught gauge 

beneath the grates, a chimney of sufficient height producing the necessary negative draught above the 
grates This latter is essential to promote the flow of waste gases given off by the burning refuse 

Such an arrangement makes it very desnable that the forced draught fans should function correctly 
at all times if complete and satisfactory burning of refuse is to be secuied. Inefficient operation of the 
fans naturally entails a i eduction in the air supply necessary to perfect combustion of the refuse, which 
deficiency cannot be made good by the chimney 

Though the plant necessary foi the creation of mechanical draught has been mentioned, it is not pro- 
posed that this should be dealt with fully in this chapter, but instruments to record draught power can 
doubtless be given consideration at this juncture, also the vanous positions on the steam-raising plant 
where they can be introduced with advantage 

A draught gauge is quite a simple affair, consisting in its simplest form of a smooth uniform bore glass 
tube bent in the form of a " U," the length of the legs depending upon the pressure to be measured, Fig 90 
indicating this type of gauge In service it is partly filled with water and fixed in a vertical plane, one leg 






j-a 1 a 







1 ' 











eeo WATER ii 














(r Q u 
w Ku!ap 








u 2*iS< 


















K I E 














being coupled to the pipe or duct m which the pressure is to be read, the other being left open to the atmo- 
sphere The measure of pressure, if positive, is indicated by the water being depressed in the leg coupled 
up to the pipe and elevated in the other, which, being open, has atmospheric pressure acting upon its surface. 
The difference in the levels of the surfaces of the two columns of water indicates the pressure difference in 
inches of water, 1 inch of water corresponding to a pressure of 0-036 Ib pei square inch. The reverse would 
of course apply if the pressure in the pipe were negative, the water in the leg open to the atmospheie being 
depressed, and that in the leg connected to the pipe raised 

Draught gauges may be fixed in any or all of the following positions 

1 Beneath the fire grates, thus enabling the responsible engineer or boiler attendant to locate any 
fault in connection with the foiced draught fans, often responsible for reduced boilei steam capacity, 
probably owing to a temporary restriction in the air supply mam from the fan, e g., a dirty fan wheel or 
reduced fan speed. 

2. At the front end of the boiler where the waste gases enter after leaving the fires the purpose, 
m this instance, being to indicate restrictions caused by grit accumulation in the gas passages of the 

3 At the point where the waste gases leaving the boiler enter the mam flue this to indicate 
draught loss owing to further grit accumulations, also restricted effective flue area The difference 
between this gauge and the one at the firing point of the plant indicates the draught power 
necessaiy to opeiate fiom the rnajoi portion of the plant. 

Lay-out Having described in some detail the various instruments which can be advantageously used, 
it will probably be a useful conclusion to this chaptei if I summarise the foregoing by briefly describing a 
lay-out comprising the various instruments m their relative positions. Fig 91 is intended to represent such 
a lay-out m diagrammatic form Taking the instruments in a consecutive sequence, at the points marked D 
the fan pressure gauges are installed, giving indication of the fan efficiency, and at E in the flue leading to 
the stack is the draught gauge K is the thermometer indicating the temperature of the gases entering 
the economiser, whilst at A and B are situated respectively the C0 2 recorder and temperature recorder 
giving readings of the gases leaving the economiser 

G, H and / are thermometers H is on the feed water pipe to the economiser. J gives the temperature 
of the watei on exit from the latter, whilst G reads the temperature of the steam in the mam On the same 
line as the latter is the mam steam pressure gauge at The actual water flow to the boiler is given by the 
<{ Lea " recorder at F. 

Thus I have endeavoured to show the operation and use of various instruments which I consider have 
undoubted advantage in the efficient management of a refuse disposal plant Probably I have by no means 
exhausted their number, and no doubt much ingenuity can be exercised m their provision to attain 
certain objects, but whatever instruments are installed the salient feature of their operation is intelligent 
use. Columns of readings in prettily bound books are no doubt impressive, but the logical deductions from, 
these readings are of real service 



THE ancient Greeks discovered that amber had a special property not known to bo possessed by any 
other substance at that time. It was found that amber when rubbed by wool attracted small particles of 
dust and fluff, and the Greeks took advantage of this in so designing their spinning wheels that the thread 
passed through a block of amber, which, rubbed by the thread, generated an electric charge on the amber 
and collected all the dust and fluff from the thread, leaving the latter clean 

This appears to be the first authentic record of the practical application of electricity to industry. At 
a later date it was discovered that furs, flannel, glass, cotton, silk, metals, sealing wax, resin, sulphur, 
rubber and ebonite have the same properties in different degrees. When any two of these substances are 
rubbed together, electricity will be generated and the electricity thus generated resides on the surface of 
the substance in the form of a static charge. This particular form of generation of electricity is known 
as " Frictional Electricity," and although it has a practical use it is not the commercial method of genera- 
tion The latter is mentioned in order to dispel any false idea that may exist regarding the modern genera- 
tion of electricity, which consists of passing a series of wires or conductors across a magnetic field in such 
a manner as to cut the lines of force. In order to understand this it is first of all necessary to know something 
regarding the laws of magnetism. 

There are two kinds of magnets, i e , Natural and Artificial 

The Natural magnet consists of a certain iron ore which, when freely suspended by a thread, is found 
to come always to rest in the same position, pointing approximately north and south , the same end always 
pointing to the north. This property was found to be very strongly marked in the iron ore known as 
magnetite which comes from Magnesia in Asia Minor, hence the name " magnet " This ore was also 
known in England as a " lodestone " or " leading stone." 

A striking feature of the lodestone is that when a piece of iron or steel is rubbed with it the latter will 
impart its magnetic properties to the iron or steel without losing its own magnetism. A steel needle or 
bar treated in this way is called an " Artificial Magnet," and if this magnetism is retained for a long time 
it is called a " Permanent Magnet " Soft charcoal iron is much more susceptible to magnetism than steel, 
but it does not retain its magnetism for any length of time 

When a magnet is suspended freely by a thread, and one end of another magnet is brought close to 
the end of the suspended magnet, attraction takes place between the two magnets, but when the opposite 
end of the suspended magnet is approached by the same end of the movable magnet, repulsion takes place. 

The end of the magnet which points to the north is known as the North Seeking Pole, and the other 
end is known as the South Seeking Pole. The first law of magnetism is therefore as follows . 

Like poles repel each other (i, e , two north seeking poles or two south seeking poles). 

Unlike poles attract each other (* e , one north seeking pole and one south seeking pole). 

When a piece of unmagnetised iron is placed in the vicinity of a magnet, attraction takes place, so 
that it will readily be seen that attraction is not a test for magnetism in a piece of iron which is brought 
near to a testing magnet or a compass needle Repulsion is the only test, and this can be obtained when 
two like poles are brought into close proximity. 



The force exerted between two magnetic poles is directly proportional to their pole strengths and 
inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. 
Written algebraically, the above law is as follows 

where F represents the force, M 1 and M 2 represent the pole strengths of the two magnets, and d represents 
the distance between them If the distance between the two poles is increased to twice the original 
distance, the force is reduced to one-quarter, and if the distance is increased three times, the force is 
reduced to one-ninth 

The magnetic field surrounding a magnet is stated to consist of a number of magnetic lines of force, 
and these lines of force flow from the north seeking pole to the south seeking pole of a magnet outside the 
magnet, but inside the magnet they flow from south to north The direction of flow is determined by the 
direction in which the north pole of a compass needle would point if placed at any point in a magnetic 
field. Lines of force radiate in all directions from the poles of the magnet, and are measured in thousands 
of lines per square centimetre, and this is often referred to as the Magnetic Flux The flux density vanes 
considerably in. different qualities of iron and steel, and this property guides the choice of material for any 
particular purpose 

It was found by Ampere that, when an electric current was passed from a battery through a con- 
ductor, a magnetic field was set up around the conductor The lines of force in this field take the form 
of a series of concentric circles with the axis of the conductor as their common centre For example, imagine 
the conductor as a curtain rod and the lines of force as a number of curtain rings of all sizes packed tightly 
together on the curtain rod The lines of force are, of course, far more numerous than the curtain rings 
Moreover, Ampere discovered that the direction of flow of the current in a conductor had a definite relation 
to the direction in which the lines of force were flowing. 

Ampere's rule states 

" Imagine a man swimming in the current, with the current, and looking at a compass needle, then 
the north pole of the needle will turn to his left " 

If a straight conductor is placed above a compass needle (which lies m the magnetic meridian) and the 
current flows from south to north, the north pole of the compass needle will turn to the west In applying 
Ampere's rule the man would be swimming on his face and looking downwards, and his left hand would be 
towards the west If the conductor was placed below the needle and the current flowed from south to 
north, the north pole of the needle would turn to the east, because in this case the man would be swimming 
on his back m order to look at the needle 

Another rule for ascertaining the direction of the lines of force round a conductor is to imagine 
yourself standing at the end of a conductor in which a current is flowing away from you. The resulting 
magnetic force would tend to urge a magnetic north pole m a clockwise direction If the curient was 
flowing towards you, the magnetic north pole would be urged in an anti-clockwise direction 

The conventional method of indicating a current flowing away from the observer is by putting a cross 
on the conductor A current flowing towards the observer is shown . 

Electro Magnetic Qeneiatois If a conductor is arranged to work in such a way that it will be constantly 
cutting across the lines of force in a magnetic field, and also some device arranged for connecting up the 
ends o this conductor to a circuit or enclosed path, a current of electricity will flow through the conductor. 
The direction of travel of this current in the conductor will depend upon the direction in which the con- 
ductor is cutting across the magnetic field, and the magnitude of the current will depend upon the rate of 
cutting the lines of force in the field 

Mechanical work is done by moving the conductor through a magnetic field, this mechanical work being 
transformed into electrical energy. 

Figs. 92 and 93 show a conductor being rotated in a magnetic field in such a manner as to cut the 
greatest possible number of lines of force The ends of the conductor are connected to two slip rings upon 


-which press the brushes or collectors The coil is being rotated in a counter-clockwise directioi 
looking at the slip ring end of the coils From a few moments' consideration of the figure it will 1 
that at a certain period of the revolution of the conductor (which is airangecl as a rectangular cc 
coil sides X and 7 will be travelling along the lines of force and not cutting them. During this brief 
which occurs when the plane containing the two coil sides is at right angles to the lines of force, no 
will be generated in the conductor, but immediately the conductor begins to move across the hues o 
a current will be generated This occurs as soon as the plane containing the coil ceases to be at right 
to the lines of force, and if the coil is rotated at a uniform rate, it will cut the lines oC force more 
as the plane containing the coil moves into a position parallel to the lines of force Ilore the cur 
the coil will reach a maximum value, and as the coil rotates out of this plane the value or E M ff 
current generated will begin to fall off until it reaches zero again, when the condition i of erred to 
occurs, i e , the plane containing the coils is at right angles to the lines of. force This has take 
during the rotation of the coil through 180, and the same process would occur in botl^coil sides, w 
exception, that the current generated in each coil side would flow in opposite directions when ol 
from one end 

A good rule for remembering the direction of the current induced in a conductor by moving thi 
across a magnetic field is Fleming's right-hand rule, which is as follows . " Let the first finger pomi 

. 92 

PIQ. 93 
Diagrams of a simple electric generator, 

Fio. 94. 

direction m which the lines of force are travelling (from the north pole of magnet to the south 
magnet) ; let the thumb point in the direction in which the conductor is being moved, then the 
finger and thumb will indicate the direction of the induced E M F " This is illustrated in (Fig. 9! 

In Figs 92 and 93 the small arrows on the conductor indicate the direction in which the cur 
flowing at the moment 

In Fig 92 slip ring D is connected to coil side X and slip ring C is connected to coil side Y The c 
generated is flowing from slip ring D to slip ring G In Fig. 93 the current is flowing from slip nri 
slip ring D, so that when the coil sides move in opposite directions across the lines of force, the di 
of the current in the coil is reversed. On one revolution of the coil the current has risen to a ma 
value m one direction, dropped down to zero, risen to a maximum value in the other direction and d 
down to zero again. This is known as an alternating current, on account of its change of direction, 
also a pulsating current. 

Alternating current delivered to the external circuit was not of much use to the early invest 
who desired a current which would flow continuously m the same direction, but as the generator,, Iby 
of its construction, could generate no other kind of current, some device had to be resorted to to coi 
the current, hence the name commutator. The commutator consists of a split tube as in Fig 9^ 
end of the rotating c6ils being connected to a segment of the split tube upon which press the brus 
collectors As the coil is revolved, the commutator moves with it, and at the moment when no c 
is flowing in the coil, i e , when the coil has revolved through 90, the segment R leaves the top bru 
passes under the opposite brush, immediately after which a current is started in the coil. 

This current flows from X to Y instead of from Y to X as in Fig 94, and still leaves the current i 



out of the top brush, in the same direction as before, so that the object of a current flowing in one direction 
continuously is obtained By making a number of coils revolve in the magnetic field, each one of the 
coils being connected to the segments of a multi-segmented commutator, a current is obtained which is 
unidirectional and non-pulsating, % e , a continuous current with a steady E M,F. or voltage The rotating 
coils are laid in slots in a soft iron core, which has the effect of increasing the flux or number of lines of 
force which the coils are to cut The whole arrangement of coils and iron-core is spoken of as the armature, 
and the latter rotates between the poles of a strong electro-magnet. This magnet is supplied with 
current from the armature, of which only a small amount is required for magnetisation purposes, the 
remainder being used in the'external circuit for whatever purpose is intended There are variations of the 
methods of supplying the magnetic flux, but the principle described is the same. 

A i 

FIG. 95 Illustiation of Fleming's right- 
hand rule 


FIR 96. Seues circuit 

FIG 97. Shunt circuit 

Units are named after some of the early investigators in physics 

Joule, etc 

The International Ohm is the unit of resi&tance, and is the resistance offered to an unvarying electric 
current by a column of mercury at the temperature of melting ice, 144521 grammes in mass, of a constant 
cross-sectional area, and of a length of 106 300 centimetres 

The International Ampeie is the unvarying electric current which, when passed through a solution of 
silver nitrate in water, deposits silver at the rate of 00111800 gramme per second 

The International Volt is the electrical pressure which, when steadily applied to a conductor whose 
resistance is one international ohm, will produce a current of one international ampere 

These units are often represented by letters or symbols, and sometimes one unit may have more than 
one symbol, thus 

Current m amperes is usually represented by the letter I Volts by " M M F " or " E " Resistance 
by " R " or " r," and watts by " W " 

The Watt is the unit of power and is obtained by multiplying the current in amperes by volts, viz., 



The Kilowatt is 1000 watts and is written " KW " 

The Joule is the unit of work and is represented by " /," viz 

J = Ex!xt=Wxt, where t is the time m seconds. 

The joule is often referred to as a Watt-Second. 

" Ohm's law " plays a very important part in electrical work The law is as follows 

" The strength of a steady direct current of electricity m a closed circuit is proportional to the 
E M F. and inversely proportional to the resistance of the circuit " 

Written in symbols it is I = 

The unit of conductance is denned as the reciprocal of the resistance and is written ^. 

This unit is known as Mho, which is ohm spelt backwards 

Ohm's law may therefore be stated in another way, which is not so confusing fco a non-technical mind 
The strength of a steady current of electricity in a closed circuit is proportional to the E.M.F and to 
the conductance of the circuit, i e , 

I==E 1 ^E 

The total resistance of a simple undivided circuit is the sum of the resistances of every part of it In 
Fig 96, assume the internal resistance of the battery is " & " ohms, the resistance of the lamp " r " ohms, 
and the resistance of all the wires " r 1 " ohms, then when the current " G " flows, the total resistance " R "' 
of the circuit will be : 

R = ft -J- f _|- <f^ ohms 

The only path for a current to flow is through all the resistances m series, the conductance being - 


From Ohm's law we can find the EM. F. 

If we have a current flowing through a divided circuit or through parallel paths, as m Fig 97, the only 
way to arrive at the total current flowing when an E,M.F t is applied to the circuit is by adding all the 
conductances together, e g , let v = the resistance of the lamp, and ^ the resistance of the coil, then the 
total conductance will be . 

;# ~ + ~ ~^. 
/ The total resistance will be R = rr l 

y* I y 

and b;y Ohm's law the total current will be 

z __ E ___ E 

or 1 = E X Conductance 

Returning to the units previously mentioned, we must have some link between the electrical units of 
power and work, and the mechanical and heat units of power and work. 


1 Horse power = 33,000 ft -Ib of work 'per nun 

The time factor enters here, the work being done over a period of 60 seconds Therefore, in 1 second 
l/60th only of the work will be done 

33,000,, , . 
= - ft -Ib or work pei sec 

The horse power is merely a rate of doing work 

1 Horse power = 746 watts 

1 Joule = 1 watt for 1 second 

1 Watt hour = 1 X 60 X 60 joules = 3600 joules or watt-seconds 

= 2655-2 ft -Ib 

= 3415 B Th U 
1 Kilowatt hour = 3600 X 1000 joules 

= 2655 2 X 1000 ft -Ib 

= 3 415 X 1000 B Th U 

The kilowatt hour is the British Board of Trade unit for consumption of electricity and it is upon the 
number of these units that current is charged for by the electric supply companies 


Introduction At any depot where house refuse is burnt, steam can be produced and may be used for 
the generation of electricity The production of electricity and its distribution and utilisation for power 
purposes throughout a refuse disposal plant are simple matters, and yet certain circumstances, such as the 
class of labour available, the poorness and variable calorific value of the fuel, the gritty, corrosive nature 
of the dust that pervades the whole atmosphere, and so on, tend to introduce certain difficulties despite the 
simplicity The writer spent some time at this problem and ventures here to record some of those 
things which he found by experience gave satisfactory results in practice 

Steam Raising Nowadays so much is heard about reverberatory arches and continuous grates, and 
so much about this, that and the other system of blowing, etc , that one is almost tempted to suppose 
that for the production of steam the equipment is the important thing, and to forget that it is the system 
and the personnel that really matter. Steam is your first requirement in the production of electricity, 
and even if you do not possess the very latest type of furnace and boiler there is no need to be discouraged 
Commence operations by cleaning your boiler inside and out, and then look to your flues and method of 

Stoking The test of your work on the furnace side is the percentage of carbon dioxide in the flue gases 
as they leave the boiler, and, within limits, the higher that percentage the better the combustion. Now 
there are two ways in which the percentage of carbon dioxide may be improved A charge of refuse placed 
on a furnace quickly ignites and in parts burns rapidly away As soon as this happens, craters form and 
cold air rushes through, reducing the temperature of your furnace and spoiling your steam raising This 
state of affairs is clearly indicated by a fall in the percentage of carbon dioxide, and the remedy is to level 
the fire directly such a crater forms. Endeavour to get an average 12% of carbon dioxide in the gases 
leaving the boiler This is a difficult matter, but it is a reasonable possibility, so do not be satisfied 
with an average figure of less than 10% How advantageous from a steam-raising point of view frequent 
levelling is, Fig 13 clearly shows It gives the furnace temperatures obtained from a refuse incinerator 
cell with once levelling only, and the temperature from the same cell when the fire is levelled frequently. 

Flues The other important step is to prevent the temperature of the hot gases from being reduced 
by the leakage of cold air through cracks in the flues and boiler setting To do this, take a candle and hunt 
all over the boiler setting and flues, and at every point where you find the candle flame sucked in there 
is an air leak Stop it by filling the crack with cotton waste soaked m fireclay. So much for steam raising 
Attention to these points will usually result in the production of an ample supply of steam. 



The Supply The first matters to be decided are the nature and voltage of the supply In deciding 
these points it is as well to bear in mind 

(1) That it is very desirable to have your supply similar to that of the town main so Hut when 
you are unable to generate all the electricity you require, you can, by simply operating a switch, transfer 
part of your load to the town supply 

(2) that the electric vehicle is proving itself a suitable and economical vehicle where well org.unsed 
collection methods are m operation Where electric vehicles are employed, the supply of electricity 
generated should be suitable for vehicle charging, that is, direct current at 120, 240 or 480 volts 

PIG 98. Condensing plant. 

If the town supply is alternating, the conditions (1) and (2) may be reconciled by generating alternating 
current on the works plant, and by using mercury arc rectifiers for vehicle charging 

The Engine In selecting the engine the choice lies between a turbine and a reciprocating set. If your 
output is to be 750 h p or more per engine, then the economy in steam consumption of the turbme as com- 
pared with the reciprocating engine is sufficiently marked to make its adoption advisable, but below this 
output experience generally is in favour of the high speed forced lubrication reciprocating engine. As 
very few refuse disposal depots can either produce or require more than 750 h p., it is reasonable to 
suppose that most depots have installed or will install reciprocating sets Economy in the consumption, 
of steam amounting to some 20% for both reciprocating and turbme sets may be effected by installing a 
condensing plant, and where economy m steam consumption is necessary a condenser should be installed, 
provided a suitable supply of cooling water is available (See Fig 98 ) 

The Generator Because of its accessibility and the ease with which it may be coupled to a high speed 



engine, an open (pedestal) type of generator will be found suitable for almost all cases With direct current 
generators, the writer finds that compound winding to give 2 or 3% rise in voltage on full load is advantageous 
where the current is used for vehicle charging It compensates automatically for armature drop and loss 
of voltage in transmission cables, and therefore ensures that the charging current given to the batteries 
will remain practically constant and independent of the load on the generator This compounding is open 
to a very grave ob]ection which it is said lenders it inadmissible, but the writer has found in practice that 
properly designed switchgear gives to the electrical equipment adequate protection from all the evils of 
compound winding, and that no inconvenience or ill results an&e from its use Figs 99 and 100 show good 
direct current generating sets 

The Swilckboaid The switchboard is an important part of the plant, and each piece of apparatus 

FIG 99. Steam-driven generating set. 

should be robust and of good design Allow plenty of space behind the board so that a man may have 
room enough to work there on any repairs necessary. See that every connection made with any form of 
cable (as distinct from copper strip) is provided at both ends with a proper cable eye or socket Good 
connections cannot be made without In direct current installations, particularly if used for battery 
charging, protect each generator by a double pole overload and reverse current circuit breaker The soft 
iron type of ammeter and voltmeter, though cheap, is liable to considerable errors and should not be used 
on alternating or direct current switchboards Knife switches, m addition to fitting well into the clips or 
jaws, should be of the quick break type and the quick break action should be operated by a helical spring. 
The writer hap not found the spiral spring action satisfactory Liberal voltage variation by means of shunt 
regulators should be provided, as it often happens that this regulation is very useful This is especially 
so in the case of electric vehicle charging For a 440-volt machine, I should specify regulation from 
420 to 500 volts 


The Distributing Panels The circuits to the various motors on the works should bo fed from a dis- 
tribution panel, the bus bars of which are supplied with electricity from the works power plant .livery 
circuit leaving the panel should be equipped with a descriptive label, a double pole knife switch and, if 
considered necessary, double pole fuses If a supply of electricity at the correct voltage is available from 
the town mams it is convenient to provide this distributing panel with an additional set of bus bars fed 
from the town mams In this case, double pole change-over knife switches should be provided instead oi 
simple knife switches, and with such an arrangement the load on any or all circuits may be transferred 
from the works power plant to the town mains In this way it is possible to assist the works power station 

FIG 100. Steam-driven generating sot 

by transferring some or all of the load to the town's mains, and thus to keep the whole of the electrical 
equipment running during periods of low steam 

Cost of Generating Electricity To show how economical it can be to generate your own electricity, 
I give the cost of generating electricity at the Montague Street disposal works of the Birmingham 

The power station here comprises two 100-kw reciprocating condensing sets which supply all the power 
required for driving the plant, charging twenty-two electric vehicle* nrd lighting the depot. There arc 
three engine attendants, each of whom does an eight-hour shift per nvonlv four hour- 


For Year ending March 31st, 1928 

s d. 

Depreciation of plant on a 20 years' life . . 441 15 g 

Running Charges 

Wages . 498 18 1 

Materials (oil, etc ) 60 15 11 559 14 

Maintenance and Repairs 

Wages 74 8 1 

Materials . . 76 11 3 150 19 4 

Amount paid to Electric Supply Dept , in respect of " stand by " guarantee 144 2 6 

1296 11 6 
Overliead charges, 14 38% on all items except depreciation . 122 18 4 

Total units geneiated 660,388 

Total cost per unit . 

1419 9 10 

In calculating this cost, the writer has assumed that the stearn is supplied free of charge Tins assump- 
tion is justifiable, because in this case the boilers existed long before the power plant was installed, and 
the generating plant was put down to utilise the excess steam generated by the boilers and blown daily 
to waste Even if allowances are made for the depreciation and maintenance of the three boilers and the 
pumps necessary to produce this steam, the cost per unit is still under one penny There are very few 
electric supply authorities m this country at present who can supply electricity at less than one penny per 
unit at your bus bars 


Mains When a main runs in a dry place and is not exposed to mechanical damage, then vulcanised 
rubber cable run along boards on china cleats gives very satisfactory results, and this system possesses the 
very groat advantage that every part is visible and can therefore be easily inspected and readily repaired. 
Por damp situations vulcanised mdiarubber cable is not suitable, and it should be replaced by cab-tyre 
sheathed cable, which again has the advantage that every part is visible If in certain places the cable is 
liable to be damaged, as, for example, when it passes through a floor, it should be run ]ust for this particular 
portion in conduit The writer has not found conduit to be a very satisfactory method of wiring because 
damp clinker dust will settle on the tubing and fittings and rapidly corrode them 

Protection from Damp One of the most frequent causes of electrical breakdown results from the presence 
of water and therefore no steps that can be taken to keep out moisture should be omitted For cab-tyre 
sheathed cables the writer recommends the use of sealed junction boxes and sealed ceiling roses, and with 
all cables, in order to prevent moisture creeping in between the wire and the sheathing, it is advisable to 
serve them with Chatterton compound at the ends where the copper conductor projects from the rubber 


Type of Motor. In all refuse disposal works there is a large amount of very fine dust and a great number 
of rats, and both get inside motors and cause trouble. Totally enclosed motors, of course, are immune 
from both difficulties, but they are much too expensive to use in any but exceptional places. Pipe ventilated 
motors are less expensive and are inaccessible to rats, but not so to dust They are not readily inspected, 
so that dust may lodge inside without being seen, and unless the supervision is very good it is likely to 


remain undisturbed until it causes trouble The least expensive type of motor, namely, the enclosed venti- 
lated motor, is quite well suited for use in any dry and ordinarily dusty situation provided that it is attended 
to daily A small mesh covering on the end shields will effectually keep out all rats, and by blowing out the 
motor once a day with a pair of hand bellows, all dust within can be cleared away An additional advantage 
of the enclosed ventilated motor is that the brush gear, commutator and commutation may be inspected 
at any moment without having to undo anything. 

Type of Winding For most ordinary purposes, the simple shunt wound direct current motor or the 
squirrel cage alternating current motor is at once the simplest and best, but in cases where at times a heavy 
torque is required, then compound wound direct current motors or alternating current induction motors 
with wound rotors are necessary, but such cases are really quite rare 

Standardisation Where a number of motors are being installed, all should, if possible, be exactly the 
same horse-power and speed, so that a minimum of spares only is required, and one spare armature or motor 
can be used as a replacement anywhere on the works This is not such an extravagant proposal as it may 
at first appear, for it must be remembered that a 50 h p motor, for example, driving a 10 h p load takes 
from the mains only a fraction over 10 h p and not 50 h p 

The Starting Gem All except very small alternating current motors should Jiavo a starting panel 
comprising a switch, a protective device (which in some cases may also act as the switch) and a starter, 
and each of these items will be dealt with in turn 

The Switch For currents up to 100 amperes at 550 volts direct or alternating current, totally enclosed 
ironclad quick air break switches will be found satisfactory in most cases It should be remembered, how- 
ever, that the kilowatt capacity of the switch is not the only thing that matters Due consideration should 
be given to the possible short circuit current that may flow and which the switch may bo called upon to 
break If this current is found to be very heavy, a greater degree of safety will be obtained by using quick 
break switches with carbon breaks for direct current work, and oil switches for alternating current circuits. 
It should be noted that m ironclad air break switches, ample space must be provided between the live parts 
and the cast iron box as well as in the break itself To give a large break and yet to bring live parts close 
to the iron box is manifestly ridiculous. 

The Protective Device All electrically operated plant should be protected, and by a protective device 
as applied to a motor circuit is meant some piece of apparatus which will open the circuit when the current 
exceeds a certain pre-deterauned amount Usually it will take the form of a fuse or circuit breaker and 
whatever may be the type, it certainly is a very important piece of apparatus which needs, not only very 
careful selecting, but also careful daily inspection 

For circuits carrying over 100 kilowatts, automatic circuit breakers are undoubtedly the safest device 
to use They should be so designed that it is impossible to hold them " m " on an overload and they should 
be placed high enough to ensure that the operator cannot be burnt by any flash that may occur across the 
contacts Six feet high is a safe distance. They should be inspected daily to see that all parts are working 
properly, and that the trip is set at the proper current value. They may be used for any current from 
10,000 amperes to 10 amperes or less. Unfortunately, they are open to two grave objections; they are 
expensive and they can be tampered with by ignorant folk. 

Fuses. For circuits carrying up to 100 kilowatts, fuses form a simple, reliable and cheap method of 
protection The simplest form is the porcelain replaceable fuse These are liable to abuse through work- 
men putting in pieces of copper wire J inch or more m diameter, but if by every fuse is placed a box such as 
that shown in Fig 101, in which is kept always a good supply of fuse wire of the correct gauge, then, when 
the fuse blows, the workman concerned will use only the proper gauge wire provided. He will do this 
because it is easier for him to use that provided and on the spot, than it is for him to go and find other 
wire. Such fuse-wire boxes should have painted on them clearly the number of the motor to be served 
and the correct gauge of fuse wire. 

A surer method is to use cartridge fuses, and of these the Zed fuse manufactured by Siemens seems as 
good as any With this fuse it is impossible to insert any but the proper size of cartridge and therefore it^ 
cannot be abused. Spare cartridges ready for replacement should be kept in a fuse-cartridge box alongside 
the fuse in a manner similar to that recommended for fuse wire. 

If when a fuse blows you find that it shatters the porcelain holder, the only solution is to provide a 



much heavier pattern Fuses are like switches, their size is determined, not only by the kilowatt capacity, 
but also by the short circuit current that may flow, and probably will be flowing, at the moment they 

The Statter The proper function of a starter seems to be but rarely understood and the average work- 

FIG 101 Motoi starting panels with fuse wire boxes. 

man, instead of taking perhaps 30 seconds to run the motor up, regards the starter as a switch and putts 
the handle sharply over, with results which, to say the least, are annoying For this reason, the writer 
rcgaxdsa^ ?a veryLcess'ary feature some sort of slow motion device such as tha *^* g* 
Apparatus Co , Ltd , of London, which compels the operator to start slowly step by step. 1 3ee to it that 
your starter is liberally rated if operating a motor driving a machine which has a heavy fly-wheel effect 
such Ta clinker crusher. Specify that once m every 10 minutes the starter must start the motor against 

P-iod of 60 seconds Such a starter will cost a little more than the standard 


type, but you will be amply repaid by the freedom from breakdown tliat uill icsult Wheie motors <ue 
required to make many starts per hour, automatic starters with push bottom contiol oftei many advantages 
over hand-operated starters, for by their use much time and much wear and tcai on the staiter can be 

For the alternating current work, the oil immersed auto-transformer starter. with no-volt release only 
will be found very suitable, because with it the starting current can be limited to anything you choose, and 
this is an important matter where you generate your own supply, because excessive starting cuiients may 
open the mam circuit breakers in the power house and shut down the whole of youi plant With alternating 
current starters it is advisable to have fuse connections fitted so that the fuses me .short-circuited dm nig 
the starting period 

FIG. 102. Five-wire balancer sot 

For direct current work, the totally enclosed starter with no-volt release only is greatly to b< recom- 
mended, but where this type is too expensive, ventilated resistances may be used, but the Iront should be 
totally enclosed to keep the dust off the contacts Avoid oveiload releases both for alternating and direct 
current work They are troublesome and since they only duplicate the work of the fuses or circuit breakers, 
they are quite unnecessary 

Vehicle Charging About vehicle charging very little need be said Charging by means of a motor 
generator set is a very simple and straightforwaid matter and needs veiy little comment On charging 
from alternating current circuits by means of mercuiy arc lectifieis the writer is not qualified to speak, 
for he has had no experience with this type of plant Vehicle charging by means of a 5-wire balancer was 
the subject of an article by Mr J P Kemp, published in the Eleotno Vehicle in Octobei and December 
1922, and for any information on this subject the leader is referred to that paper. In passing, however, 
it may be said that expenence with 5-wire balancers has pioved that the following points are of import- 


ance (1) That a maximum out-of-balance current of 100 ampeies (i e , a maximum armature current of 
80 amperes) is frequently met with in practice wheie 12 or more vehicles are charged at one station and 
the balancer should be able to cairy this aimature current continuously, (2) that where double-wound 
aimatures are used, owing to the difficulty of arranging a cooling fan on the armature the machine 
should be liberally rated to prevent overheating , (3) that when any armature winding is carrying its full 
load the voltage diop across that armature and its brushes when hot should never exceed 5 volts If it 
is allowed to exceed this figure, then in working, much inconvenience arises from the variation of the voltage 
with the load on each leg , (4) that for laige lead plate battenes (44 cells) 110 volts is not a sufficient pressure 
for charging, 115 volts pressure (460-volt supply) at the least is necessaiy, (5) shunt legulation is very de- 
sirable , (6) that vehicles charged from a 5-wire balancer set should be (and for safety's sake must be) fitted 
with some foim of switching device so arranged that the vehicle cannot be charged unless on both poles the 
motors aie completely isolated electrically from the batteries and from the charging supply , (7) that the 
neutral point itself should not be eaithed Instead, four 220-volt caibon filament lamps should be con- 
nected across the outers and the middle point of these foui lamps should be earthed Under normal work- 
ing, all four lamps will glow similarly, but if an earth occurs on eithei side of the neutial, the pair of lamps 
on the faulty side will go out and the other pair will burn more brightly, thus indicating at once to the 
attendant that theie is an eaith on the ciicmt (See Fig 102 ) 


Supply Voltage If you generate at a piessuie exceeding 240 volts, then for lighting purposes the 
voltage will have to be leduced by a transformer or by a static balancer in the case of an alteinating current 
supply, and by a 3-wne balancei in the case of a direct current supply In all three systems, it will be 
found that there is a paiticular condition of affairs which will anse in every-day working under which the 
voltage on the lamps will fall below normal It should therefore be specified that with the most unfavour- 
able conditions of loading the voltage will not vary by more than 5% from the normal, 

The Wii mg System. In wiring an installation, vulcanised india-iubber cable m screwed conduit is well 
suited for offices, but on works, the writer has come to the conclusion that cab-tyre sheathed cable run 
on boards and piopeily fitted with sealed ceiling roses and junction boxes gives the best results In cost 
there is practically no difference between vulcanised india-rubber cable with screwed conduit, and cab-tyre 
sheathed cable installations. Where it is necessary to use flex of any kind, use cab-tyre sheathed flexible 
cord only It is more expensive but will last many times longer than ordinary cotton-covered flex, par- 
ticularly in a corrosive atmosphere 

Fittings In perfectly dry situations standard tumbler switches and wall plugs aie satisfactory, but if 
there is the least suggestion of moisture, use water-tight fittings only Wall plugs aie very handy things, 
theiefore see that plenty of them are provided 

Fuses. The fuses should be regarded as most important accessories Use a standard size of fuse in 
a cast icon case all over the works, and place your boxes m accessible positions 4 feet or so fiom the floor, 
and not up against the roof or ceiling, as is so frequently done It is foolish to expect a man to get a ladder 
every time a fuse blows and to climb in the dark to some lofty corner of a building to replace it. When- 
ever a lighting en cuit fuse blows m a works it is a serious matter and everything that can be done to quicken 
the restoration of the light should be done, because in those few moments whilst it is dark a man making a 
false step, or slipping, may get caught in some machinery and be injured. Number all the fuse boxes and 
m the power house keep a large chart showing 

(a) The number of every fuse box 

(5) The exact position of every fuse box 

(G) A. list of the cncuits supplied from each box. 

Inside the lid of each box paste another list showing the circuits supplied from each fuse Every man 
on the works then has at his disposal a simple means of finding out where the fuse is that controls any light 
in the works 


Intensity of Illumination In planning extensions to lighting, a very good rule given in Trotter's 
" Elements of Illuminating Engineering " is 

_ Floor Area X Foot Candles 

Candle Powei = g x ^ m ^ of 

and with white-washed ceilings of moderate height and with light-coloured walls, the following illuminations 
will be found satisfactory 

R OOU) Foot Candles. 

Di awing office . ^ 

Office desk ( J 

Workshop ^ 

Tipping sheds -1 * 2 

Depot yards I to 5 

The tendency nowadays is to use in woikshopb a degree of illumination even higher than that given in the 
table above The intensity of illumination should be uniform and fiee from glare, and this result can bo 
best obtained by using properly designed reflectors and frosted or enamelled lamps It must be remembei ed 
that so far as internal lighting is concerned, the illumination obtained is dependent upon the cleanliness of 
the walls and ceilings. For example, if you allow your ceilings to become dirty until equal to No. 2 shade 
of Rmgleman's Smoke Chart (that is, about as grey as a sheet of newspaper viewed at 50 feet) the reflection 
fiom the ceiling will be reduced by some 25% and as a consequence the degree of illumination will be 
materially lessened 


Having touched briefly upon some of the details relating to the generation, distribution and utilisation 
of electrical energy, I will conclude with a few remarks upon the question of maintenance Every day, 
send a man round to blow the dust out of every motor and to clean it, oil it and see that it is in good order 
as fai as can be judged by a visual examination The commutation should bo sparkless, and if it is not 
the cause should be determined and removed. Innumerable tiny white sparks rotating with the com- 
mutator usually indicate that the mica is high and it should be undercut, or tho commutator should be 
rubbed with fine emery cloth The writer has not found glass paper satisfactory as it docs not cut down 
the mica so well as the emery White sparks can usually be stopped by reseating tho brushes or by 
adjusting the brush position, and long green sparks as a rule indicate a broken connection between the 
armature winding and the commutator. The action of the no-volt release on tho starter should be checked 
daily, and at the same time the supply of fuse wire should be replenished if necessary. Every mouth, tho 
insulation resistance to earth of every motor with its starter and supply cable should be taken with a megger 
and if below 100,000 ohms the circuit should bo tested in detail and the fault repaired. Tho carbon 
dust which collects between the connections to the commutator should be removed at the flame time. 
Lighting circuits should be tested similarly. At rarer inteivals, that is to say, only when nooossaiy, brushes 
should be renewed, commutators turned or ground, and the contacts of starters and switches should 
be overhauled It should always be remembered that no electrical installation will run indefinitely with- 
out a breakdown unless it receives regular attention, and if the maintenance is carried out in a systematic 
manner, no very great amount of labour or expense is involved, and much loss from breakdown will be 


WATER comes very neai to being a universal solvent, as very few tilings will not dissolve in it to some 
extent For boiler-feed purposes a vanety of sources of supply is drawn on, such as rivers, canals, ponds 
and so on Generally speaking, such waters at some part of their passage have been in contact with the 
mmeials of the earth and have taken some of these salts into solution Now watei also has the capacity 
of holding the gas, carbon dioxide, in solution, and such a solution is of a weak acid character known as 
eaibomc acid. When, this weakly acid solution comes in contact with limestone and magnesium rocks 
some will be dissolved, and this lesults in the water becoming hard It is so called on account of the 
difficulty in getting soap to lather with such watei. On the other hand, ram water, which contains no 
salts m solution, very easily forms a lather with soap and is spoken of as soft Water containing 
only small quantities of lime and magnesium salts in solution lathois fieely with soap and is likewise called 
soft To measure the degiee of haidness of a water, soap solution is employed. The soap in contact 
with the haid water thiows out of solution 01 precipitates the salts causing the hardness , the greater the 
quantity of such salts present, the greater the quantity of soap solution required. When all the salts have 
thus been thrown out, the water lathers freely Using a standaid soap solution of known stiength, the 
amount of soap required to produce a lather with a specified volume of the water under test can be ascer- 
tained and serves as a measure of hardness The result is then expressed m " degrees of hardness " Each 
degree of hardness corresponds to 1 gram of calcium carbonate per gallon of water Hardness is also 
expressed as parts of calcium carbonate per 100,000 parts of water A water of less than 5 of hardness 
is soft, 20 haidness is moderately hard, above 30 hardness is very hard 

Salts causing Hardness. 

Calcium bicarbonate .... . Ca(HC0 3 ) 2 

Magnesium bicarbonate Mg(HC0 3 ) 2 

Calcium sulphate . . CaS0 4 

Magnesium sulphate . . . MgS0 4 

There are two kinds of hardness 

1. Temporary. 
2 Permanent. 

Temporary hardness is caused by the presence of magnesium and calcium bicarbonates If water 
containing these salts is boiled, the bicarbonate is decomposed and calcium carbonate precipitated. 

Ca(HC0 3 ) 2 = CaC0 3 + H 2 + C0 2 
Bicarbonate Carbonate Water Caibon dioxide 

The water is then soft, but such a method would not do for boiler work, as, irrespective of the expense, 
the boilei would soon be choked with the precipitated carbonate 

Permanent hardness is largely due to the presence of the magnesium and calcium sulphates, and these 
salts cannot be precipitated by boiling 

Boiler Scale. If the salts causing the haidness of water are not removed from the water prior to its use 



m the boilei, owing to certain chemical reactions and the evaporation there taking place, the salts aie 
deposited as " Scale " This scale is a poor conductor of heat, and therefore the boilei efficiency is lowered 
Secondly, the scale and the metal of the boiler have different rates of expansion. If the water in the boiler 
gets low and the metal oveiheats, some of the scale may leave the metal, or the scale may crack, leaving 
the hot metal exposed On cold water now entering, it comes in contact with the hot metal, and owing 
to the sudden geneiation of a laige volume of steam an explosion may occur. 

Conoswn This is usually produced by soft wateis containing oigamc acids in solution from water 
which has been polluted by mmeial acids and by water which contains magnesium 01 calcium chlorides 
and mtiates These lattei salts veiy often aie decomposed in the boiler with the production of mineral 

Softening Boilei Watei Piobably the process most generally used is Clark's As explained, the 
tempoiaiy hardness is due to the presence of the soluble calcium and magnesium bicarbonates If either 
of these caibonates is treated with lime, the insoluble carbonate is precipitated 

Ca(HCO^) 2 + Ca(OH) 2 = 2CaCO a + 2H 2 0, 

hence an analysis of the crude water is first made and the amount of the bicarbonate per 1000 gallons of 
water is found The amount of lime necessary to piecipitate this as carbonate is then added to every 
1000 gallons of water The piocess, of course, is carried out mechanically in a water-softening plant 

Theie now remains the permanent hardness to deal with, due, as already explained, to the sulphates 
of magnesium and calcium 

Again a piecipitation process is used It is found that if sodium carbonate is added to these sulphates 
in solution, the calcium or magnesium is precipitated as an insoluble caibonate and sodium sulphate is left 
in solution 

t CaS0 4 + Na 2 C0 3 = CaC0 3 -f- Na 2 S0 4 

Calcium sulphate Sodram carbonate Calcium carbonate Sodium sulphate 

The presence of a small quantity of sodium sulphate, however, is not objectionable 

The sodium caibonate is usually added as " Soda Ash." Again it is a matter of calculation following 
analysis as to how much soda ash to add per 1000 gallons 

Usually the two operations of the lime water and the soda ash are carried on at the same time in the 
water-softening plant 

So that from the original hard water there is now a considerable precipitate formed of scale-forming 
salts, and before the water is allowed to entei the boiler these precipitates are filtered out. These filters,, 
however, rarely clear the water of the precipitates, and sufficient space should be allowed in the settling 
tank for the remainder to settle out It is very rare to find a softener plant of sufficient size to allow a 
24 hours' supply of boiler water completely to settle out its precipitates, therefore a certain amount of 
scale-forming material finds its way into the boiler 

Colloidal Treatment of Boilei Water This is a method of treating boiler water which is growing m 

A Colloidal Solution is one having a substance m it whose particles are so small as to be only visible by 
the ultramicroscope, and these particles never settle out. If the particles were only m suspension in the 
liquid, then if the liquid were allowed to stand long enough they would ultimately settle out, but the particles 
of a colloidal solution never settle out. Examples of colloids are starch and gelatine. 

Colloids present a very large surface at ea. 

Imagine a substance like calcium carbonate to be powdered as finely as possible. If this were placed 
in some water and shaken up, it would mix with the water and be suspended in it as thousands of tiny 
particles Therefore, each of these tiny particles is exposing a certain surface area to the water. But 
however finely we powdered the carbonate we should never get it so fine as that assumed by a colloid in 
solution Hence the colloid will expose far more surface area 


Adsorption When one substance fixes itself over the suiface of another without being dissolved, the 
phenomenon is spoken of as' adsorption 

Absorption means the solution of one body into another veiy often with chemical reaction 

A colloid is capable of adsorption If, therefore, a colloid is present in sufficient quantity in a boilei 
water, it will adsorb all the solid paiticles of the salts present in the water and as adsorption implies entrance 
into the surface of a colloid, it follows that each particle will be covered by a film of the colloid and will 
be unable to grow any bigger by crystallisation It is now seen how valuable is the large surface aiea 
exposed by the colloid, in that a laige area is exposed for adsorption to take place It will also be appreciated 
that scale cannot form, as scale is crystalline growth All that needs to be known is the total amount of 
solids, say per 1000 gallons of water, and the right amount of colloid added to effect the adsorption 

Enough has now been said to give an elementary idea of the punciple underlying colloidal treatment 
of boilei watei 

The particular colloid used must be such as will not coagulate when the temperature is raised to the 
boiling point of water, otherwise it will be useless m effecting the adsorption of the solids present 



(Eeproduced by courtesy of the Committee, from the Journal of the Royal Samtanf Institute, Vol. XLIX, No 8.) 

To obtain an intelligent conception of the preparation and sale of fertilisers and feeding stuffs, it is 
essential that a few elementary terms used in this connection should be understood 

Broadly speaking, fertilisers can be divided into two classes Organic and Inorganic By an organic 
fertiliser is meant one which is composed of animal, fish or vegetable matter , an inorganic fertiliser being, 
of course, composed of mineral matter. Each class has its own particular use, and whether one or the 
other is used depends entirely on the conditions under which it is to be applied 

All fertilisers, whether organic or inorganic, contain one or more of the three main elements of plant 
food Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potash. Plant life requires all three elements for its growth, but differing 
in their relative proportions according to the plant For example, some plant life requires relatively large 
amounts of nitrogen compared to its requirements of potash and phosphorus , whilst another class of plant 
life may require very little nitrogen and much phosphorus Hence, fertilisers are mixed to provide those 
elements m the necessary proportions to suit particular cases 

Niti ogen is actually a gas, but this gas also enters into the composition of cert ain salts used as f 01 tihsers, 
eg , nitrate of soda (NaN0 3 ), where nitrogen is combined with sodium (Na) and oxygen (0) , ammonium 
sulphate (NH 4 ) 2 S0 4 , where nitrogen is combined with hydrogen (H), sulphur (S) and oxygen Such salts 
as the above are either available for plant food as soon as they are dissolved in the soil water or are quickly 
rendered so by some chemical action with the constituents of the soil. 

Nitrogen occurring as above we may regard as inorganic nitrogen 

On the other hand, nitrogen occurs in many animal and vegetable tissues as a highly complex .series 
of compounds, known as albuminoids One albuminoid may have a formula C 55 H 7 24 N 17 S 5 , where it is 
seen that nitrogen is combined with carbon (C), hydrogen, oxygen, and sulphur. This nitrogen can be 
regarded as Organic Nitrogen Before such nitrogen as this can become available for plant food, this highly 
complex molecule above has to be broken down into a much simpler substance. This change is brought 
about by organisms in the soil known as Nitrifying Bacteria, which by a series of biochemical changes 
produce from the albuminoid matter a simple chemical substance such as a nitrate, 

Now this biochemical change is a form of fermentation and depends on the presence of moisture If 
the applied fertiliser containing the organic nitrogen contains fat or oil in any quantity it is obvious that the 
moisture cannot gain access, with the result that the fermentation is delayed and the food is not easily 
available to the plant. Hence the importance of having a fertiliser as fat free as possible. Fish manure 
and meat manure provide examples of fertilisers containing organic nitrogen. 

Phosphorus In fertilisers this is usually found in combination with lime as calcium, phosphate. Most 
of the naturally occurring phosphates are insoluble or nearly insoluble in water and are therefore not 
immediately available for plant food, but such phosphates can be chemically prepared to render them 
soluble, or after they have been in the ground some time, chemical changes there take place which function 
in the same way Hence in a fertiliser analysis it is usual to find expressed th^ olnMc plio-plin+o- and 
insoluble phosphates, so that we can see how much of the total phosphates is ii'iiiudi.itcU m<iildl>li> as 
plant food and how much will he dormant in the ground for some time before becoming so Examples of 
Phosphatic manures are Basic Slag, Superphosphate and Bone. 



Potassium This occurs m such materials as wood ashes, and banana stalks ; it occurs naturally as 
salts in the great deposits at Stassfurt m Germany These salts aie sold under such trade names as Kamite, 
Sylvinite and so on 

Humus This is a term very frequently used in connection with fertilisers. Humus is the organic 
portion of the soil and serves very largely in retaining moisture and heat, and to bind the loose soil 
particles together In connection with this latter property it is interesting to note that the cementing 
power of humus is eleven times that of clay Humus can be looked on as the decomposition product of 
animal and vegetable tissues, and as such can be supplied to the soil by fertilisers of the farmyard manure 

Albuminoids This is a term met with in a feeding-stuff analysis , it is sometimes spoken of as protein. 
It is an essential constituent of foods 

Fats A brief explanation of a few terms generally used in connection with the evaluating and sale of 
fats may be helpful 

Moisture and Dirt Fats are sold as a rule on a basis of containing less than 2% moisture and dirt, 
hence in the production of fats it is obvious that great care must be taken to see that proper settling of the 
dirt takes place in the clarifying operation and that the fat is subsequently effectively dried 

Sapomfication Value This is the soap-forming value of a fat and forms a basis of sale 

Titre The melting point of the fatty acids The higher the melting point the harder the fat, and 
mce versa Hence a fat of high litre simply means a good hard fat 

Free Fatty Acids. A decomposition product of fats The greater the quantity of free fatty acids present, 
the more rancid the fat and the less value it has A fat can become decomposed in several ways For 
instance, assume that the fat is being produced from condemned meat , the longer the meat is kept before 
treatment the further has putrefaction advanced and the more decomposed the fat has become, hence the 
importance of treating such materials as freshly as possible 

Prolonged heating and contact with steam will produce a similar result, and the importance of this and 
its bearing on the quality of the fat obtained will be appreciated in what follows 

Processes for Otganic Waste Utilisation It is proposed in the following discussion simply and briefly 
to summarise the plant and methods at present in everyday use for the treatment of organic waste from 
the special viewpoint of a Corporation Department 

Digester In many parts of the country this type of plant is still in operation, and in almost every case 
is causing grave nuisance in the surrounding districts owing to the bad smells attendant on this process 
In addition, inferior types of products result from this treatment as compared with those from the modern 
dry process It will be interesting at this point to examine this older process as once practised by the 
Birmingham Corporation Salvage Department 

Two types of digester were employed one using open steam and the other steam-] acketed The results 
m both cases were much the same Carcases of meat were cut up into sizes suitable for introduction 
to the digester and loaded through the charging door on the top of the vessel When fully charged the 
digester was sealed and the steam opened up. The contents were then subjected to the high temperature 
and pressure of the steam some 60 Ib per square inch for 7 or 8 hours. 

During this period, owing to the high temperature and pressure, the fat cells were broken up and the 
fat was libeiated Unfortunately the process did not stop at this point One of the most valuable 
constituents of meat is the protein which it contains, and this protein is soluble m water It is therefore 
obvious that in the digester process the soluble protein will be washed from the meat, and ultimately found 
dissolved in the water At the end of the digestion period, the contents of the vessel were allowed 
to settle undisturbed, ]ust sufficient steam being left on to keep the freed fat m a molten condition 
Situated about a quarter of the way up from the bottom of the digester was a false perforated bottom, and 
during the settling process the liberated fat and aqueous solution of protein settled through this plate to 
the bottom of the digester the fat, of course, remaining as a distinct layer on the top of the protein liquor. 
The solid residue rested on the false bottom Several hours' settling was required, and then a tap was 
opened in the bottom of the digester and the protein liquor run off This liquor was very offensive smelling, 
so one can well imagine the nuisance arising whilst this operation was in progress From the digester the 
liquor was run to large tanks fitted with steam coils and situated on the floor below, where it was partly 


evaporated (again a very offensive process) and ultimately barrelled as a sticky, viscous mass and sold 
for size 

Alternatively, the evaporation could be cairied one stage further in special ovens producing a biowmsh, 
sticky powder which, of comse, commanded a better price As stated above, the valuable constituent of 
the meat was here in the form of liquor or powder, and irrespective of the extra time, labour, and other 
expense of producing it in this condition, its value as size could not be compared to its value if the 
protein matter had remained in the meat In veiy many cases the liquor was not treated at all, but 
simply run away down the dram as useless It seems almost incredible at this time that such waste 
should have been allowed to occur 

When all the liquor had been run off, the fat flow was next commenced, and passed to the floor 
below, where it entered the fat-clarifying tanks These were large wooden vessels fitted with steam coils, 
in which the fat was treated with steam and water, or boiled with acid solutions, in an endeavour to improve 
its quality. No small amount of the liquor was often left entangled with the fat, arid m the open steam 
digestion^ as the fat was subjected to prolonged treatment with hot water, certain chemical changes often 
took place in its composition , these two factors alone resulted 111 the production of rancid, evil-smellm" 
fat which no subsequent treatment ever greatly improved 

Finally, the perforated bottom had to be moved out of the way to allow the charge ol meat to be 
dropped This false bottom was permanently connected to chains, which, through the top charging lid of 
the digester, could be attached to a crane On hauling tip, the false bottom could be pulled clear, allowing 
the solid residue to fall through the bottom door, which had previously been unbolted, and swung clear. 
This was providing one of the chains did not break a not infrequent occurrence in which case a man had 
to descend into the filthy mass and shovel the residue out The solid residue then fell from the digester 
This residue, which naturally was very wet, had to be transferred to another machine for drying , it was 
then ground and bagged, and sold as a fertiliser Kemembering that the bulk of the valuable protein had 
been removed, and that the protein is the souice of the most valuable ingredient in this fertilise!, viz , 
nitrogen, one can appreciate that its analysis was not very high, and consequently it did not command a 
very high price. 

Another type of plant which finds favour in many quarters is the Vacuum Pan System Tins bears 
many points of resemblance to the steam-jacketed digester , in fact, the essential point of the vacuum 
system is a steam-jacketed upright cylindrical pan whereby the contents can ho raised to the required 
temperature and arranged so that during the digestion period the interior is under vacuum usually about 
25 or 26 inches of vacuum are employed The obnoxious vapours produced are usually brought through 
a water condenser, where the bulk of them are condensed and passed to the sewers, the unoondensable 
gases being destroyed in the furnace The object of working under a vacuum is, of course, that lower 
temperatures can be used to accomplish the same object, which means cheaper production and loss loss of 
valuable material Also the vapours as formed are removed, and so prevent any injurious action due to 
prolonged contact of steam with the fat These, of course, are distinct moves in the direction of economy 
and hygiene as contrasted with the older system Finally, when digestion IN complete, the fat and liquor 
are blown out by pressure into settling tanks, where, after standing and cooling some time, the fat IK run 
off Subsequent processes are much the same as in the older method 

The next type of plant which is of interest is the Benzene Pwoess Benzene is an excellent solvent 
for grease and will not mix with water A general idea of the operation of this plant can be gathered 
from Fig 103, which with slight modifications of procedure is the principle adopted in all those plants. 

Tank B is the storage tank for the benzene and is fitted with a steam coil A is the still, also fitted 
with a steam coil, from which the benzene is distilled D is a cooling tank from whence the benzene runs 
to 0, which is the container for the material under treatment This is fitted with steam coil and agitator 
and a condenser, Y, to prevent the escape of benzene vapour Z is a syphon connecting (7 to tank L, which 
is also connected to A Consider a charge of fatty material m to be treated All steam is turned oil 
except that in coil A 

Open taps G, N, Z and Q, the others all being closed, and turn on steam to A. Benzene distils to J), 
where it is condensed and runs to C, where it percolates through the mass of raw material being agitated. 
When the benzene has risen to the height E it syphons into L and A, is open to atmosphere ma Q m 



order to prevent air locks in the system, and benzene vapour is prevented from escaping by means of the 
water condenser at Y While the benzene is m contact with the raw material m C, it exerts a solvent 
action on the fat, which is carried m solution ma the syphon back to the still L Here the benzene is 
distilled off once more and the circuit completed again and again Ultimately a sample of the benzene is 
run from tap S If there is any fat in solution, on test the benzene will show a different density from pure 
benzene If this is the case, the process is continued until a sample taken from S shows the gravity of 
benzene This proves that there is no more fat m the raw material to be extracted, and the distillation 
concludes We are now left with the fat-free raw material in and a little benzene, and a solution of fat 
in benzene in A and L All taps with the exception of X and I are closed and the benzene from C, A and 
L is distilled into the storage tank, B, where it can be condensed by cooling The residue of fat in A can 
now be run off and the solid residue in Q is heated up 
and the agitators set in motion to dry it 

By this process it is almost impossible to eliminate 
a slight odour of the solvent in the finished dry 
product, and users have found that if used as a feeding 
meal for pigs and poultry it is not very palatable. 
The fat also, in many cases is not of the best quality 

In operating a solvent extraction plant it is 
obvious that skilled labour and fairly involved plant 
are required Rigorous rules have to be adhered to 
during its operation to safeguard against any risk of 
fire or explosion, and the annual losses of solvent are 
also very high 

The next process to be described is the one adopted 
in Birmingham, known as the IWEL DRY KENDEBING 
PROCESS, and in the writer's opinion this is the process 
most eminently suited to the needs of municipalities 
In deciding on this type of plant we carefully con- 
sidered its advantages and disadvantages as compared 
with other types of plant Without going into any 
detailed considerations which influenced our views, 
some of which, from what has been stated, will be 
readily deduced, it may be said that it is simple m 
operation, therefore demanding no high order of intelli- 
gence amongst the men this means cheaper labour 
there is no danger, the treatment is economical in 
both time and labour 6 men run the plant , finally 
the upkeep is low 

The raw material as received is tipped m a room 

where the atmosphere is being constantly changed by a suction duct scheme These ducts in the wall 
are connected up to powerful fans which are constantly exhausting the atmosphere, so that any offen- 
sive gases are carried away in the constant inrush of fresh air, and conveyed via the ducts to the hot 
flues of the fires, where at a temperature of about 1500 P they are dissociated and rendered odourless 
prior to passing up the stack to the atmosphere. Care is also paid to the cleanliness of the floor, which 
is swilled down every day and disinfected so that, these precautions being observed, there is no cause for 
complaint about any offensiveness arising here 

The first operation as soon as the load is tipped is its separation into such individual classes of material 
as it contains As previously stated, we divide the raw material into meat, offal, slime and fish In 
addition we collect a considerable quantity of bone from dustbin refuse The carcases of meat are first 
chopped into suitable pieces to pass through a crusher, where they are broken down It is obvious that by 
so preparing the meat, in the subsequent treatment by heat, the cooking is done much more quickly and 
the fat cells are more completely broken down A charge of meat to the melter is about 12 cwts , and 

PIG. 103 Diagram of a benzene fat extraction plant. 


uniformity of charging is secured by having a trolley wagon suitably calibrated for the correct charge of 
every type of material 

The manifolds are prepared for treatment by passing through a cutting machine where rapidly rotating 
knives slice them up finely and the drum underneath conveys the chopped material to the trolley It is 
then mixed with the intestines and is ready for charging House refuse bones are prepared by crashing in 
the bone crusher, whilst fish receives no preliminary treatment Slime as we receive it is an evil-smelling, 
emulsified mass, from which it seems impossible to separate the water effectively by any mechanical means 
When it is known that 2 tons of slime as we get it usually contain about 1 ton 18 cwts of water, it will be 
understood that it would not pay to evaporate all this water Yet there is a very simple solution. The 
solid part of the slime is albuminous in character, and, chemically speaking, is analogous to the white of 
an egg, although, of course, it looks totally different If an egg is boiled, the white or albumen sets hard 
So with slime, if it is boiled for about |- hour, it coagulates into a rubbery mass which can easily be lifted 
away from its watery partnership and transferred to the melter for cooking 

Birmingham is in the happy position of being able to discharge the noxious fumes direct to the incinerator 
flues, but where these are not available, a suitable condensing plant is fitted, and the varpour condensed in 
this,' the non-condensable vapours aie carried to the boiler flue or chimney and in some cases to the 

The plant proper is situated on the floor below and consists of nine melters, ^.e , the machines in which 
the raw material is treated, three fat extractors, fat clarifying tanks, and the plant m which the dry products 
are finally ground to powder Before entering into the actual working operations, it will be advisable to 
give some description of the plant 

First of all, the actual treatment of the raw material takes place in a machine known as a melter, which 
is a cylindrical steam-jacketed vessel, fitted with safety valve and steam trap The working pressure is 
80 Ib per square inch Down the centre of the machine is a square shaft to which are attached beater 
arms, driven by the fast and loose pulley which can be brought into operation by means of a lever Situated 
at the front of the machine is the charging hopper for the raw material, and immediately below it the testing 
door, from which a sample of the charge can be examined from time to time Lower down on the front 
of the machine is the discharging door, through which the finished product is extracted, and in the door 
itself is a pipe, the object of which is to release the bulk of the fat from the charge. Attached to the hopper 
is a flange to which is fitted the pipe giving exit to the water vapour and obnoxious gases produced during 

The actual plant is immediately under the tipping floor. Fume pipes, connected to fans, convey the 
obnoxious gases Each of the melters opens to a common fume pipe. The fans constantly extract the 
gases and pass them to the flues of the furnaces Thus the charge in the machine is cooked more 
rapidly, as no water vapour is allowed to remain m contact with it, and at the same time the operation 
can be conducted without nuisance m that no offensive smell can escape to the atmosphere. In addition, 
the atmosphere of this room is connected to the ventilation ducts in exactly the same manner as in the 
tipping room. 

For the purpose of following the method of treatment, let us assume that a charge of 12 cwts of meat 
has been fed into a melter The steam is turned on to the melter jacket and the beater arms are set in 
motion This results m the contents of the machine being constantly stirred up and forced in thin layers 
against the hot plates of the shell. The temperature gradually rises, the water is evaporated and the fat 
cells burst So that soon the original raw meat is broken down and is a more or loss dry, lurnpy mass, 
floating in fat, the temperature constantly rises, and it has been found that if the contents of the melter 
are discharged at a temperature of 248 F. the best quality products are obtained. This temperature 
applies to fatty material only. 

The steam consumed during this cooking operation is on the average about 1 ton per ton of raw material 
treated. The chaige of meat we are considering takes about 2 hours to finish, and after running oil the 
bulk of the fat through a cock in the discharging door, the solid product itself is partly discharged auto- 
matically by rotating the beater arms, and partly raked out into suitable vessels The fat run off is trans- 
i erred to the clarifying tanks and the solid residue is then subjected to fat extraction. For this purpose 
a turbine centrifugal fat extractor is employed, and it would be advisable at this stage to examine the 
structure of this machine 


This consists of an outer steel vessel with a hinged lid Inside is a peiforated steel cyhndei, known as 
a rotor, free to rotate on ball bearings Attached to the bottom of the rotor are a number of small vanes, 
and on to these impinge two steam jets. A pressure of 90 Ib of steam exists at the jet, and the steam 
playing on these vanes causes the rotor to revolve rapidly, so that four minutes after starting up it is 
whizzing round at 800 r p rn A charge of the meat weighing about 1 to I 1 cwts is loaded into a peiforated 
steel basket lined with a filter cloth, the basket is placed inside the perforated rotor, and the machine closed 
down. Steam is turned on, and owing to the rapid revolution of the basket, the contents are subjected 
to an extremely high pressure due to centrifugal force This combined with the heat of the steam causes 
the fat to be squeezed out of the meat and to flow through the filter cloth, the perforated basket and the 
perforated rotor into the space surrounding the latter, whence it issues fiom the machine via a pipe After 
twenty minutes' fat extraction, the brake is applied to stop the machine, the latter opened up and the 
basket removed The contents are spread on the floor to cool, and aie then ready foi subsequent grinding 
down to a powder. The fat so secured is transfeired to fat-clarifying tanks, where it is purified and finally 
run off into barrels The tanks are fitted with steam coils , to this fat is added a quantity of water, and 
the whole boiled up for some time and allowed to settle. The wash water, together with the impmities 
washed out of the fat, is then run off After this process has been repeated once or twice, most of the 
impurities will have been earned away The fat is then heated up without the addition of water, for the 
pui)ose of driving off any remaining moistuie This process is impoitant in that two of the factors on 
which a fat is sold depend on the moistuie and dut content The bulk of this fat is sold for soap and 
candle-making and 70 to 80 tons per annum are so produced by the Birmingham Salvage Department 

Comparing this treatment of meat with digester treatment, we see that in the Iwel piocess 

(1) Owing to the watei vapour being removed by suction as it is formed, the protein matter is not 
dissolved out and therefore a higher percentage of product is obtained 

(2) We may therefore regard the heat of the melter as " dry " heat, which results in the protein 
matter " setting " in the same way as the white of an egg, and then becoming insoluble in watei We 
are therefore preserving in the meat, where it is wanted, its most valuable constituent 

(3) In the same way, the fat is not kept in contact with hot water and steam as in the digester 
process, which again preserves the fat value in that it is of good colour and high titre, and is much 
lower in free fatty acids. 

The offal treatment vanes somewhat from the above procedure The raw material is sepaiated into 
two grades : 

(1) That portion which contains a fair amount of fatty tissue and will therefore pay for fat 

(2) The non-fatty portion 

The fatty portion is treated in the same way as meat, whereas the non-fatty offal is simply cooked in 
tiro melter until it is dried, and is then ready for its final treatment prior to selling. 

As the fatty offal is treated with the rngesta intact, and as this ingesta consists veiy largely of undigested 
food, mainly grass fibre, the green colouring matter of the latter, known as chlorophyll, is very prominent 
in the resulting product. Unfortunately, this green colouring matter stains the fat produced from the 
offal, and this fat is often a deep green colour However, this is not very important, as the colour ultimately 
disappears in the manufacturing processes for which this fat is used, but at the same time it is of advantage 
to the buyer rn that he can offer a lower price owing to the colour 

The slime, after the preliminary coagulation treatment, previously described, is usually added in with 
a meat charge as the final product, although much richer than meat, rn other features it closely resembles 
it. Fish is likewise divided into two classes : 

(1) Oily such as herrings, mackerel, etc. 

(2) Non-oily all the white fish 

The first class is treated in the melter, and the oil then extracted in the turbine extractors, and the 
latter class simply dried down to a powder in the melter without any oil extraction. Fish oil is thus another 


valuable product, being extensively used in industry for currying leather, adulterating paint oils, steel 
tempering, soft soap manufacture, and linoleum making This extraction of oil and fat is both an economic 
and an essential operation As the solid products are used for either fertiliser or feeding-stuffs, if the fat 
or oil is left in, it is sold at the price realised for the fertiliser The fat taken horn the solid product sells 
at thiee or four times this value Again, if fish oil is left m the fish in any quantity, the resultant fish meal 
is degraded for feeding purposes, and sometimes causes considerable trouble and loss amongst the stock 
fed with it. In the case of feitihsers, fat left in these resists the action of the water in the soil, with the 
result that the decay of the fertiliser and its consequent fertilising action are seriously delayed, in 
addition to which the fat under certain conditions exercises a souring and poisonous effect on the soil 

Duung the treatment of bones the liberation of the fat is rather a difficult matter, and the efficacy 
of the operation is largely dependent on how finely they are crushed prior to treatment in the me! tor Tn 
any case, it is necessary to raise the temperature higher than m the case of the other raw material In the 
case of, say, offal, although the pressure of steam m the melter jacket results in a temperature of 162 (J , 
this temperature is not attained by the offal under treatment, foi as long as there is water present the 
temperature will not rise above 100 C. Theiefore, in the case of streetcr bones, which are fanly dry in 
the first instance, a quantity of fat is added to the charge in the melter, and this results in their being cooked 
at a higher temperature, and consequently the running of the bone fat is facilitated The subsequent fat 
extiaction results in an inferior grade of fat being pioduced, -which is kept separate from the best meat fat. 
Old Streeter Bones always present a somewhat difficult problem to the Dry .Rendering Process, although 
the new " Laabs Process " overcomes this. At the same time, a number of Municipal Salvage Departments 
dispose of the bones sorted from household refuse to such large concerns as British Glues and Chemicals, 
Limited There is a steady demand from such firms, who, on account of the intensive processes employed, 
and the diversity of products extracted, such as fats, greases, glues, fertilisers, feeding meals, etc , etc., 
are able to pay prices which often show a more satisfactory return than can be obtained by Departments 
treating the bones themselves 

It is not generally realised that bones form the raw material of a large industry, and that the efficient 
sorting of bones, and supply to the trade, aie of national benefit 

Keveitrng now to the treatment of offal, it must be icmembcred that the stomachs arid intestines nro 
treated ]ust as received, with all the manunal matter or ingesta still m them The resulting dry product 
is used for a fertiliser On opening up a manifold, the mgesta can be seen as a green-looking material 
the green colour being produced by the chlorophyll m the grass which the beast has eaten. Now the mgeafca 
of the offal is largely undigested food, grass, etc , and a large quantity of water; therefore this part of the 
offal contains very little of fertilising value The main value of the oital lies in the stomach and intestine 
walls. Before treatment, the offal should therefore be cleansed of all this useless material and only the 
valuable part used Obviously far less material is treated, which means less treatment expenditure, and 
although we receive less dry product it is far more valuable. Experience shows that out of 1500 tons ol 
offal no less than 1000 tons consist of this comparatively useless mgesta. The taw offal IH passed through 
the cutting machine previously mentioned, which finely divides it, and it is then fed ink) an oflal washing 
machine This consists of a long cylindncal perforated vessel slowly rotated by a chain drive The 
cutting machine delivers the prepared offal into one end. Inside the machine near the to}) is fitted a 
perforated water pipe capable of delivering a fairly fierce spray of water. The machine, has a gentle slope 
away from, the feed end, and as it rotates, the finely divided offal passes along under the water spray. 
Large quantities of water are thus swilled around the offal, and the ingesta rapidly mixes with it and 
passes through the perforations, the cleared portion passing along the cylinder, and is finally discharged 
at the lower end, when it is ready for treatment and is subjected to the same process as meal/. 

It is extremely important in the treatment of the various classes of raw material that fertilisers should 
be kept entirely clear of feeding stuffs, and feeding stuffs not allowed to contaminate each other. For 
instance, most meat meals and fish meals are required to be of nice light brown colour, and contamina- 
tion with a dark coloured fertiliser would degrade this Fish, meal must not come in contact with moat 
meal, or buyers quickly protest. For these reasons, certain melters are kept for meat only, some for fish 
only, and the rest reserved for fertilisers From the condemned carcases, meat and bone meal is produced ; 
the fish provides fish meal certain qualities of fish are turned into fish manure , offal is turned into a 
fertiliser, as is also the streeter bone. 


From meat, 30% of meat and bone meal is produced, together -with. 12 to 15% of fat, fish gives 26% 
of meal and varying quantities of oil, offal yields 25% oi fertiliser and varying quantities of fat, slime 
gives about a 5% recovery of its total weight, but it will be lemembered that its total weight includes a 
huge percentage of water which is not treated Bone produces 70% of fertiliser, together with some 10% 
of fat, the recovery vaiying veiy much with the quality of the bone So that from slaughterhouse and 
market waste there aie produced two feeding meals, a fertiliser, fat and fish oil 

Grinding So fai, in the course of treatment of this waste we have only got as far as nielter tieatment 
and fat extraction In all cases, the solid product is now leady for its last phase of treatment Meat 
and bones are directly ground to a fine pioduct the former for a feeding meal and the lattei for a fertiliser 
Fish as we receive it contains such foieign matter as shells, hooks, weights, glass, wood and so on, which 
it would be hopeless to sort Hence, after melter treatment and fat extraction, before being finally ground 
up, all this foreign matter is screened from it by means of a shaking screen The puie fish which passes 
through the screen is then ground up for a feeding meal The foreign matter, which passes off the screen 
as the tailings, naturally contains quite an appreciable amount of fish Hence these tailings are not wasted, 
but ground up in a suitable mill into a low giade fertihsei, the principal ingredients being shell and fish 

Offal, as at present treated, contains, of couise, all the ingesta, and the offal fertiliser comes fiom the 
melter as a mixture of hauy-loolung material and a dark powder The hairy-looking material is the 
undigested fibrous portion of the beasts' food , the dark powder is mainly the meaty portion of the offal, 
discoloured by the chlorophyll If left in this condition the faimer experiences gieat difficulty in using it, 
as owing to the hairy material clogging his machine he cannot drill it Hence the two portions are separated 
on the shaking scieen, the powder which passes through being bagged separately The hairy tailings are 
also bagged and sold as a feitiliser for hops and fruit, for which it is eminently suitable 

We now logically come to the process of grinding down the meals The material to be ground is tipped 
on to the floor and then shovelled into a hopper below At the bottom of the hoppei is an endless belt 
working over two rollers back and front, and moving forward As it slowly travels forward it carries with 
it the material in the hopper, and at the end of its tiavel delivers it in a umfoim stream into a large funnel 
which gives access to a pipe At the end of the pipe is a high-speed blowing fan projecting an air stream 
up the pipe with a velocity of 50 m p h As the material to be ground, say meat, enters this an stream, 
it is carried forward along the pipe to the top of the building, where the grinding plant is situated Now 
any pieces of iron which may be invisibly entangled with the meat, when they leach this bend in the pipe 3 
owing to their large weight and comparatively small volume, are not carried any furthei, but remain at 
the bend Hence they cannot reach the grinding machines and probably wreck them. A hinged door is 
placed on the pipe at this bend, and occasionally the operator opens it and allows whatever has accumulated 
to fall out The pipe dehveis the meat into a cone-shaped arrangement known as a cyclone The 
function of this is to dissipate the air blast, which it achieves by a mechanical airangement, and thus 
prevents dust , the meat therefore falls down the cyclone by gravity and enters the top gunding machine. 
This grinding machine is of the hammer mill type, and its function is to break down the larger pieces of 
meat The mill delivers the roughly ground meat down a pipe to the next machine, where it is veiy finely 
giound, whence it passes down a chute to meet a bucket elevator The bucket elevator consists of a moving 
endless belt to which are attached a number of small buckets, each of which picks up its quota of ground 
meat from the boot of the elevator and passes it on to the rotary screen. This screen is merely a rotating 
cylinder of wire meshing 12 holes to the inch, which allows to pass that portion of the meat which has been 
sufficiently finely ground, and delivers it into the bags attached to the bottom of the case The tailings 
are delivered separately at the end of the machine, and go through the whole process again until they are 
sufficiently fine The bags are then weighed up in cwts , stitched, and can be delivered down the chute to 
the waiting transport wagon below 

If the ground material is not immediately required for sale, instead of bagging it, it can be transferred 
to a store-room by shutting a valve which closes the way to the grinding machines and opens another air- 
conveying path direct to the store-room. The ground mateiial is then fed through a hopper in the flue 
into the air pipe, and so transferred to the store-room. Cyclones dissipate the an blast, and as there are 
four large bays to accommodate the different classes of material, meat meal, say, can be blown to its 
appropriate heap by closing the valves to the other three cyclones, and only leaving open the one over 
the meat meal bay In connection with this large store-room I should point out that the fertiliser trade 


is seasonal in character, as will "be understood, therefore we have to make provision for storing laigo 
quantities of fertiliser in readiness for the selling season, and this store-room in addition to one other, moots 
our requirements In connection with a large by-product plant of this character, a laboratory is a most 
valuable ad]unct Stringent regulations under the Fertilisers and Feeding Stuffs Act require that all 
feeding stuffs and fertilisers shall be sold under definite guarantees of quality as indicated by their analysis. 
This implies the frequent analysis of all products sold, and also reacts to the advantage of the producer 
m that, knowing the exact analysis of the product, he is in a position to secure the best market value 

Iii addition to this bide of the work, laboratory control of the various manufacturing operations reveals 
errors in treatment and tends to secure uniformity of production Also, many problems arise in this work 
whose solutions can only be found in the chemist's laboratory the study of the fats alone, and their methods 
of production and treatment is an immense science In the Birmingham Salvage Department's laboratory, 
all this analytical work is accomplished and the various problems arising receive attention 

Let me give one very simple illustration of the value of laboratory control Suppose one of the moltors 
springs a tiny leak in the steam jacket, under our system of sampling this would be at once revealed, as 
the moistuie test in the laboiatoiy would show up much higher than usual The cause of this high moisture 
is at once sought and tracked to its souice The leak is found and repaired at once, instead of being 
allowed to become steadily worse Without this system the fust notification of something wrong might 
occui weeks later, when some buyei raises a protest against the quality of the product, or the product is 
found to be going bad, and probably by this time the originally small lepaii has assumed large proportions 

The fertilisers are sold on what is known as the " unit basis," by which is meant the respective per- 
centages of the various fertilising constituents. There are the nitrogen, phosphates and potash, and the 
prices of these different constituents fluctuate from week to week At the moment., mtiogcn IB woith 12s. 
per unit, which means that every 1% of nitiogen per ton of fertiliser is worth 12s Phosphates are worth 
Is Wd pei unit, potash about 3s Qd per unit The principal fertilisers sold by the Bimimgham 
Corporation Salvage Department are fish manuie, slaughterhouse manure and bone manure 

The ^sh Manui e has the following average analysis 

Moisture ... 83% Total phosphates 19 0% 

Organic matter . 674'% Potash 0-5% 

Ash , 24-3% Nitrogen 9% = Ammonia 11-0% 

SlaugJitet house Manuie, i e , the fertiliser made from offal 

Moisture . 7-6% Total phosphates 0-0% 

Organic matter 827% Potash . 0-5% 

Ash . 9-7% Nitrogen 6% . = Ammonia 7 2% 

Bone Manuie 

Moisture . 5-8% Phosphates . . 400% 

Organic mattei 402% Nitrogen . . J5 0% 

Ash . 540% Ammonia (5-1% 

These manures are purchased by local farmers and gardeners, in addition to which considerable trade 
is done with wholesale buyers 

The feeding meals produced are extensively used in the feeding of pigs and poultry. Much controversy 
exists about the question of the advisability of feeding fish meal to pigs and poultry, on the ground that 
it taints the flesh and eggs respectively, and in some cases even causes loss of stock. Now in the writer's 
opinion the principle is not at fault, but there is, and I suppose always will be, a large number of inferior 
meals on the market, and the average buyer is not m the position to determine the actual quality of a 
meal. Although a meal may have a perfect appearance in that it is a good colour, finely ground and so 
on, it does not follow that it is a good rneal to feed to stock As far as has been ascertained at present, the 
offending constituent in fish meal is the oil, meals with a high percentage of oil are not suitable for feeding 


purposes Those who have had the oppoitumty of smelling fish oil will know that it has a particulaily 
pungent odour and they will therefore appreciate this point A further factor which has antagonised many 
users of fish meal lies duectly under their own contiol This type of user commences by using an excellent 
meal and according to msti notions, viz , that he shall mix a certain percentage with the rest of the food 
ration He achieves excellent results and then proceeds to argue illogically that as a little has done so 
much good, a lot will do so much better. He cames this fallacious aigument into practice, attains ill 
results, and at once condemns fish meal instead of himself A good quality fish meal, used in the proper 
proportion, does give excellent results, as far as the writer's experience goes, and other chemists who have 
conducted feeding tuals on sound lines are m agieement with this First, it is essential that a good quality 
product should be insisted upon, especial attention being given to a low oil content, say 5% at the most. 
Secondly, m the wntei's expenence not moie than 6 to 7% of the total feed should be used, and if this be 
followed out, no ill lesults need be anticipated 

The writer cannot pietend, of couise, to discuss such a huge sub]ect heie as the science of feeding such 
meals and the various food values of the different ingredients Briefly, all that can be said is that the 
essential feeding value in meat and fish meals lies in the albuminoids, the fat, the rnmeial matter and the 
carbohydrates Each has its own particular value to the animal organism, but it has been discoveied 
that the proportions relative to each other of these three items have a large bearing on the results obtained. 
For instance, on the proportion which the albuminoids bear to the carbohydrates will depend the 
digestibility of the albuminoids, and on this factor will depend how much of the food is used, and how 
much will be wasted. The mineral matter also has a very important bearing on the value of a food, yet 
this is often a factor entirely ignored The animal utilises this mineral matter in two ways 

1 As formative materials for the bones, teeth, etc 

2 As necessary for various physiological processes, e g , the blood contains iron , the saliva, gastric 
juice, etc , contain potassium Chlorine and hydrogen are ingredients of the gastric ]uice and the 
thyioid gland contains iodine 

An analysis of the meat meal as produced by the Birmingham Corporation Salvage Department is as 
follows . 

Moisture . . 85% Ash . . . 200% 

Fat ... 12 0% Nitrogen . 8 2% = NH 3 10 0% 

Albuminoids .... 513% Phosphates . . 157% 

It is interesting to compare this analysis with one of a meat product produced under the old digester 

Moisture . . . .40% Ash .... 37-6% 

Fat . 24 5% Nitrogen . . 4-7% = 5-7% Ammonia 

Albuminoids . . 29-2% Phosphates .... 30-28% 

Reckoned on the unit basis, the difference in value is at once seen; in addition, the meat meal is of a 
golden-biown colour, and can be used for feeding whereas the digester product was almost black, vile 
smelling, and could only be used as a fertiliser It will be appreciated, of course, that higher prices can 
be commanded for feeding meals than for fertilisers. 

Actually the meat meal as sold is much richer than the above analysis would indicate, as it is mixed 
with the extremely rich product of the slime 

The slime analysis is as follows 

Moisture . . 7-8% Ash . . . . 104% 

Fat . . 9-9% Nitrogen . 10-3% = 12 5% Ammonia 

Albuminoids . . 64-4% Phosphates . 6-0% 


When this material is mixed with the pure meat meal, the result pioduoed analyses as follows 

Moisture 95% Ash . 193% 

Pat 12 8% Nitrogen 9 0% = 11 0% Ammonia 

Albuminoids 563% Phosphates 176% 

which indicates a meat and bone meal of high quality 

The question is sometimes laised legaidmg the sterility of these products as they aie used for feeding 
puiposes Bacteriological tests which we have conducted have never indicated the presence of any living 
viiulent organism, and although such tests are not absolutely conclusive evidence, taken in conjunction 
with the fact that these meals are subjected to a high temperature for several hours, the writer thinks 
little doubt remains as to their complete sterilisation The only conclusive evidence would be actual 
feeding tests combined with bactenological diagnosis, and as the meals are being fed daily to animals and 
birds with beneficial results, little doubt can be entertained as to their being sterilised 

Animals which have succumbed to or are known to be suffering from such diseases as anthiax and 
swine fever are not treated by this plant at all, but destroyed by fire in a special cremator maintained 
for this purpose, although the writer understands that in Holland they are seriously contemplating 
treating even such carcases as these in a similar plant 

Laabs Process. 

For a considerable period it has been felt that despite its manifest faults, amongst the principles employed 
in the digester process there were several of undoubted advantage If therefore we could eliminate the faults 
whilst retaining the advantages and at the same time we could incorporate the obvious advantages of the dry 
rendeung process, then I think it will be agreed a very efficient combination will have been secured This 
dieam has, I understand, now materiahsed, and we have in the Laabs Process an extremely inteiestmg and 
efficient machine for the treatment of organic waste 

In outwaid appearance the Laabs machine is very similar to the ordinary melter, being a steam-jacketed 
cylindrical vessel fitted with the usual agitator shaft. The essential difference lies in the fact that it is 
constructed to withstand the high pressures chaiacteristic of the digester process, and is safe for a piessuie 
up to 100 Ibs per square inch In the ordinary digester process the raw material under treatment is digested 
and disintegrated by steam pressure and agitated by live steam being blown throxigh the tank. In the Laabs 
process no live steam is blown into the material being rendered. The raw material is heated by steam in the 
jacketed shell and steam generated from the products being treated This generated steam is continuously 
allowed to escape fiom the machine, but the amount escaping is retaided. The steam IB produced inside 
faster than it escapes, and a pressure therefore develops The usual working pressure thus developed is 
about 40 Ibs to the square inch, and under the combined influence of this and the agitator shaft, 
disintegration of the largest bones will be accomplished in from one to two hours. It IB obvious, therefore, 
that no preliminary crushing of the raw material is necessary, as in the ordinary dry rendering process ; in 
consequence large sides of meat can be charged directly to the machine 

This ends the preliminary operation the pressure period. We now come to the vacuum period The 
object of this is to remove the last traces of moisture in the material under treatment without daikcning the 
colour of the fat or allowing it to become contaminated with the albuminous or gluey material. In 
ordinary dry rendering, the high temperatures, as already stated, are detrimental to animal fats. This applies 
particularly when such other materials as bones or certain fibrous products containing protein matter arc 
present As drying proceeds, the gluey material parts from the water which is driven off, and if the fat present 
is hot it will absorb much of the freed gluey matter with consequent degradation of the fat ; on the other hand, 
at lower temperatures this absorption does not take place It therefore becomes necessary to remove the 
moisture at a low temperature and this can be accomplished by lowering the steam pressure in the shell and 
maintaining a vacuum in the interior. 

As a result of using this process, it has been established that the dry residue is 50 per cent, 
more in weight than from digesters and has a much higher protein content, analysing 75 per cent more in 
ammonia The product is of good odour and colour, and has an, average protein digestibility of over 95 per 
cent Similarly, the fat is of excellent colour, high titre, low free fatty acids and keeps well. 


THE materials generally used in constructional work are as follows 

Cement and limes 

Various aggregates for making concrete 

Bricks and stones 

Lead, iron, steel. 


Slates (natural and artificial), tiles. 


Earthenware drain pipes, etc 



Cement Two kinds of cement are generally used, the ordinary Butish Standard Portland Cement, 
which takes from four to six weeks to complete its setting, and the New Rapid Setting Cement, 
which is a fairly recent invention and which will give the same results at the end of three days as the 
ordinary cement will give in a month. 

During the building of the Birmingham Corporation Salvage Department's Brookvale Road Depot, 
most of the f erro-concrete piles used in the foundation work were made with ordinary cement, but six of 
them were made with the new cement, and these were cast or moulded on Monday morning before noon, 
and were driven on the following Wednesday without any trouble or sign of fracture , in fact, during 
excavation work two months later, two of them were exposed, and they were found to be in perfect condition. 

To convey some idea of the strength of these piles, the following mfoimation is given 

The weight of the monkey or hammer was 2 tons 

The average number of blows per pile was 300, and the free fall of the monkey 1 foot 6 inches, although 
falls of 3 feet and 3 feet 6 inches were frequently given For the final test the last ten blows of the monkey 
had not to sink the pile more than | inch 

All the piles were driven to this test. 

The greatest objection to this cement is that the cost is nearly double that of ordinary 

Conoi ete Work : The usual mixture used for work in the Birmingham Salvage Department is 1 cubic 
yard of gravel, broken bricks or clinker, evenly graded from 1 to J inch, \ cubic yard of fine ashes or sand, 
and 6 cwts of cement made to the requirements of the British Standard Specification, and any cement 
which will pass the various tests of this specification will be quite satisfactory in ordinary use. 

The above amounts will give 33 cubic feet of finished concrete 

The most important thing to watch in concrete work is to get a full and solid mass with no hollows 
or voids, and to do this it is necessary to ram it hard during the filling, and all concrete should be placed 
in its final position and not touched again within twenty minutes of being mixed. 

Excessive water makes the ramming easier, but the resulting concrete is very much weaker For a 
rough test of the proper amount of water to use, take a handful of the mixture, and it should be possible 
to make a ball of it similar to the making of a snowball. 



The amount of cement required to be used depends upon the size of the aggregate; sufficient cement 
must be used to give a coating to eveiy piece of material used, otherwise there will be no adhesion 
the smaller the materials the moie cement to he used, as the outei area of a large number of small 
stones, etc , is greater than that of a smallei number filling up the same cubic capacity 

A good practical way of finding the amount of cement to be used in a mixing is to fill a measured 
receptacle with ballast, then pour in. water until it overflows, afterwards drain oil the water, find its 
volume, and use the same amount of mortar made of 1 part of cement to 2 paits of sand, each by measure 

It is essential that all concrete should be mixed thoroughly, and the most important mixings are 
the first three times turning ovei diy, as the cement falls on to the giavel and sand and a, thin layer stops 
on each piece, whereas a wet ball of cement will probably never break, and the cement will there foie be 
used as a filling and not as a cementing material foi the other parts 

Two wet mixings are sufficient 

Machine mixing in an efficient nuxei is the best, one of the reasons being that the machine does not 
get tired, and gives equal consistency all the day long 

In the Hennebique specification foi lemforced conciete, an addition of 10% of cement must be made 
if hand mixing is allowed 

Portland cement is a mixtuie of lime and clay giound in water to a fine slurry, dried and burnt, to a 
hard clmkei This is le-ground to such a fineness that not moie than 10% [ails to pass through a sieve 
containing 32,400 meshes to the squaie inch 

The following are the results of two recent tests 

1. Test taken April 1927, on England Cement. 

Fmeness Percentage left on S1 eve 5776 meshes to squaie inch { Specification not to exceed K)% 
^ [Actual 0-12% 

Percentage left on sieve 32,400 meshes to square inch /Specification 10 ()% 

[Actual ... o 00 /o 

Qmok tilow, 

Setting Times Specification not less than . 5 mins. 30 mins. 

Actual _ i ] U '. 40 nuns. 

Final Set. Specification not moie than 30 mins. 10 hrs. 

Actual . 3 hrs, 15 mins 

Test on Holberough Cement, February 1927 

Fineness. Eesidue on 180 X 180 Sieve 2\S% 

Setting Time Initial 145 mms. 

Final . . 3 l ms , 20 mins. 

Mortat Ordinary mortar is formed by mixing together lime, sand and water, and is thai, ordinarily 
used for general work, for bedding bricks and stones. The mortar made by the Birmingham Salvage 
Department is of good quality, and is suitable for factory building, foundation work, etc., and as it is 
made with hydrauhc lime it is extremely valuable in damp situations or in positions UH exposed to the air. 

Best woik nowdays is usually executed with mortar composed of Portland cement and sand (eompo), 
and it is always specified wheie great strength is required. 

In furnace work the above mixtures are not suitable. A cementing material called fireclay is used instead, 
and this clay is usually mined from the same bed as the clay used for making firebricks. The hitter are 
set with as fine a joint as possible, the firebricks being dipped in a mixture of the consistency of cream, 
and the key bricks gently hammered into position. 

The heat generated in the furnace burns the whole woik into a solid mass. 

When used for plaster work, the mortar should be composed of a fatty lime such as Buxton. For the 
finishing coat, adamant or plaster of Pans is good and sets very quickly. 

Keen's cement should be used for all external angles. 


Bi icJcs The local bricks as used m Birmingham are 

(1) The ordmai y common red building brick 

(2) The famous Staffordshire blue and brindled bricks which are used where great durability and 
strength are required 

(3) Firebricks, usually fiom the Stourbudge distuct. These bricks are very suitable for furnace 

Firebricks are used for the linings of all cells 3 flues, chimneys, etc , and aie also used to protect ordinary 
bricks from direct flames or high temperatures 

Bond When laying bricks., great care should be taken to arrange them in such a manner as will prevent 
the occurrence of continuous vertical joints. The lap should be even, so that the different portions of the 
wall are well tied or bonded together 

There are various methods of bonding, but these are dealt with in the chapter on building constiuction. 

Damp-pi oof Cowses These aie inserted to prevent damp rising from, the ground by capillary 
attiaction to walls and rooms 

There are various materials used for this purpose, the best being sheet lead, but this is too expensive, 
except in cathedrals and buildings of a like nature 

Two courses of slates with lapped joints and bedded in cement moitar are good, and some of the 
various bitumen damp courses aie excellent, but caie must be taken that these are of such a nature that 
they do not crack m wmtei 01 soften in summer 

Natural asphalt makes a good damp course. 

Lead Lead is a metal largely used in building work for covering flat loofs, lining cisterns, for gutters, 
pipes, flashings, ridge coveimgs, and soakers. 

This metal is very soft and malleable, very easily melted, but has little tensile strength It adapts itself 
readily to any irregularity between surfaces, and is very often used between the bottom flange of a 
girder and the bearing stone It can be obtained in the forms known as cast lead or milled lead, the 
litter being more often used, though it is not quite so durable as cast lead 

The use of lead is specified by its weight per square foot, that weighing 6 Ib per square foot being used 
for gutters and good flat roofs, whilst 4 Ib. lead is quite suitable for top flashings. 

It on 'This metal exists in three states, viz , cast iron, wrought iron, and mild steel. 

In the manufacture of cast iron, iron ores are first smelted in a blast furnace. The slag, consisting of 
impurities, floats on the top of the charge and is run off, and the metal, which owing to its greater 
weight sinks to the bottom of the furnace, is run into sand troughs, forming, when cold, the crude pig 

Cast iron is obtained by remeltmg the pig iron, and then forming castings which may be of any shape 
by running the molten metal into moulds of sand 

This metal is used for innumerable purposes, i e columns, engine beds, engine cylinders, fly-wheels, 
tooth- wheels , and in refuse disposal plant work furnace doors, fire-bars, furnace fronts, furnace 
grates, dampers and balance weights, etc. 

Where the heat of a fuinace impinges directly upon it, cast iron is much better than either wrought 
iron or steel, as it resists distortion 

Oast iron has little tensile strength and cannot be bent, but its compressive strength is very great, which 
makes it an ideal metal foi large beaung blocks for bridges On buildings, rain-water pipes, tanks, gutters 
and various covers are all made of this useful material It is brittle and when it breaks, gives way suddenly, 
and without warning. 

Malleable Iron Malleable cast iron is iron which has been annealed and partly decarbonised by 
being heated in contact with some oxidising material in an annealing oven 

It is much moie tensile than cast uon, and is an excellent material when subjected to repeated shocks. 

Americans are gieat makers and users of the malleable casting 

Wrought Ii on Wrought iron is now very seldom used, as rnild steel is cheaper and can be used in 
nearly all cases where wrought iron was formerly used. 


Steel Steel lies intermediate between cast lion and wrought non, being pure non combined with 
caibon and other elements Cast iron contains much carbon , wiought iron contains very little carbon 

The haidest steels contain about 1 2 to 1 6% of carbon, and the mildest about 25 to 1% 

There are two processes of making steel the Bessemet and Siemens-Mat tin or Open Health 

Mild steel is made by eithei of the above processes, and is usually worked up into bars, angles, plates, 

Mild steel does not haiden perceptibly when heated and quenched afterwards in cold water It 
contains a low percentage of carbon and resembles wrought iron, and, like the latter, can be welded 

It has taken the place of wrought lion for many purposes such as rolled steel joists, angle iron, boiler 
plates, bolts, shafting and many engine parts Its ultimate tensile strength is between 30 and 34 tons 
per square inch 

Theie aie many kinds and qualities of steel used for various purposes The Great War did much to 
encourage the use of steel of special haidness and high tensile strength Some idea of the strength of 
present-day steel can be obtained when it is realised that twenty yeais ago the mam shaft of a 300-horse- 
powei gas engine was 10 to 12 inches diametei, whilst that of a 300-horse-power aeroplane engine to-day 
is 2 inches diametei with a hole f- inches diametei bored in the centre 

Cup Shakes 

Heart Shakes 


The selection of timber of any kind is a matter of experience, chiefly, and the subject can only be 
treated in a general manner in a short chapter such as this 

For all work the heart-wood is the best, and this only should be used, the outer portion, or sapwood, 
being inferior in strength or durability 

The annular rings should be regular, close and narrow. When freshly cut, the wood should have a sweet 
smell a disagreeable smell usually indicates decay 

Any knots should not be large in number or in size, nor should they be loose 

Shakes of any kind should automatically condemn any 
timber Ring or cup shakes running parallel to the annular 
rings are the worst, as they absolutely split any planks m 
which they occur It is possible to cut most trees so that a 
star shake occurs in one plank only, the other portion 
cutting into good timber, but a cup shake generally spoils 
the whole tree. (See Fig. 104 ) 

Varieties of Timber Baltic Pine lias hard and soft annular 
rings, a strong resinous odour, is easily worked, and is a good 
timber for most constructional work. 

American Red or Yellow Pine is clean and free from 
defects, but is not so strong as the Baltic It is used 
chiefly for joinery work. 

Pitch Pine is obtained from the Southern States of 
America, and is largely used on account of its strength and 
durability It is very hard and heavy, contains a very large 
proportion of sapwood, and is Ml of resin, is very difficult to work and is subject to upshakes It is 
obtainable up to 80 feet long, and from 10 inches to 18 inches square. This is a very useful timber for 
heavy constructional work. 

Oak English oak is the hardest and most durable of Northern timbers, and is used where strength and 
durability are required. It is, however, very expensive 

American oak is freer in the gram, being quicker in the growing, but it is not so strong or durable as 
English oak & 

Ash is very strong and resilient, and is used for cart shafts, shovel and pick handles, etc. 
American Hickoiy is also used for hammer shafts, shovel handles, etc., and is very serviceable. 


104 Timber sections. 


Elm. English, elm possesses great strength and toughness It has a close fibrous gram, and does not 
rot under water It is, however, difficult to work, and is liable to waip 

Red Elm grows to a larger size, but is not so tough as English elm 

Beech is a hard and heavy wood. It is suitable for use in either a wet or dry position, but very quickly 
rots m a spot that is alternately wet and dry A'large amount of cheap furniture is made of beech 

Poplar is a soft wood, and is often used for cart and wagon bottoms and barrow boards It will with- 
stand a fair amount of fire, as it chars instead of burning 

Decay of Timber Dry rot is caused by the confinement of gases produced by warmth and stagnant 
air It produces a fungus which feeds upon the wood and very quickly spreads to any other wood m the 

Thorough seasoning, ventilation, and protection from damp are the best preservatives 

Wet rot is caused by water and general decay. It is not infectious except by actual contact 

Seasoning is a preventative, and is effected by stacking under cover with free ventilation all round 
If the sap be driven out by steam or water, the time required for seasoning is very much reduced Creosote 
is a good preservative for rough timber and good oil for dressed timber 

Timber is bought in various market forms, viz 

Log The tree as felled, with the branches lopped off. 

Ball. A log roughly squared 

PlanJc Any timber more than 10 inches wide by 2 inches thick 

Deal Any timber less than the above, but more than 2 inches thick. 

Boaid Any timber less than 2 inches thick 

Scantling. Timber, squared. 

Squat e One hundred super feet Matchboard, floorboards and roofing boards are usually sold by the 

Standard, There are two standards used for buying timber in bulk the St Petersburg, 165 cubic feet ; 
the London, 270 cubic feet. 

A special form of timber used at present for many purposes, especially for lining and panelling rooms, 
is plywood, which consists of three or more layers of timber glued together by waterproof glue, each layer 
having its gram running at right angles to the adjacent layer. 

Slates. Slates are of various kinds and qualities, and are mostly used for roof coverings. They should 
not be used a,t a less angle than 26 to the horizontal. Westmorland Green are a good sound slate, and 
are used chiefly on churches and like buildings They are, however, expensive 

Slates from the North Wales quarries of Velmheli or Penrhyn are a good, sound, all-purpose 

Port Madoc slates can be split very thinly, and lie very flat on a roof, but are too soft and not at all 
suitable for the Birmingham district 

Architects and contractors sometimes require a cheaper form of roofing than natural slates, and there is 
at present on the market a very useful form of slate composed of asbestos and cement The manufacture 
of these has become a very important branch of the roofing industry. There are several brands, and all 
are fairly reliable. These asbestos slates are light for handling and transport, easy to fix, and cause a 
big saving in roofing costs Several colours can be obtained, but for the present the writer regards the 
natural colour as best 

The South Wales and Cormsh Slates are chiefly green and mottled, and are mostly used for their appear- 
ance. A good colour effect can be obtained by their use 

Grey slates are about 1 inch thick. They are generally used in close proximity to the 
quarries from, which they are obtained, usually in Yorkshire and Lancashire They make a good roof, 
but require heavier supporting timbers They help to keep a house warm in winter and cool in summer 
Carriage is very expensive, on account of their weight 

Tiles are burnt clay, and are not often used on refuse disposal plants. 

!For temporary buildings, galvanised corrugated iron sheets are frequently used , they require constant 
painting and attention 

Asbestos sheets are better, but more expensive. 


Asphalt is used for damp-proof courses, covering flat roofs, making gutters, etc , and is a natural product 
not to be confused with tarred macadam. 

Natural asphalt is also very useful for the flooring of lavatories, and places such as manure rooms 
which require frequent washing out 

Glass is sold in accordance with its weight per sq foot It weighs 14. ozs at /- inch thick 

Roof glass is generally about |- inch thick. It is generally opaque, and is called rough rolled plate It 
is usual to fix it in about 2 feet widths 

For roof-lights and any glazing likely to be broken, wired glass is best, as even if cracked, the pieces 
do not fall. 

Paints are used for covering other materials to keep them from rusting or rotting, or as a decoration 
All paints are composed of three constituents the base, the pigment and the vehicle For work where 
paint is used as a preservative, as distinct from a decorative, the base is usually oxide of lead. 

The pigment is any colouring matter, and may be either mineral, vegetable or animal 

The vehicle is generally oil 

In the case of distemper, the vehicle is water 

Diams These are generally made with glazed earthenware pipes, and are jointed, first with a rm<? of 
tow, and afterwards with a two-to-one mixture of cement and sand The tow is inserted to prevent the 
mortar from passing through to the inside of the pipe 

For fresh-water drains, clay joints and second-quality pipes are good enough Those pipes are all marked 
with a black ring. 

All manholes should have half pipes in the bottom, and should be built of hard impervious bricks with 
cement mortar 



IN this chapter, some of the elementary principles employed to obtain a sound and dry building will be 

One of the first things to be done before the erection of any building is to examine the site There are 
so many different kinds of ground met with in various parts of the country that this examination is most 
essential Firm gravel and water-laden material may be found within a very short distance of each 
other, or there may be an underground river or a layer of running sand 

London is mostly built on clay, Birmingham (especially in the Warwick area) on gravel practically 
two opposites and extremes Whatever is met, methods appertaining to each must be used Therefore, 
after examining the ground carefully, digging trial holes, if necessary, to see whether the ground is the same 
for the usual depths used for foundations, it is then necessaiy to estimate what is known as the bearing 
pressure the earth will stand Sometimes this information can be gained by inquiring of local builders 
who have done excavations round about. 


Bearing Power per Sq. Ft. 


Minimum Maximum. 

Lb Lb 

Rock 30,000 40,000 

Very dry clay . 8,000 12,000 

Moderately dry clay 4,000 8,000 

Madegroiind 2,000 4,000 

Gravel - 16,000 20,000 

Sand compact 8>000 12,000 

Safe Beanng Powers of Soils All buildings settle more or less, but precautions must be taken to secure 

uniformity of settlement 

Heavy portions such as stacks or towers should not be bonded into the walls of the building 

The foundation bed should be horizontal, and should vary in width to suit the height, thickness and 

weight of the wall, etc , it has to support In Pig 105 is shown the usual foundation for a 9-mch brick wail 

on a fairly firm soil , 01 , 

It will be noticed that the thickness of the wall is increased in offsets on either side, not more than 2 inches 
at one time, until twice the thickness of wall is reached, and the width of concrete is made to suit tne 
bearing capacity of the particular ground. . 

The thickness of concrete should not be less than twice the offset marked Z The same methods would 
be adopted in walls of If, 2- or 3-brick construction, but the design of concrete would have to be slightly 
different, so as to save material , 

Referring to Figs 108 and 109, we have examples of walls built in Flemish, and English bond 


Damp Course^ 



By bond is meant the arrangement of placing bricks during building so as to form a tie, one with the 
other, by preventing the occurrence of continuous joints (as in Fig 106) There are several bonds adopted 
to obtain this tiemg or locking of the bricks, but English bond and Flemish bond aie the most common 
Headers are bricks laid lengthwise across the thickness of the wall as d in Fig 105 

Sto etchers are bricks laid with their length parallel to the diroc- 
\*~ ?"& ->j tion of the wall e, in Fig 105 is an end view of a stretcher 

In English bond, the headers and stretchers are laid in alternate 
courses, and in Flemish bond headers and stretchers are placed 
alternately in every course (see Figs 108 and 109) English bond 
is the stronger of the two, but Flemish bond has rather a better 
appearance and sometimes works out cheaper. 

All bricks are porous, some very much more so than others, 
therefore some method of preventing capillaiy attraction of 
moistuie must be introduced, otherwise the walls, etc , will be 
damp Several methods have been used, and nowadays it is a bye- 
law all over the country that a damp course, consisting of some 
non-absorbent material, be placed at least 6 inches above the 
ground and below any woodwork. A very good method is to 
build two courses of slate m cement, breaking joints Ruberoid, 
asphalt, or sheet lead is also used, the latter, however, being very expensive 

Corbelling Sometimes it is necessary to support the end of a piece of timber from the face of a wall, 
and it then becomes necessary to build an Offset or Ledge, This takes many bricks As an alternative, 
corbelling, with projecting courses, can be resorted to (see Fig 107) It is advisable, however, that the 





H 27't~~ 

[ FIG. 105. Foundation foi a 9-m wall 


An unbonded 
Wall acts I ike 
separate pi Jiars 





Bond Line 

FIG 107. 

Wall Plate 

Section of J3, 
Brick Wall 

~^ Section of 18" OP , 
SBrickWall , P 4 
Stretcher Header 

--H h-l 

\ | 


1 f 1 


1 1 


*-Tooth!n 1 1 





1 1 

1 _ 

1 1 




1 1 

1 1 



- 1 1 




1 1 

"""** 1 1 



1 1 




1 1 

( | 







i 1 















.Closer *"' 
r St 







1 1 



English Bond 
Fio 108. 

Flemish Bond 
Fro. 109 

on A B. 

Brickwork bonding and corbelling. 

amount of projection of each course beyond the one below, does not exceed 2J inches. It is better if it can 
be kept less, but always remember to keep it some multiple of the size of a brick, 

Bricks for ordinary purposes are approximately 9 inches long, 4| inches wide and 3 inches deep. A 
good brick should be burnt thoroughly and should give a good ringing sound when struck against another. 

Very many terms are used m brickwork, but the above are amongst the most important. The student, 
however, should make himself conversant with the following . heading courses, stretching courses, queen 
closers, bats, copings, jambs, sills and air bricks 

Air bricks are used for the purpose of allowing a current of air to pass through a building. They are 


absolutely necessary under a timber floor, and should never be omitted The chief causes of rot under floors 
are lack of ventilation and lack of damp course, and in passing, the writer would like to say that Damp is 
the bugbear of building, and may be caused m several ways Once m a building, it is difficult to remove, 
and slowly but surely it causes decomposition of mortar, plaster, timber and brickwork It is unhealthy 
for the occupant, and may cause disease Never skimp money on providing damp courses 

One of the methods put forward m building to prevent surface damp, is to build the outside walls hollow 
that is, two separate walls with a cavity between These walls, to be stable, should be tied by means of 
brick or galvanised iron ties. It is very necessary when building these walls that the men do not drop 
mortar, etc , between, or the whole theory is upset, and, in addition, air bricks must be inserted at the 
bottom and top of the wall in order that there shall be a constant circulation of air 

Floors may be divided up as follows single, double and framed 

A single floor consists of common joists and floor-boards 

A double floor consists of binders, common joists and floor-boards 

A. framed floor consists of girders, binders, common joists and floor-boards 

If a ceiling is supported under any of the above floors, ceiling joists for carrying same have to be 

Single floors are only suitable for small spans, or at any rate nothing exceeding 18 feet, and then it is 
necessary to strut the joists to prevent deflection, and to distribute the load 


FIG 110 Diagram show- 
mg method of prevent- 
ing surface damp. 

PIG 111 Hoop iron strutting. 

FIG 112 

-Method of supporting floor 

Fig 111 shows a form of strutting known as hoop-iron strutting, and has the advantage of all members 
being in tension 

It should be noted that the ends of joists should not be built in the wall, but should if possible be 
carried on a wall plate supported by a brick corbel or set off as is shown m Fig 112 

The modern tendency m refuse disposal plant buildings is to form the floors of concrete and steel, 
which are not only stronger but also have the advantage of being fire-proof 

D 001S The majority of doors used in buildings can be divided into the following classes 

Ledged doors 

Ledged and braced doors. 

Framed and lodged doors. 

Framed, ledged and braced doors. 

Panelled doors. 

Sash doors (or glazed). 

Doors are of various widths and heights, but the minimum width of any door should not be less than 
2 feet 3 inches and 6 feet 3 inches in height. 

Various types of doors are used for different purposes, the simplest being the ledged door, which is 
composed of vertical boards nailed to cross-pieces, termed ledges, and used for back doors of kitchens or 
out-houses, and the framed door fitted with panels, used for main entrance and most internal work. Some 


are hung on solid framing, and others on ]amb casing or lining, according to requirements and location. 
Sliding doors are very useful where it is necessary to economise space, but are liable to be draughty 

Windows These may be of any particular design or material 

For small offices and dwelling-houses, the ordinary wooden windows of either the solid frame type 
or box-frame type are quite suitable Large buildings require something different, and these can be 
obtained made in pressed steel or cast iron 111 

The solid-frame window is very similar to an ordinary door and frame, the glazed portion, which is 
hinged and fits in a rebate in the frame, is known as a casement, and can be made to open either outward 
or inward It is very difficult, however, to make the latter weather-proof Th e box-frame type is composed 
of light-section timber built up to form a box section There are two sliding sashes or windows suspended 
by weights, which work up and down This type of window is certainly better for controlling ventilation, 
but whatever kind is adopted, care must be taken during building operations that all windows are bedded 
so as to exclude all ram and draught 

Roofs Koofs all more or less satisfy the requirement for which they are intended, that is the covering 
of a building, but to be satisfactory, a roof must be water-tight, resist changes in temperature, resist 
wind pressure^ must carry off rain and snow as quickly as possible, and be easy to repair. 

Slates at present predominate for covering roofs, and special kinds of slating suit certain conditions 
A new form of slate composed of asbestos and cement is making great headway amongst builders , it IB 

1 f 

A. A 

FIG. 113 Line drawings of king post and queen post rool truusos. 

cheap and serviceable Tiles have been in use for very many years on the Continent and in England, 
and a good English tile is a splendid roof covering, both in appearance and lasting qualities 

For buildings of small widths, wood trusses are quite suitable, but for larger buildings steel principals 
are necessary, and are now used very considerably There are several forms of roofs, but the names of a 
few will suffice * 

1. The Lean-to roof 

2. The King-post roof. 

3 The Collar roof 

4 The Queen-post roof. 

5 The Mansard roof 

The lean-to roof is a roof with one slope only, and is used for small buildings, sheds, etc. The two mam 
forms of roof trusses are the King-post and Queen-post. These are shown - 1 . i." i- : " in Fig. 113, 
The King-post is used up to 25 feet span, and the Queen-post for more th.i - 1 v ge spans the 
steel principal is used, and can be designed in a great variety of forms 

The pitch of roofs is a very important point m building. For a slated roof the rise would be about 
a fourth of the span, but for a roof covered with tiles a much steeper pitch is desirable, and is sometimes 
as much as half the span 

Slates are obtained from Westmorland and various places in Wales, those from Ponrhyn quarries, Bangor, 
being acknowledged as the best. Welsh slates may be of a blue grey or purple colour, and are cut to uniform 


Westmorland slates are of a greenish colour, and vary m size , they are usually heavier than Welsh 
slates Various sizes are used, but 24 X 12 inches, 20 X 10, or 16 X 8 inches are most serviceable 

Slates may be secured at the head or waist by two copper or galvanised iron nails to each slate 

They can be laid direct on battens, but for good work, and especially in exposed positions, they should 
be laid on felt and boards 

The next operation is draining the roof This is usually accomplished by the use of gutters and down 
pipes, made of galvanised iron, cast iron or zinc Cast iron is preferable Any section of gutter can be 
obtained, but it is always better to adopt makers' standards For down pipes, allowance is usually made 
for 1 square inch of bore to every 60 square feet of roof surface, and the pipes should be placed not more 
than 20 feet apart 

Gutters should not be less in width than the diameter of down pipes, they are usually made too small, 
no allowance being made for silt debris, etc 

Always fit feet to down pipes, so as to carry rain water from the walls 


Drainage is one of the most important branches of building, and, unfoitunately, veiy often the most 

Most drains are buried out of sight, and are foigotten until nuisances arise 
Essentials The essentials of a modem system of drainage are as follows 

1. To convey the sewage without contaminating the land thiough which the dram passes 

2. Must be self-cleansing by allowing sufficient fall in the line of diains 

3 Must be easily accessible, in order to asceitam and remove the cause of a stoppage 
4. Must be so constructed that it is impossible for any poisonous gases which aie generated in the 
drams to enter buildings (In other woids, adequate arrangements must be made foi ventilation ) 

It has already been stated that the major part of a drainage system is buried, and it is important there- 
fore that very severe tests should be carried out on all dram installations before the drains are covered in 
and put into actual use. 

The drains of a building are nothing more or less than a series of tubes through which the sewage or 
matter for disposal is conveyed, and discharged into the public sewer, cesspool or otherwise dealt with 

'System In many towns there is often a double system of drainage one for the purpose of carrying 
rain-water, and the other for conveying the discharge from water closets, urinals, sinks, baths and lavatory 
basins The latter are usually termed foul watei or soil drains The ciicumstances of different buildings 
may vary, but whether the case is one of the town house or the detached country house, the pimciples are 

* ^^preparation and laying of the drains come under the scope of either the bricklayer, concrete man 

any building is erected, pains should be taken to ensure that the foundations 
are placed on ground which has been well drained 

Many houses are cold and damp through being erected on watei-logged land. 

Fig. 1UA shows sections taken thiough ground of this nature As long as this liquid is allowed L to 
remain, the house will always be cold and damp Condensation will take place on the walls fungus wiU 
g^ under the floors, and if there are cellars, these will always feel cold and clammy The necessary 
preparations must therefore be made for draining the site 

Fig 114s shows an area with the ground drainage arranged. 

Fig 1140 shows a cross section of what is known as a French dram _ 

Fig 114D shows a modern land dram section It will be noticed that a pipe is shown in tHis figure 
These g are called agricultural dram pipes, and are short tubes from 2 to 6 inches in diameter, formed of 
earthenware without sockets and unglazed. , , . 

These pipes are of rough finish, and in Fig. 114* it will be seen that they are so laid that the water 
which percolates through the ground can enter the dram through the open joints at any point. 


Surface Water and Soil Drains The pipes used for these must be absolutely impervious to water, 
quite straight, and not easily broken, the inner surface should be smooth and not affected by acids 
There is now a British Standard make, which it is always advisable to specify. They aie usually made of 
glazed stoneware, and one end is fitted with a socket which takes the other 01 spigot end. The length of 
these pipes is about 2 feet and they are of varying diameter 

It is usual to adopt as small a diameter pipe as possible, provided it is large enough foi the maximum 

Fig 114E shows a lay-out of land drains around the site upon which it is proposed to build The 
water is conducted to catchpits, where the mud or sludge settles, and is thus prevented fiom cnteimg 
the sewer 01 biook. 

It will be noticed that the house drains aie quite distinct fiom the land diains Fig 114.G shows 
a section through a catchpit 

Fig 114n shows an arrangement of drainage for a house The following details should bo observed 

1 Bends These aie pipes formed to change the direction of flow. If possible they should never 
be used m soil drains, and Very larely in lam-watei drams. 

2 Junctions Where one range of pipes ]oms up with another range, Y pipes 01 junctions are used. 
Junctions should only be used in lam-water drams 

3 Channels These are open or semi-circular pipes, and are of special use in the floors of man- 
holes and inspection chambers. 

Channels are also frequently used as an open-suifacc dram for stables. 

Foul Gases Traps. One of the most important devices in drains is that which is known as a " trap " 
This is an arrangement to prevent the obnoxious gases which form in the pipes from reaching the atmosphere 
or building 

The water seal is the simplest form of trap, and is now used exclusively 

Fig llii shows a trap or seal on an ordinary gully The passage of foul air is baried by the water 
seal shown in the figure 

If possible, all drains should be self -cleansing, and this is arranged for by giving them sufficient fall. 

As dram-laying is so important, very careful attention should be given to the laying of them to ensure 
the easy flow of the matter and liquids within the drain. Sufficient fall in the range of the pipes must be 
allowed, and where this is not possible, a system of Automatic Flushing must be resorted to, 

Gradients, The following gradients are found to answer very well in practice : 

4-inch diameter dram should fall . . 1 in 4.0. 

6-inch . . 1 m 60. 

9-mch .... 1m 90. 

These falls give a velocity of from 2f to 5 feet per second. The ideal velocity should be somewhere in 
the region of 4J feet per second 

All soil drains should be laid on a bed of concrete, the concrete being filled in on either side (see Fig. 114i). 

Any stoneware drams passing under a building should be surrounded with concrete at least 6 inches 
thick, but cast-iron pipes are far superior. In fact, it should be a rule that none but cast-iron pipes should 
be used for drains passing under any building. 

Easy bends should be used everywhere, and connections made on the sides only. 

The approximate quantity of sewage and waste water for all purposes fiom dwellings varies Iiom 25 to 
40 gallons per person per twenty-four hours, and the drains should be large enough to remove half the 
estimated daily quantity in six houis 

Ventilation All drains should be ventilated, to ensure that they act efficiently and in order to avoid 
the accumulation of foul gases. 

The system usually adopted is to have a fresh-air inlet pipe at the lower extremity and a tall outlet 
pipe at the head of the drain. 

BtaUe Diams. These drains must be kept quite separate from house drains, and if possible carried 



direct to the sewer Inside the stables, shallow surface channels are arranged so that the liquid matter is 
discharged outside the building, over trapped gullies The reason for the open channels is that they are 
more easily cleansed 

Testing All drains should be thoroughly tested before the ground is filled in The pipes are filled 
with water which is allowed to remain for some houis Should any leakage occur, repairs must be effected 
and the test repeated 

About 4 to 6 feet head of water is sufficient foi a test The usual method of testing is to insert a dram 
stoppei at the lower end in the man-hole, water is then poured in at the furthest and highest gulley 
tiap, and the gulley trap plugged with clay If the water remains at the same level at the bond for one 
hour, the joints aie all water-tight Each blanch drain with separate connection to man-hole must be 
tested independently 

In summansing, it may be stated that house drams aie formed of pipes usually composed of glazed 
stoneware with socketed joints Where any pipe is laid under a building, iron pipes which have been 
tieated with some preserving solution such as Dr Angus Smith's solution should be used 

Drams should be well ventilated, well constructed, and self-cleansing 

Where practicable, all pipes should be laid m perfectly straight lines, not more than 30 yards between 
man-holes, but where it is nccessaiy to change the diiection, as few bends or junctions as possible should 
be used 

The diametei of the pipes should be small, but adequate for the work required. The minimum diameter 
should be 4 inches 

The ground must not be filled in until the drains have been thoroughly cleaned out and tested 

Many details of drainage schemes obviously cannot be dealt with in this chaptei The mam rules are 
given, however, and the student is advised to inspect closely any drainage work with which he may come 
into contact Special attention should be given to the jointing 



THE electnc vehicle has proved itself to be eminently suitable for the work of refuse collection, and this 
is boine out by the number of Local Authonties who have adopted this method of transport 

Whilst the type and size of electnc vehicle are admittedly important factois, a veiy essential part is the 
battery, which has been termed, and rightly so, " the heart of the vehicle " 

There are two kinds of batteries in general use on electric vehicles, viz , the " Lead Plate " or " Lead 
Sulphuric," and the " Edison " or " Alkaline " type A battery consists of a numbei of cells or accumu- 
latois, geneially joined together m series 

It is very necessary for the propei understanding of the electric accumulator to explain that this apparatus 
does not accumulate 01 store up electricity It only apparently does this. It is much nearer the truth, 
but still not quite accurate, to say that it stores up or accumulates a certain amount of energy It 
appioximates more closely to the truth, however, to say that the electrical energy by means of which the 
accumulator is " charged " is converted into chemical energy which in " discharging " is reconverted to 

Although the term " accumulator " is not correct (as already shown), neither are the terms " secondary " 
or " storage " batteries 

A lead-plate accumulator consists of a container made of ebonite, or other acid-proof insulating 
material, with two groups of plates (positive and negative) Each group is joined together by a common 
bai, and the positive group has always one plate less than the negative group, except in two -plate 

The life of a battery depends largely on the treatment it receives both in charging and discharging, 
which consists of so many cycles of charge and discharge, a certain chemical action taking place inside 
the cell. To the extent which this chemical action is carried out when the battery is being charged, in 
particular, and the attention which is paid to it during this time, the life of the batteiy is probably pro- 
longed or shortened 

Before explaining the " cJieimcal action" a brief study of the term " electrolysis " may be of inteiest 
Obtain a small glass vessel and fill it with water, add a few drops of sulphuric acid, and then place the 
ends of two wires which are connected to a source of electric supply into the liquid, and it will be found 
that when an electric current is passed through the circuit, small gas bubbles will form and rise to the 
surface of the water If these bubbles were tested, it would be found that those which came from the 
end of the wiie connected to the positive pole would be of oxygen, and those from the negative pole would 
be of hydrogen This action, or electrolysis as it is termed, lesults in the splitting up of the water into 
its constituent parts, hydrogen and oxygen , water being a combination of two volumes of hydrogen and 
one volume of oxygen The chemical symbol of hydrogen is H, that of oxygen 0, so that the chemical 
symbol of water is H 2 0. 

The mixture of these two gases in definite proportions, is explosive, and this can be illustrated if a 
light is placed near any of these bubbles whilst a battery is on charge, when quite a formidable report 
or explosion will take place Theiefore every precaution should be taken to keep naked lights away from 
batteries when on charge. 

" Sulphuric acid " is a combination of water and sulphur compound, and this forms the solution in which 



the positive and negative active materials are immersed. This solution is termed " electrolyte," and forms 
the medium through, which the electric cm. rent produces the chemical changes on which the action of the 
cell depends. The chemical symbol is H 2 S0 4 The active materials consist of the following 

" Positive Active Material" Lead peroxide, which is a fairly hard substance, dark-chocolate in colour, 
is a combination of lead and oxygen, the chemical symbol being Pb0 2 

" Negative Active Matenal" Spongy lead, which is pure lead in spongy or porous condition The 
chemical symbol is Pb 

The combination of lead (Pb) with sulphuric acid (H 2 S0 4 ) is called lead sulphate, the chemical symbol 
being (PbS0 4 ). 

All the foregoing are the chemical symbols used m connection with the action of a battery, and when 
an accumulator is fully charged, these chemical symbols aie ananged as follows 

Positive Electrolyte, Negaiiee, 

Pb0 2 . H 2 S0 4 Pb. 

If the circuit is closed, and the accumulator or battery commences to discharge, the acid in the electrolyte 
combines with the active material in the plates and foims " lead sulphate " This is shown by the fall of 
specific gravity of the electrolyte, and if this action was earned to absolute exhaustion, the electrolyte 
would be reduced to water (a position which does not arise in practice) The situation would then be 

Positive changed Electrolyte i educed Negative changed 

to lead sulphate to water. to lead sulphate 

PbS0 4 . H 2 PbS0 4 

On the cell being recharged, the action of the current reduces the negative plates to spongy lead, the 
acid returning to the electrolyte, and at the same time the sulphated positive is oxidised, the acid likewise 
returning to the electrolyte This continues, until at the end of the charge the situation is again 

Positive. Electrolyte. Negative 

Pb0 2 . HjjS0 4 . Pb. 

This chemical action cannot be carried to absolute exhaustion, and it will therefore readily be under- 
stood that there must be some indication to show how far it can be carried with safety. It is only by 
careful and intelligent use oi the various instruments and meters that this state can be ascertained. 

As long as the plates can absorb the current, everything is in order, but the positive and negative plates 
are not necessanly fully charged m the same time, so that the electrical energy must be dissipated in some 
other way than in charging those plates which are already fully charged. Remember the action which 
takes place when two wires are put into a glass of water through which an electric current is passed. This 
is exactly what happens at the end of a charge or during an equalising or extended charge. The water 
being split up into hydrogen and oxygen, numbers of bubbles give the electrolyte an appearance of boiling 
or being milky. If this is carried to excess, it is not only a waste of curient and electrolyte, but it is also 
detrimental to the plates The whole process of charge and discharge may thus be summarised as follows 

Discharge Lead sulphate forms on the positive and negative plates, hence a fall in specific gravity and 
voltage takes place, and the cells give out energy 

Charge The lead sulphate is converted into lead peroxide at the positive, and spongy lead at the 
negative plates This causes a rise in the specific gravity and voltage, and the cells absorb energy. On 
discharge there is a fall, and on charge a rise of specific gravity or density of the electrolyte. 

To ascertain the extent of this rise and fall, the garage attendant must be supplied with a hydionteter, 
thermometer and cell-testing voltmeter 

The hydrometer is a small glass tube with a graduated scale inside The lower end is of larger diametei, 
and weighted with small shots at the bottom, which causes it to float upright in the accumulator. For 
vehicle batteries, however, it is placed in a long glass tube which has a rubber bulb at the top and a small 
piece of rubber tube at the bottom. The tube is put into the " pilot cell" or cell to be tested, and as the 


electiolyte is diawn into the glass tube the hydrometer floats upright, and the reading is taken at that 
point wheie the top of the electrolyte cuts the point on the graduated scale 

The tempeiature of the electiolyte should be taken at the same time as the specific gravity readings, the 
latter being asceitamed as follows For the rise or fall of temperature of 2|- F above or below 60 F , 
there is a vanation of 1 degree of specific gravity, i e , 

Specific giavity 1262 at 60 F. = 1250 at 90 F. = 1264 at 55 F. 

The battones in seivice in the Birmingham Salvage Department have a rise and fall of specific gravity 
ranging from about 1265 or 1275 when fully charged to about 1165 or 1175 when discharged at a temperature 
of 60 F 

The voltage of a lead-plate battery rises or falls according to the state of charge or discharge of the 
batteiy Readings should always be taken on closed circuit, and these will be found to vary at the end 
of chaige according to the age of the battery, temperatuie of electrolyte, etc When the battery is first 
installed the readings should be about 2 7 volts at a temperature of 60 F As the battery gets older, 
however, the voltage at the end of the charge falls below this figure. During discharge the voltage drop is 
slight and gradual, becoming greater near the end, and the limit of discharge is reached when the voltage 
drops to between 1 8 and 1 9 volts per cell 

The cell-testing voltmeter is a small portable low-reading meter generally marked from to 3 volts, 
positive and negative, and is used to lead the diffeience of potential across one single cell. It should be 
of the dead beat pattern, and should be fitted with a device to set the needle at zero. 

The capacity of a batteiy is that amount of energy it is capable of stoimg, and is usually expressed in 
ampeie-hours A cell is said to have a ceitam capacity which is based upon the amount of current it will 
give for a specified time, at a certain late of discharge, and this can be measured by an mstiurnent 
called an ampere-hour meter An ampere-hour meter, theiefore, is a meter which indicates the state of 
battery either on charge or dischaige The capacities of several of the different types of batteries are as 
follows . 

Lead Plate 40-Cell Batteries Capacity at the 5-hour rate of discharge 

IMV 8 258 ampere-hours 

IMV10 323 

IMV 12 387 

Evaporation It has already been stated that electrolyte consists of dilute sulphuric acid and water, 
and although evapoiation takes place in all storage cells, the sulphuric acid is not affected. It is the water 
only which evaporates, and this causes the specific gravity to become higher and the level of the electiolyte 
lower To make up for this evaporation, it is essential to add water at frequent intervals, so as to prevent 
the tops of the plates from becoming exposed, and to maintain the electrolyte at its pioper level, i e , about 
| inch above the tops of the plates This should be done when the specific gravity is lowest. 

The adding of this water is called " topping up,' 3 and pure distilled water only should be used for this 
purpose, as ordinary tap water may contain mineral matters which would be detumental to the accumu- 
lators. In this connection it is wise to submit a sample of the water to the battery makers for their analysis 
and approval The acid also should be added only under the directions of the makers. During use, a 
certain amount of sediment gets to the bottom of the containers, and it is advisable to take the elements 
out of the contameis and flush this sediment out, reconditioning the batteiy when it is nearly two years old. 

The Edison cell consists of a container and positive and negative plates in electrolyte, but instead of lead 
and lead peroxide in sulphuric acid, nickel and iron oxide in alkaline are used Great care must be taken 
that these electrolytes do not become mixed m any way. Separate hydrometers and thermometers should 
be used always. 

The Edison batteries are known as types A 8, A 10, and A 12. The container is nickel-plated, the 
positive plates consisting of a number of tubes of thin steel, strengthened by ferrules and containing active 
material of " nickel oxide " 

The negative plates consist of a number of flat pockets of nickel-plated steel which are filled with oxide 


of iron, which, m appeaiance, is not unlike lion lust All the positive plates are connected to the positive 
pole, and all the negative plates aie connected to the negative pole, the whole being placed in electrolyte 
consisting of 21% of caustic potash in distilled water The top of the container is fitted with a water- 
tight cap, which can be opened for " topping up " and washing out 

The normal working voltage is 1-2 volts per cell. The specific gravity of the electrolyte is about 1200, 
and this does not alter materially with charge or discharge, but becomes lower with use, and when down to 
1160 should be renewed 

The capacities of Edison batteues are as follows 

" Alkaline " 60-Cell Batteries Capacity at the 5-hour rato of discharge. 

A 8 . 300 ampeie-hours 

A 10 - 37C 

A 12 .450 

A " pilot cell " is one which is used for taking the leadings of density, voltage and temperature, and 
should be a cell in the centre of the battery, preferably one showing low specific gravity and high 
temperatuie readings, as compared with the remamdei of the battery 


Theie are several methods of charging accumulators, but if alternating current only is available, then 
some suitable apparatus must be supplied to change it to diiect current 

Cells for charging can be arranged in any manner suitable to the current and voltage available, but it 
is the general practice to join them in series, that is, the positive of one cell is coupled to the negative ol the 
next, and so on This, of course, leaves a positive terminal at one end o I the battery and a negative terminal 
at the other, and it is essential that the positive wire of the charging circuit should bo connected to the posi- 
tive terminal, and the negative wire to the negative terminal of the battery, respectively. This is m order 
to maintain " conect polarity " during charging, and a reversal of this polarity will cause serious damage 
to the cells The battery makers usually attach a plate to the outside of the battery boxes showing the 
numbei of cells, type and charging rates There are invariably thiee rates of charging shown The higher 
one is called the " starting rate," the lower one the " finishing late " and the other, which is about half the 
" finishing late," is called the " equalising rate " The " starting rate " can bo used to give the greater amount 
of the charge, but should be reduced to the " finishing rate " when gassing begins to take place in the cells, 
or if the temperature rises quickly If the temperature should rise to 110 F , charging should bo stopped 
immediately There are two methods of charging generally recommended by the battery makers, one 
being termed the " constant current" method, and the other the " constant potential" method. 

The " constant current " method of charging is recommended if there is plenty of time to finish the 
charge A pressure or voltage of about 2-15 to 2-2 volts per cell, that is, about 86 to 88 volts for a 40-cell 
battery will be required at the start, the charge then being adjusted to the " starting rate," that is, tile 
higher rate as shown on the plate. As the charge is continued at the " starting rate," it will bo necessary 
to raise the voltage so as to maintain this rate, and when the voltage is raised to 2%3 volts per oellthafc is, 
92 volts for a 40-cell battery the current should be allowed to taper oft until ifc roaches the " finishing rate," 
after which, the voltage should be so ad] usted as to keep the charge at this rate until the specific gravity 
of the " pilot cell" rises to about 10 points below that reached at the last " equalising charge," or until the 
hand of the ampere-hour meter returns to zero. The alternative method ia termed the " constant potential," 
and although this certainly needs less attention than the " constant current " method, the battery is 
not fully charged, consequently moie " equalising " charges are necessary. For the " constant potential" 
method, a voltage across the battery terminals of 2-3 volts per cell, i.e., 92 volts for a 40-cell battery, is 
required, and the charge can be commenced at any rate the battery will take, without exceeding the voltage 
of 2-3 per cell. The charge should be continued at this voltage until the charging current tapers oft to the 
" finishing rate," when the voltage should be adjusted so as to retain this rato until the specific gravity of 
the " pilot cell " reaches about 10 points below the last " equalising " charge, or until the hand of the ampere- 
hour meter returns to zero. At this point the voltage will have risen to about 2-6 or 2-7 volts per cell, 


Whilst either of these methods can be adopted, it will be found that with a large fleet of vehicles having 
various types of battenes, it is not practicable to lay down any hard and fast method of charging, and 
with a ceitain amount of care and attention, a combination 01 modification of the two methods can be 
adopted in older to obtain the most satisfactory results 

" Equalising Changes " The makers issue instructions which should be specially adheied to with regard 
to these chaiges, and the readings which have to be written up in the " Fortnightly Returns " should be 
bciutmised and checked With the " constant current " and " constant potential " methods, the procedure 
has already been explained until the charging has reached the " finishing late," and the specific giavity has 
usen to 10 below the last "equalising charge " or until the ampere-hour meter pointer has returned to zero. 
At this stage the hand of the ampere-hour meter should be put forward 75 or 100 ampere-hours (being careful 
that it is again returned to zero when the " equalising charge " is finished), an ampere-hour meter key being 
supplied for this purpose The charging current should be allowed to taper off until it is half the " finishing 
rate," and this rate should be maintained until the voltage and specific gravity of the " pilot cell " show no 
mciease ovei four consecutive homly readings. " Equalising charges " should be given every fortnight, 
the leadings of the " pilot cell " being recorded carefully, and once a month the reading of every cell should 
be taken at the end of an " equalising charge," notes being made of any cells showing signs of low voltage, 
loss of specific gravity or high temperature No notice should be taken of ampere-hour meter readings 
duung the time the " equalising charge " is being given 

" Boosting " 01 " Quick Chatqmg." It will sometimes be found necessary to give a battery a boost up, 
or, in othei woids, to give it a quick charge, and this can safely be done up to a ceitain degree The more 
nearly a batteiy is discharged, the higher late of charging will it take, and by starting the charge at a 
highei late according to the time available, and then allowing it to taper off, a gieat deal of the discharge 
can be replaced in a short time The following formula is a good guide to ascertain the maximum rate 
at which the battery may be charged, i e , 

_.. . ampere-hrs dischaige 

Charging curient in amperes = -*--,--.- -,-, ,- 

b b L 1 H- hrs available 

Example, Ampere-hours dischaige, 200 Time available for charging, 1| houis. 

.JP-fL. . so 

1 + 1 5 W< 

Maximum charging rate 80 amperes. 

The foregoing refers to lead plate batteries only In the case of the Edison or alkaline battery, the 
charging late lemams constant duung the whole time of charge. The specific gravity does not alter, and 
overcharging does not damage the cell, but necessitates " topping up " the cells more frequently. There 
is no feai of sulphatmg or buckling of plates 

Motor Genet ators The motor generator consists actually of two machines, a motor and a generator 
with their shafts direct coupled together and mounted on one bedplate This machine leceives direct 
cuirent of high voltage and low amperage, and generates a current of low voltage and high amperage, 
suitable for battery charging This is termed a direct- current motor generatoi Theie is a certain amount 
of loss , the efficiency being approximately 65 to 70% 

Five-wile Balancer, A five-wire balancei consists of four armatures in series, or, to be more correct, 
two double-wound armatures connected to four commutators, which are equivalent to four dynamos or 
motors coupled to one common shaft Across the positive and negative mains there is a 440-volt supply , 
between the neutral and positive or neutral and negative 220 volts, and this is again divided into what is 
teimed four " legs," with 110 volts supply on each leg If the loads on the four legs are evenly balanced, 
the balancer runs as four unbalanced motors running in series across the 440-volt mams, but as soon as 
one leg becomes more heavily loaded than another, i e , if two battenes are being charged on one leg and 
one only on the other legs, or if the batteries are being chaiged at different rates, the motors connected 
across the more lightly loaded legs restore the balance by inserting a load equal to the difference in the 
load between them and the more heavily loaded legs This equalising of the " out-of-balance " current 


consists of driving the motors on the heavier-loaded legs as generators and so maintaining the voltage on 
these legs In other words, if A leg is heavily loaded, then S, C and D legs assist A to keep up the heavier 
load. The shunt fields are cross-connected, and the balancing needs very little attention up to " 150 
amperes out of balance " Any number of vehicles can be charged by this method, the number only being 
limited to the caiiymg capacities of the supply mains This machine has a higher standard of efficiency 
than othei machines such as the motor generator, and the more vehicles there are being charged at the 
same time, the greater the efficiency 

When alternatmg-cuiient supply only, is available, which, as alieady explained must be converted 
into direct current befoie it can be used for the purpose of batteiy charging, it is necessaiy to install a trans- 
former which reduces the voltage from very high to a voltage suitable for running what is termed a " rotaiy 
conveiter " 

A rotary converter is similar in construction to a continuous-current dynamo, but on the end oC the 

FIQ. 115 Eleetnc vehicle charging panels. 

arrnatuie shaft opposite to the commutatoi, are a number of slip rings. This is a dual purpose machine. 
It can either be supplied with duect current and deliver alternating current, or it can be supplied with 
alternating cuirent and deliver direct current 

Control Panels and Chaigtng Panels " Control Panels " consist ol a panel, fitted with voltmeter, 
ammetei, motor staitei, main fuses, automatic breakers, and earth lamps. Charging panels, of which 
there should be one for every charging circuit, should be fitted with a switch, circuit breaker, with over- 
load and reverse current attachment, fuses, ammeter, voltmeter, kilowatt-hour rneter, and regulating 
rheostat Theie should also be a pair of terminals to which can be permanently attached a suitable charging 
cable terminating in a standard charging plug, to fit the standard receptacle attached to the vehicle. (See 
Fig 115) 

" Lead Plate " Batteries 


1. Charge the battery only as frequently as the circumstances of the service require it. 
2 Avoid charging at high rates when cells are gassing Reduce to " finishing rate " when cells 
commence to gas fieely. 



3 Keep colls " topped up " and use distilled water only 

4 Give " equalising cliaiges " in accoi dance with makers' instructions, and note caielully all tlie 
leadings of the colls. 

5. Avoid high temperatures, and never exceed 110 F. 

6. Use " direct current " only. 

Edison or Alkaline Baltenes. 

1 Always keep cells " topped up " and use distilled water only. 

2 Do not allow the temperatme to rise above 115 F 

3 Use only the electrolyte supplied by the makers 

4 Occasionally fully dischaige the battery, short circuit, and then recharge it. 

5 Avoid charging at less than the normal charging late. 

6 If the battery i,s cold, give a short " boost " to warm it up before the vehicle is used. 

Genei al Keep the cells and connections clean, and never use the same electrolyte, thermometer, or 
hydrometer for both types of batteries. 


Motors, Consols, Duves, etc For propelling electric vehicles it is necessaiy to have mechanical 
energy, and to convcit the electrical energy into mechanical energy a machine which is called a motor is 

There are thiee kinds of motors known as the 

1. Series wound. 

2 Shunt wound. 

3 Compound wound. 

These are shown diagrammatically in Figs. 116, 117 and 118. 

The series-wound motor has the field magnet coils m series with the armature, arid is used where a 





Fw. 116. 

FIG. 117. 

FIG. 118. 

strong starting torque is required. The torque increases rapidly with increased current, and this is taken 
advantage of in traction work, where this type of motor is used to give the high starting torque required 
By torque, is meant the exertion required to start the armature revolving. For electric vehicles, the 
series-wound motor is most generally used. 

The shunt- wound motor has a shunt circuit from the armature circuit to excite the field magnets. This 
type of motor is used where constant speed is required, 

The compound-wound motor has both shunt and series windings. 

A motor consists of an outside casting, which is termed the Yoke. Bolted to the yoke are the pole 


pieces, around which are placed the field magnet coils, and inside these is placed the armature, which 
consists of a core around which are wound a number of coils of wire, the ends of which arc brought out and 
sweated into a segment of copper These segments aie placed aiound one end of the aimature shaft, and 
aie termed the commutator. Inside the yoke at the one end, and placed aiound the commutator, there 
is mounted a rocker which has attached brush-holders, inside which are placed carbon brushes kept in 
position by adjustable springs The rocker with brush-holders is termed the brush gear. The armature 
shaft is fitted into bearings having suitable means of lubrication. 

Caie and Maintenance of Motois. 

1 Motors should be kept free fiom oil and dust 

2 Commutators should be kept clean and free from carbon dust 

3 Lubricators should be kept filled and screwed down 

4. Brushes should be kept bedded in, and springs so adjusted that the brushes make good contact 
with the commutator 

" Undei cutting " the Gommutatoi When the copper segments forming the commutator are fixed, skips 
of mica are placed between, to insulate one from the other, and after the, commutator has been turned 
up, this insulation has to be cut down so as to be ]ust clear of the face of the commutator This is called 
" undercutting." 

Contiolleis Motors on vehicles must be so arranged that they may revolve slowly or quickly in either 
direction as necessary, and for this purpose a controller is used The controller is a device used to control 
the speed and direction of rotation of a motor 

There aie several types in use, but the principle is the same in each case 

The Flat-type Controller This consists of a number of segments on a flat plate, which is called a knife- 
edge plate The segments are so placed that when the controllei handle LH moved forward, the plate 
moves and the segments engage between half round finger tips, winch are on the end of a number of fixed 
controller fingers This gives five speeds forward There is a reverse switch placed at the rear end of the 
controller, and by pulling the controller handle up, the connections are made, so that when the controller 
handle is moved forward the motor armature revolves in the opposite direction, and this gives five speeds 
in the reverse 

Although there are actually five notches in the controller, the only two running positions are the third 
and fifth The controller should not be kept longer than is requisite m the other positions, as the resistance 
is in circuit and is liable to become burnt out 

The controller fingers and knife-edge plate are m an aluminium box underneath the near side of the 
cab The plate is carried to and fro on a gun-metal carrier, which works on rods and lias a pawl lack with 
pawls and springs, thus allowing the driver to move the controller along one notch only at a time, and 
there should be a distinct pause between each notch. 

The Dium Type Controller* This consists of a cylinder or wooden drum carrying a number of segments 
which are insulated and interconnected so as to make contact with the lixed contacts, or, as they are more 
commonly called, " controller fingers," to which the cables connecting the resistances and motors are 
connected The drum is rotated through certain angles, so that in position it makes connections 
between the segments and any number of the fixed controller fingers, exactly the aame as m the Flat type 

For reversing, a separate drum is used, and this is operated in different ways, according to the design of 
the controller In the Garrett 5-ton vehicles there is a lever under the driver's feet, whilst with the General 
Vehicle, Orwell and Blectromobile 5-ton vehicles the- handle is put back in the reverse position, 

There is a special feature on the controller of the Garrett 3|-ton vehicle, consisting of an auxiliary foot- 
pedal device, which is provided for starting the vehicle on lulls It is operated with the left foot, and when 
the pedal rs pressed down its function IB to cause a small amount of current to be passed through tho motor, 
so that if on a steep incline, there is sufficient current passing through tho motor to start tho vehicle as soon, 
as the brakes are released, and so prevent the vehicle running backwards before tho driver operates tlie 
mam controller. It is impossible, however, for sufficient current to pass to damage the motor. 


The Care and Maintenance of Controllers. 

1. Contiollers need frequent and special attention, and should be examined at least once per week, 

2. Fingers and segments should be kept clean by wiping with a clean rag, and then being smeared 
over with a little vaseline or clean oil 

3 All contacts should be kept good, tight and clean. 

Drives. The three principal methods are : 

1 Direct drive with cardan shaft 

2 Chain duve 

3 Worm drive on back axle 

Edison vehicles aie fitted with direct drive, which consists of a pinion on the aimature shaft, working a 
silent chain on one end of the cardan shaft The othei end of the shaft is fitted with a bevel pinion, which 
in turn engages in the teeth of a crown wheel attached to the hubs of the rear wheels Each end of the 
cardan shaft is fitted with a univeisal ling, the object of which is to partially absorb road shocks 

The universal ring consists of a steel ring having four ball-iaces set at equal distances apart, a tee-piece 
at the end of the caidan shaft being fitted into this ring. 

As with the cardan shaft so with the chain drive the motor transmits its power through a silent chain 
to a counter-shaft, the chain being totally enclosed, and running in an oil bath. The driving-chain sprockets 
are keyed to the end of the counter-shaft, and the power is transmitted to the driving wheels through roller 
driving chains These chains should bo kept properly adjusted by shortening or lengthening the tie rods, 
and there should be a slight up-and-down movement m the chain of about 2 inches. Lastly, there is the 
worm duve on the rear axle, the axle being fitted with " differential gear," the function of which is to 
permit the two rear wheels to travel at different speeds when necessary. 

Tipping Gears There are several kinds of tipping gears, which generally consist of either an horizontal 
or a vertical screw or a pair of screws worked by a small tipping motor They are so constructed that should 
the electrical gear fail, the bodies can be tipped up or down by hand. 

Fuses. All electrical circuits are fitted with safety devices, such as automatic breakers, fuses, etc. 
When replacing fuse wires either for the mam, tipping, or lighting fuses, it is important to remember that 
only the wiie supplied for the purpose should be used, as this has been found to carry a specific amount of 
current, and if the circuit is overloaded, will fuse before any damage is done to electrical apparatus. 





The Glass of Ho}se required In town salvage work, two different types of liorscs are employed 

(1) The heavy draught lioise for refuse collection and clinker haulage. 

(2) The boat horse for canal work. 

The heavy draught horse should be a sound, upstanding, and active horse, with a fine quality head, 
muscular neck, good shoulders, short back, well-developed ribs, giving plenty of heart room, strong muscular 
loins and quarters, and should possess sound legs with plenty of fine bone and good, sound, well-developed 
feet. The height of this horse should be about 1G-2 hands that is, G6 inches measuring from the withers 
at the top of the shoulder The age of the new horse should be 5 to 6 years. Horses put to work in towns 
at a younger age do not wear long, because they are not fully matured, and the leg bones and joints are 
soft, consequently disease soon arises in these parts, from continued concussion on hard town paving 
The weight should be about 1729 Ib 

The boat horse should be of a similar type, but smaller in size, lighter m bone, with smaller foet The 
most useful height is about 15 hands (60 inches) In order to pass safely under canal bridges, the boat 
horse must not be too high The colour of the horse is of no great importance, although it should be 
boine in mind that the grey-coloured horse can never be kept so clean looking as the horse of any other 

The Purchase of New Horses When purchasing horses it is advisable to buy from horee dealers of 
good repute, who will supply horses on say seven to fourteen days trial, and if for any reason the new 
horse is not suitable, it can be exchanged It is also advisable to have Lho horse examined by a qualified 
veterinary surgeon befoie purchase, to ascertain that it is sound 

The Tnal of New Horses New horses should be given a careful and searching trial by an experienced 
and competent driver By searching, I mean that the new horse should bo put to every class of work 
which is likely to be required of it. These new horses come from country districts, and suddenly to put 
them into an entiiely strange environment, surrounded by traffic, faced with unaccustomed Nights, and 
continually startled by nerve-racking noises is not fair play to them 

It would not be surprising to find that a horse purchased for clinker carting would not stand the noise 
and sight of steam escaping fiorn a leaking pipe, 01 the sight of an overhead crane, or that a horse 
purchased for refuse collection would not stand quietly in the street while the wagon was loaded. 

Class of Horse to Avoid. Horses to be avoided are those showing nervousness, irritability, vice, biting 
or kicking, and even the horse which is too slow. This latter class of horso is not only a constant source 
of irritation to the good honest driver who desires to earn his weekly wage, but also an uneconomic proposi- 
tion for the owner The man trying the young horse must exercise good judgment to ascertain whether 
any nervousness is due to strangeness of surroundings, which will ultimately disappear with usage, or to 
inherent nervousness, which will always be present and will hinder efficient work and may sometimes lead 
to a serious or fatal accident. 

From the point of view of disease it is also advisable to avoid horses growing too much hair on the legs, 
as such horses are liable to develop a disease of the skin called " Grease." 



Care of the Young Home The young hoise winch has pioverl itself suitable on tual should bo worked 
carefully and lightly for the first few months This gives the hoi so a chance to haul en in muscle and 
tendon, and although the wnter fears it is not always icalised, it is in the end a veiy economic pioceduie, 
since the risk of lameness is not only reduced, but the working life of the horse is prolonged 

Stable Buildings The stables should be well-constructed buildings ot brick 01 stone, with tile or slate 
roof according to the locality The site should be diy or, iJ such a site is not available, it should be 
thoroughly and deeply drained to ensure freedom fiom damp The lay-out of the buildings should comprise 
stable with stalls, loose box 01 boxes, harness-room, food stoiage-room, shoeing forge, and manure receptacle 

Ventilation of the Stables It is most important that horses should have a plentiful supply of pure air, 
if they are to remain healthy. The minimum cubic space foi each horse should bo 1200 cubic feet, and 
the ground area about 87 squaie feet, provided the ventilation, paving and drainage are good 

To the mind of the writer, the simplest form of ventilation is the best, and is not, so costly to install as 
some of the scientific appliances advocated In the act of bieathmg, carbon dioxide is given off fiom the lungs 
When cool this gas is heavier than air, but when given oil fiom the lungs it is hot, so that, mixing with 
the hot air of the stable, it expands, becomes lighter than aii, and so rises to the highest point of the 
stable To get rid of this gas, the outlet ventilatois must therefore bo placed at an elevated point on 
the ridge of the roof 

There are various forms of outlet ventilators, but the form is of no great moment so long as there is 
the necessary opening, without back draught The louvied ventilator is very simple and effective A 
series of small ventilators placed equidistant along the udge of the loof 01, bettei still, running the 
whole length is more effective and gives less back draught than a large one placed centrally. The area 
of the outlet ventilation should be about 4 square feet per hoi so 

The inlet ventilators for the entrance of fresh air may consist of air bricks placed in the wall below 
the manger of each stall arid windows, the upper portion of the latter opening inwaids, forming a hopper- 
shaped ventilator Windows fitted thus, placed on opposite walls of the stable, can be opened 01 closed 
according to atmospheric conditions, and so regulate, to some extent, the flow of air thiougli the stables. 
Wherever possible, it is advisable to build the stable with an open roof, that is to say without a loft or 
loom above. The stable will be much cooler, but the ventilation will bo much more effective Stables 
with lofts or compartments above are very difficult, it might bo said almost impossible, to ventilate effec- 
tively, for the reasons already mentioned, even when fitted with the most elaborate ventilating tubes and 
gadgets These stables are always much warmer, and if nob thoroughly and frequently cleaned out, the 
an becomes pungent with ammonia from manure arid urine, If one compares the horse housed in the 
closed-roof stable with that in the open-roof one, one will find the former carries a finer, sleeker coat, and 
looks better, but is more liable to cold when brought into the open air. On the other hand, the horse from 
the open-roofed stable grows a much thicker and coarser coat, and though never looking quite so well 
gioomed, is nevertheless the hardier and healthier animal. 

Lighting It is essential that stables should bo well lighted, both from the point of view of the health 
of the stud and the cleanliness of the stable 11 the stable is dark, glooming is not carried out so thoroughly, 
and the horse-keeper may even overlook signs of injury or disease The windows should therefore 
be sufficient, and so placed that light may penetrate to every corner of the stable , the area of window 
space to each horse being about square feet. A window should be placed in the wall above each 
horse's head, and where the stable is a single one that is to say, where there is only one row of horses 
gable windows may also be provided. As already mentioned, the upper portion of each window should 
open inwards, for ventilating purposes. 

During the winter months, the grooming and feeding of the stud are carried out during the dark hours 
m the early morning and at night. It is therefore most essential that provision should be made for efficient 
artificial lighting of the stables 

Doors. Each, door should measure 8 feet high by 4. feet 6 inches wide. The doois should be made in 
two portions, which should, open outwards. The position of the doors will depend on the plan of the 
building chosen, 

Watet Supply Water should be laid on, both inside and outside the stables. The water pipes and 
taps in the stable should be fixed in the most convenient positions, but should be well protected from risk 


of injury from horses' feet A galvanised or other trough, should be provided outside the stable for 
wateung the hoises 

Fittings The stalls, which measure 11 feet long by 7 feet wide, are divided by partitions These 
partitions may be constructed wholly of wood 01 of an iron framewoik filled in with wood, oak or good 
red deal 1^ inches thick being suitable The lower portion to a height of 5 feefc may consist of wood, 
while the upper portion is formed by open ironwork The height of this partition at the front .should 
measure about 7| feet, to pievent horses biting at each othei, and at the icai 5J feet. The top rail may 
have a stiaight fall to the rear, or it may take the form of a GUI ve The heel posts should be round Kick- 
ing plates, which consist of sheet iron, | inch thick, should be fixed on each side of every .stall partition 
to a height of 2 feet 6 inches If these are not provided, considerable damage will ultimately be done 
to the woodwork through hoises kicking the partitions The passage behind the stalls should measure at 
least 5 feet 6 inches wide in the single-line stable, and 8 feet wide in the double-lmo stable 

Mangeis These should be made of iron, the whole fitting extending completely across the stall Tho 
dimensions of the actual manger are 3 feet 6 inches long, 15 inches across, and 10 inches deep An iron 
bar should be fixed across the manger about 9 inches from each end, and the front to]) boardoi of the 
manger should project mwaids about 1^ inches This prevents the horse throwing the food out of tho 
manger and wasting it The height of the mangei from the ground should be about 3 feet inches Some 
mangers are constructed with two portions, one for food and the other for water. It is no I advisable to 
have a receptacle for water in the manger, as it gets filled up with food and dust, cannot bo propeily 
cleaned out, and is therefore insanitary. At one time, hay-racks were a standard fitting, but it is now 
realised that feeding long hay is not economical for town studs, and so hay-racks are now quite unnecessary. 
Horses are tied up to the mangers by tie ropes or chains, which pass either through holes in tho framework 
01 lings fixed to the manger 

Diamage The stable paving should be constructed with material which is impervious to moisture 
durable, easily cleaned and non-slippery There are various materials in common HMO for stable paving 
concrete, hard-burnt bricks, blue vitrified bucks, granite cubes, etc. Good cow-rote mado non- 
slippery is very useful and cheap. Granite cubes, although more costly, are without doubt the most 
suitable paving material for heavy draught horse stables. Whatever material is chosen, tho work of laying 
it should be earned out very carefully The materials should be laid in cement, on a 6-inch, bod of concrete, 
as this paving must be not only impervious to moisture, but also strong enough to sustain a largo moving 
weight b 

Diams All drains in the stable must be of the surface typo; underground drains soon get choked 
and become insanitary. In stables where an absorbent bedding is used, such as sawdust and tui nines' 
or peat moss litter, no drains are required, the liquid excieta being absorbed by tho litter, and removed 
with it m the process of cleaning out 

In stables where straw is used as litter, a simple drainage system should bo provided . The stall paving 
should fall gradually from each side to a shallow centre channel, which m turn falls toward tho rear of llio 
stall, connecting with another shallow channel placed well back from tho heel-post, and running tho whole 
length of the stable This channel m turn discharges finally on to a trapped gully placed outside tho Htable 
and to one side of the wall opening The fall of the stall and mam drain should bo about 1 inch in 80 inches 
bhould the stable be exceptionally long, the mam channel may be made to Call from tho centre to each 
end of the stable The level of the stable floor should be about 8 inches above tko outside ground level 

Loose Box. This is a very essential structure m connection with a stable of any HIZO. In any stud" of 
horses, sickness occurs, and this can only be successfully treated in a loose box, Tho provision of a loose 
box is an economic proposition, as the disease may be of a contagious nature and spread from one horse 
to another, thus rendering pait of the stud useless for the time. By removing such a case to tho loose 
box, this risk is minimised considerably It is especially important in regard to now purchases Young 
horses are very liable to influenza, strangles, etc., and as thoy pass through dealers' stables Ihoy may 
become infected, so that when a new purchase arrives, he may bring tho infection with him, and develop 
the disease some days after arrival. This then is a special use for the sick-box : the housing ol the new- 
comer, until one can safely say that no contagious disease will develop 

The loose box will be found very useful for the treatment of horses suffering from colic, a trouble which 


sometimes makes the patient very violent, when it would bo dangerous both to hoi'sekccpei and hoi so to 
remain in the ordinary stall. 

The treatment of throat and lung diseases can only be can led out successfully in a dry, an y loose box 

The dimensions of the loose box should be 14 feet long, by 12 feet wide, by 12 feet high Special atten- 
tion should be given to lighting and ventilation, as plenty of sunlight and ficsh air are essential for the 
treatment of sick hoises. At the same time, one must make sure that the ventilation does not cause 
draughts. Small iron mangers should bo fitted in opposite corners so that one can bo used for food and 
the other for the water bucket By this method the water is kept clean and free fiom fodder. The 
floors may be paved as m the mam stable, the drainage being of the surface type The door should be 
divided into two portions. A hinged iron-barred gate the same size as the top half of the door should 
be provided, so that when the top portion of the door is left open, the horse will be unable to make any 
attempt to got out 

Harness-room The compartment in which the hainess is placed after work should be a roomy one. 
Its actual dimensions will be governed by the number of horses in the stud Many harness-rooms are much 
too small , the drivers have not elbow loom and are hampered in the operation of harness cleaning This 
leads to careless work. The harness-loom should be well lighted, naturally and artificially. One cannot 
expect harness to bo thoroughly cleaned when the man cannot see clearly what he is doing Heating and 
ventilation are also of great importance, both from the point of view of the health of the hoise and the 
wear of the harness Wet harness causes sore shoulders and sore backs, and the harness itself wears 
out much more quickly. For the same reason, harness should never be kept in the stable The harness- 
room fittings consist of iron brackets placed round the walls at a height of 7 feet from the floor There 
should be a space of at least 3 feet 6 inches between each bracket A strong table or bench with small 
cupboards underneath should be placed in the centre of tlio room for harness-cleaning utensils, etc. 

The heating of the harness-room may be carried out by means of an open fire grate , by a stove, with 
or without a hot-water system; or by steam pipes, where steam is available. Either method is good so 
long as ample provision is made for the egress of damp air. 

Food-storage Room With a small stud oC horses, it is necessary to have a stock of provendei for at 
least a week When the stud is a largo one, it may be necessary to provide storage for three weeks' supply 
The size of the food-storago room will therefore be governed by the number of horses in the stud, and by 
the method of procuring tho horse rations. Should tho stud bo a small one, it may be a better method to 
buy the provender cut and mixed ready for feeding to tho horses On the other hand, the size of the stud 
may make it more economical to purchase hay and grain in bulk, when room would have to be provided 
for the stoiage of bulky hay Cor the necessary installation of hay-cutting and gram-mixing machinery with 
dust-extracting plant 

It may suffice for tho moment to say that unless the stud exceeds twelve hoises, it is more economical 
to purchase the provender cut up ready for mixing and feeding. Tho food-room should be of a si/e sufficient 
to hold, say, foity to fifty bags of provender. A room 18 feet long by 14 feet wide would accommodate 
this amount of provender, and give space also for store cupboards, for spare harness, and sundries This 
room should be thoroughly dry, with good ventilation and lighting. 

Shoeing fforge.TliiB should consist of a blacksmith's shop, containing the fire, bellows, anvil, tools, 
etc A separate compartment should bo provided for the work of shoeing the hoi so. 

Manure Reoeptaole A manure receptacle should be provided, with a good concrete floor. 


Tho feeding of a stud of horses should be carried out scientifically and economically. Tho provender 
purchased should be sound and suitable for the class of horse and work done 

When the writer says economical, he does not suggest buying the cheapest provender on the market. 
One might purchase an inferior class of hay or gram at less money than tho better-quality article * this 
would not be economy Not only would the horses do badly; they would also suffer from digestive and 
other troubles. One can economise in feeding the stud, however, by the judicious and often forward 
purchase of good sound hay and gram, and by the selection and mixing of grain, the price of which rules 


cheapest on the market For example, oats might be dear, with bailey and maize cheaper. By using 
more maize and barley and fewer oats in the lations, costs will be reduced 

The principal foodstuffs used for working horses are : hay, straw, oats, maize, barley, beans, 
peas, wheat, bran, oatmeal, linseed, hay, and green forage. Carrots aie used principally in sick hoise 

Hay A good sample of hay is one grown on good land, cut at the proper time of yeai, arid well dried 
or cuied It should be sweet smelling, of a gieen colour, have a dry, crisp feel, and not be too coarse or 
too soft It should contain a variety of good-class herbage , the flowering heads of the grasses should be 
in abundance. A mixture of weeds in hay is objectionable and the hay is less palatable to the horse The 
piesence of flowers which have not lost then coloui, such as buttercups and the flowers of trefoil and 
clover, shows that the ciop has been cut eaily in the season, before the grasses had lost their juices and 
nutriment Hay is at its best for feeding when about one year old Good hay is clean Mouldy or dusty 
hay shows that the hay has not been well made, and should be avoided 

Hay foims the bulk lation of the hoises' diet and is essential foi digestion The weight of hay in a 
heavy-draught-hoise lation is about 15 Ib pei day. Boat horses reqime slightly less. The most econ- 
omical way to feed hay is by chopping it into short lengths with a machine called the chaff-cutter The 
hay is then mixed with the giam to foim the ration 

The feeding of long hay to heavy draught horses is extravagant Some of the hay drops to the floor 
when the horse is helping himself from the hay-rack, this portion becomes soiled with litter and is thrown 
out on to the manure heap 

St) aw There are vanoiis stiaws oat, wheat, barley but oat straw is the only one suitable for draught- 
horse food Straw contains a large amount of fibie, and should only form a small portion of the bulk 
ration, and then only to reduce costs in a bad season when hay is very dear In a good season, straw is 
deai compaied with hay, as it does not contain nearly so much nutriment 

Oats As a rule, oats form the bulk of the gram diet A good sample of oats should be dry, hard, 
clean, heavy, full of flour, and free from any adulteration with other small seeds Oats may bo pale- 
coloui ed or black both varieties are good if they correspond with the above description. Good oats should 
weigh 38 to 4.0 Ib per bushel Should they weigh less than this, the oat skin or husk will bo thicker, there 
is less flour present in it, and it is less valuable as a foodstuff. It is an economy to purchase a good sample 
of oats at more money than a poor sample at less money. In purchasing oats, the following should be 

Kiln-dned Oats These oats aie kiln-dried to get rid of dampness or softness. They can be recognised 
by their reddish colour and by a loose, shrivelled appearance at the end of the husk. 

Foxy-Oats The term applied to oats which have been heated and fermented when kept m bulk, 
through not being perfectly dry. They also, are reddish in colour, have a bitter taste, and are unfit for 
hoise food. This class of oats causes kidney trouble and loss of condition. 

Dampness and softness in oats aie also objectionable Musty and mouldy oats are quite unfit for 
horse food, being in the first stages of decomposition. 

New oats which have been recently harvested and thrashed are distinguished from old oats by their 
earthy smell, blight shining appearance and softness. Old oats, which aie best for feeding purposes, are 
hard, somewhat dull in colour and slightly bitter in taste. 

Oats are sometimes cracked or crushed before feeding This ensures more complete digestion, especially 
m cases where the horse is a greedy feeder, and bolts his food without mastication 

The heavy draught horse on full work would require 16 Ib. of oats per day, along with the hay ration, 
where oats is the sole grain constituent of the food. 

Foreign oats are used extensively in this country for feeding purposes. They are harder than the 
English oat, and make a first-class ration for horse food , moreover they are cheaper than English oats 
Foreign oats come principally from South America. 

Maize This grain, which is also grown abroad, is suitable only for horses doing slow work It is best 
fed m conjunction with oats, but may Tbe used with other grains The grain should be cracked before 
mixing with the provender, and should be fed m the proportion of about 5 Ib. to 9 Ib. of oats 

Barley This grain is only suitable for horses doing slow work. It should be used carefully, as it 


has a tendency to produce skin troubles Only sound hard gram should be used, and at the rate of 4 Ib 
to 10 Ib of oats. 

Beans This gram is very rich in nitrogenous matter, and should theiefoie only bo used for horse 
rations in comparatively small proportions For heavy draught hoises, used in the piopoition of 1 Ib 
beans to 13 Ib oats, it makes a very excellent item. English beans aie preferable to foreign beans, as the 
skin is not so tough The gram should be liaid, dry, sound and sufficiently matured, weighing 00 Ib to 
the bushel Beans, like maize, should be cracked before mixing with the piovender 

Peas axe veiy similar to beans, and should be fed in the same way, in the same proportion The gram 
should be dry and sound, and should also be cracked before mixing with the othei rations 

Wheat This gram should not be fed to horses if other grain can be proem od It should bo partially 
ground befoie using, and should only be used with the greatest caie, as it is liable to cause very serious 
digestive troubles 

Process of Digestion, It may be useful to describe very briefly the course of the food in the digestive 
system. The food is gathered by the front teeth and lips, passes to the back of the mouth, and is giound 
into pulp by the back teeth or molars, meanwhile being thoroughly mixed with saliva, which is a digestive 
juice. The food is then swallowed and passes down the gullet into the stomach The stomach is a 
muscular pouch, lined with a digestive membrane which secretes the digestive material known as gastric 
juice The food, entering the stomach, stimulates the nerves, which, acting on the muscular wall, cause con- 
traction of those muscles, thereby producing a rotatory movement of the stomach The food thus reaches a 
further stage of digestion by mixing with the gastric juices As the piocess of digestion goes on, the liquid 
portion of the food gradually passes into the small intestines, where it is mixed with the secretions fiom the 
livei, pancreas and intestinal fluids. These juices complete the digestive piocess, and absoiptioii of the food 
takes place by the blood vessels lining the walls of the intestines, and is by this means conveyed to the 
various tissues of the body which require rebuilding The food not absorbed in the small intestines, which 
is now mainly waste product, passes to the largo intestines, where a further absorption takes place The 
residue then passes along to the rectum and is evacuated as dung 

Water does not take quite the same course as food It passes quickly through the stomach to a portion 
of the large intestine called the caecum, "and remains there until absoibed by the blood vessels , through these 
blood vessels it reaches tho lungs, kidneys and skin. 

The class and amount of food which a horse will require depend on the size and weight of the horse 
and the nature of his work, 

The heavy draught horse will require a somewhat more bulky ration than the boat horse, which docs 
faster and proportionately heavier work 

Some horses will eat a greater quantity of fodder than otheis doing the same work 

The rations for horses at rest should not only bo reduced in quantity, but also m concentrates 

Digestion Coefficient, This is the toim applied to the percentage of eacli nutrient digested m a feeding 
stuff It is necessary to know the digestion coefficients of the various nuiiients in a feeding stuff when 
computing balance of rations. 

Nutritive Ratio in any food is the proportion or ratio between the digestible crude protein, which serves 
special uses in tho body, and the combined digestible carbohydrates and fats. 

The nutritive ratio of a food is ascertained in the following way . 

The digestible fat in 100 Ib. of the given food is multiplied by 2-25, because fat will produce 2-25 times 
as much heat on being burned in the body as do the carbohydrates. 

The product is then added to tho digestible carbohydrates, and the sum is divided by tho amount of 
digestible crude protein. 

The nutritive ratio of oats is computed as follows : 


Digestible Fats. Heat Equivalent. Carbohydrates. 
3-8 X 2-25 + 52-1 

9.7 = 62j ' 

(Digestible Crude Protein.) 


The nutritive ratio of oats is therefore 1 . 6-25 (read 1 to 6'25). 

A narrow nutritive ratio is one in which the proportion of crude piotem is high compared with the 
carbohydrates and fats combined. 

A wide mitiitive ratio is the reverse. 

Oat straw. 1 . 44-6 shows a wide nutritive latio 

Oats. 1 6-25 shows a medium nutritive ratio. 

Linseed meal 1 : 1-6 shows a very nariow nutritive ratio. 

A balanced horse ration is one which has a correct nutritive ratio for the amount and class of work 

A maintenance ration is one which is sufficient to maintain the body tissues when the animal is at rest. 

The nutiitive ratio for the horse at medium woik should be 1-6-2 This nutritive ratio should be 
narrower when the work is gi eater, and wider when the work is less 

The following table shows suitable daily diets for heavy draught and boat hoises at woik 

Heavy Draught Horses, weighing 1729 lb 

1. Oats 13 lb. 
Beans . 1 lb. 
Hay . . 16 lb. 

2. Oats . 8 lb 
Barley G lb. 
Hay . . . 16 lb. 

3. Oats . . JOlb. 
Barley . . . 31 lb. 
Beans ... . 1 lb. 
Hay ... . 10 lb. 

4 Oats . 9 lb. 

Barley 3 lb 

Maize . . 2 lb. 

Hay . 1C lb. 

5. Oats . 5 lb. 

Barley .... 4 lb. 

Maize . 4 lb. 

Beans ... 2 lb. 

Hay ... . . Hlb. 

Straw 2 lb. 

Similar rations can be used for boat horses by reducing the quantity of grain by 2 lb. and hay by 3 lb, 
each Koughly speaking, the amount of food required for horses in hard work should bo about 2 ib. per 
100 lb. of horse. * 

Sick Horse Foods. The most common articles of food for sick horses are bran, linseed, oatmeal, hay, 
green forage, and carrots 

Bran, which is the husk from the wheat kernel obtained from the process oC flour manufacture, is a 
common item in sick horse diet It may be fed dry or made into a bran mash. The latter is the more 
common way of using it. The bran mash is made by putting a quantity of bran into a clean stable 
bucket and pouring over this as much boiling water as the bran will absorb, A bag is placed over the 
top of the bucket to retain the heat and steam, and when the whol* 1 * <nffirWi-n- coo l it | g rea c|y f or USO( 

Unseed is the seed of the flax plant, and is a valuable sick horse ..,.; I M i either boiled and mixed 


with bian masli, or in the form ol a gruel 1 Ib. of linseed boiled with 2 gallons of water , it should then 
be strained and the liquid portion given as a drink and the solid portion as a mash. 

Oatmeal This makes a valuable sick horse ration when fed in the form of giuel It is very refreshing 
and palatable to the sick horse, and is, moreover, easily digested and assimilated by the stomach and 
intestines Good giuel is made by putting a double handful of oatmeal into a bucket and mixing this 
thoroughly with a quantity of cold water \\ gallons of hot water, not boiling, should then be added, 
stirring the mixture the while. Before feeding the tempeiature should bo reduced to that of new milk. 

Hay The very best hay only should be used for the feeding of sick horses. It may be fed dry or 
steamed Steaming is done by placing a quantity of hay in a bucket and pouring boiling water over it. 
The whole is covered with a bag until sufficiently cool to Jecd to the animal. 

Green Forage This forms another excellent item in sick horse diet, when procurable, but should only 
be used when absolutely fresh Giass, clover, lucerne, sainfoin and vetches are the most commonly used 

Oartoks also form a very useful adjunct to sick horse diet, and are especially valuable at the time o 
year when green forage is not procurable Only sound roots should be used and should be cut lengthwise. 
If cut transversely they are liable to cause choking. They may be given alone or mixed with crushed oats. 

Times for Feeding The horse has a small-capacity stomach, and therefore requires to be fed fairly 
fiequently This is even more important in horses doing hard work than in horses at rest The horse 
should be fed not less than three tunes per day, and with regularity The largest feed should be given in 
the evening, when the hoi so is at rest When long hay is fed, it should be given in the evening, when 
there is more time for the hoise to masticate it thoroughly. 

Where possible, it is best to feed five times per day Two small feeds with half-an-hour between in 
the moining before leaving the stable, one feed at mid-day, and two feeds in the evening, with an interval 
of one to one and a half hours This method is not possible where each individual driver feeds his own 
horse, but m a stud where a horse-keeper is in attendance this method can be successfully applied Hard 
work with irregularity in feeding is the most common cause of gastric troubles in the horse, and is often 
attended by heavy mortality. 

Watering of Horses Under normal conditions horses should bo given water to drink frequently, and 
should be allowed as much water as they care to have 

It is important to remember that at meal times water should "be given first If water is given after feeding, 
there is a tendency for undigested food to be washed out of the stomach into the intestines, where further 
digestion of this food cannot take place. This food, acting as a foreign body, sets up fermentation, with 
consequent gastiic trouble and colic. It is not advisable to give cold water ad lib. bo a horse which is very 
hot and tired. The horse should first be rested and allowed to " cool off," or ho may bo given a small 
quantity of tepid water. Fresh, pure, clean water only should be used, Water should never remain in 
buckets in the stable, as, to a certain extent, it absorbs foul gases from the stable excreta. 

Bedding, Horses doing hard work require one item of comfort, and that is a good bed. The principal 
materials used for horse bedding are wheat straw, peat moss litter, sawdust and turnings. The first two 
items make very good bedding, especially when used together, but the cost for commercial heavy horses 
will be found to bo prohibitive. The most economical and useful bedding, therefore, is sawdust and 
turnings. These should be used in the proportion of one bag of sawdust to four bags of turnings The 
amount required per horse, per week, is about two bags of the mixed litter. When this form of litter is 
used, no drains are required in the stable, as the liquid portion of the excreta is absorbed by the bedding. 
Only the very wet portions of the bod and the droppings are removed, and new litter is added to make 
up the required amount. 

Grooming of Horses, Horses very well fed and doing hard work require thorough grooming, as the 
secretions from the skin glands are enormously increased, and without grooming, the skin pores become 
blocked up and the health deteriorates. The greater the action of the skin, the greater the attention that 
must be paid to it. This is why hunters and racehorses, which are trained to such a high pitch, require 
more grooming than the heavy cart-horse doing slow work and fed on rations not so highly nutritious, 
Ezcretion of worn-out body materials through the skin takes place also in a horse at grass in a state 
of nature, but as the food is not highly nutritious and the horse does not use up much energy, it remains 
healthy without grooming 


For heavy horse glooming, the cleaning utensils used are the dandy-brush a brush with long stout 
bristles a curry-comb, which is a flat iron comb with very short teeth , a body-brush, which is a brush 
with soft bristles , a comb or drag with long teeth, and a rubber or cloth 

The dandy-brush and curry-comb aie used together, the curiy-comb stirring up the hair and breaking 
up congealed peispuation and dried mud, and the dandy-biush lemoving this debris 

The body-biush is used when the bulk of the dirt and skin excreta have been moved by the dandy- 
brush and cmry-comb A long-toothed comb is used on inane and tail The rubber is then used to finish 
off and give a polish to the coat 

The thorough cleaning of the skin is an operation requiring skill and hard labour This operation 
should be earned out night and morning 

In some laige studs, cleaning the horses Is carried out by vacuum-cleaners This answers very well 
for the parts of the body where the suction nozzle can be laid flat upon it, but when applied to the limbs 
it loses a great deal of efficiency 

Clipping and Siiigemg Twice in the year, namely spiing and autumn, the horse sheds his coat The 
old han falls out and is leplaced by new hair The hau of the new coat in autumn is longer than that of 
the new coat in spring This is Nature's piovision against cold. Tins coat is, however, too heavy for the 
hoise doing haid work, and causes him to sweat even in the coldest weather It is necessary, therefore, 
to reduce this heavy coat With light carnage and van horses, this is done by clipping With heavy 
draught hoises the object is achieved either by clipping the han on the lower part of the body, leaving 
a long coat on the withers, back, loins, quarters and rump, or by singeing the long hairs over the whole 
of the body with a paraffin or gas-singeing lamp The second method is not so speedy, and is a dirtier 
operation than the first, but is, in the writer's opinion, prefeiable, especially with heavy horses employed on 
refuse collection These horses have to stand about a gieat deal, and are therefore not so liable to get 
chilled as the partially clipped animal 

Hoise Attendants In large studs it is usual to employ a horse-keeper to look after a number of horses. 
The work for each horse-keeper should be the care of twelve horses, and he should carry out the feeding, 
grooming, singeing and cleaning of stables. 

In small studs the driver may feed, gioom and look after his own horse This is, m the writer's opinion, 
the better system The duvei then takes an interest in the animal, both in regard to grooming and work- 
ing When, howevei, the animal is handed over to the care of another individual on its return to the 
stable, it seems to have a deleterious effect on the driver's interest, which is so essential for the welfare of 
a horse 

^ Eat ness and GloLlnng The question of harness forms a very important economic item in connection 
with the working of a stud of horses. Many days of useful work may be lost to the owner through badly 
fitting harness, or harness not properly cleaned and taken care of 

The heavy draught harness consists of bridle and bit, collar and hames, with shaft tugs, saddle, 
breeching, reins, and bellyband , and in winter a loin cloth 

The boat-horse harness consists of bridle and bit, collar and hames, rope traces with bobbins, back- 
bands, spieadeis, reins, and in winter, shoulder and loin cloths. 

New harness should be well made and of best material obtainable. The purchase of cheap harness is 
a false economy. 

Old harness should be kept in a thorough state of repair , neglect to do so may cause delay through 
breakage, and in some cases may even lead to serious accidents It is most important that the linings of 
collars and saddles should be kept not only thoroughly clean, but also in a high state of repair. Neglect 
to do this causes a great economic loss to the owner, as sore crests, shoulders and backs will be 
prevalent. These sores are not only painful to the horse, but also will put him out of action for 
long periods 

When a horse is in heavy draught, there is considerable pressure and friction on the shoulders and on 
the back when working m a cart It therefore behoves us to see that the pressure is kept as even as 
possible and friction reduced to a minimum This can only be done by having collars which are well padded 
and which fit absolutely, by saddles well padded and level, and last, but not least, by ensuring that the 
linings of each are kept scrupulously clean The leather part of the harness should be kept thoroughly 


clean and well blacked with some wct-resistmg compo In wet weather, harness should be well dried 

Spare sets of harness should always be available, so that the horse is not held back from work while 
repans to harness are being carried out. 

Loin-cloths are lined waterproof covers which cover the horse from saddle to tail These aie indis- 
pensable in the winter time, as they keep the hoise diy along the back and warm enough to prevent chills. 
These cloths can be rolled up and fastened to the saddle, should the weathei be warm 

Boat-horse cloths are indispensable for the same reason , the shoulder cloth which coveis the collar 
pi events the wetting of the shoulders, and so, soie shoulders. 

Sleeping rugs are a necessary item of clothing where hoises are clipped, but with heavy draught and 
boat horses, whore only paitial clipping or singeing is earned out, they aie not necessaiy One or two 
rugs, howevei, should be piovidecl, as they will ceitamly be acquired foi sick horses 

Shoeing of Heavy D) aught and Boat Hoises The horse's foot is a sensitive vascular structure, sur- 
rounding bones, the whole being enclosed within a horny capsule which is the hoof The hoof consists of 
a horny wall which can be seen when the foot is on the ground On lifting the foot it will be found that 
the lower surface is formed by a horny sole and a horny frog, which is the bulbous, wedge-shaped structure 

Wear of the Hoof. The essential of good shoeing is to preserve the outer case, or hoof, which acts as a 
protection to the more delicate structure Under natural conditions the hoof coming in contact with 
soft or smooth ground does not suffer any undue wear, and Nature supplies the required new horn by 
growth of the hoof. This growth of horn is in proportion to the amount of wear Under artificial con- 
ditions that is, working on the city streets or county roads the friction of the hoof on the hard road 
wears the horn down much faster than Nature can provide the new horn The inevitable result is the 
wearing of the hoof right down to the underlying sensitive structure, with consequent lameness To 
prevent this undue wear it is necessary to provide a shoe for the lower surface of the foot With the shoe 
in position, no wear ol the hoof takes place and the hoof grows too long This is corrected by the shoeing 
smith cutting down the excess horn when fitting the new shoe The shooing smith must be a highly skilled 
workman Faulty preparation of the foot for the shoe, if continued, may in time lead to deformity of the 
feet, with consequent incurable lameness. 

The shoe is applied to the foot to prevent undue wear of the horn, to prevent injury to the hoof, and 
so to the underlying sensitive structure to give the horse a foothold on the slippery streets and roads 

Malleable iron has been found to be the most suitable material for the manufacture of horse-shoes. 
Horse-shoes may be either machine made or hand made Machme-niado shoes are principally used in the 
army. For commercial work, hand-made shoes are most suitable 

The tlone'-slioe The shoo consists of a somewhat circular piece of iron, which, when applied to the 
lower surface of the foot, covers the lower end of the wall and a small portion of the sole It follows the 
contour of the foot, fitting flush with it. The thickness of the iron used for shoe-making depends on the 
weight of the horse and the class of work the horse is doing. For heavy draught horses, iron measuring 
1J. X H or 1|- X -| inches will be found suitable, the weight of the finished shoe being about 4 Ib , and for 
boat horses, iron measuring lxfjorl|x|- inches, the weight of the finished shoo being 2 Ib 8 ozs 

The Prevention of Slipping. It is preferable, where possible, to have the front feet shod with flat shoes 
and the hind feet with shoes having small heels or calkins, to give a good foothold The condition of the 
streets and roads to-day is such that the majority of heavy horses cannot got a sufficiently good foothold 
without heels on the front shoes also. 

Pads, which are small rubber blocks fitted to a metal plate and fastened across the heels of the shoe, 
are used to prevent slipping, but are found to be too expensive for heavy horse wear. 

In winter-time the shoeing has to be adapted to give the horse a good foothold on streets and paving 
covered with snow and ice. This is carried out by making the winter shoes with holes, into which fit chisel 
pointed studs on the front shoes and chisel screws on the hind, shoes. 

The Fitting of the Shoe to the loot, The shoe is held to the horse's foot by nails, which, passing through 
holes in the shoe, are driven into the wall of the hoof m a slanting direction, the points of the nails emerging 
about one third up the wall The points of the nails are twisted off and the ends are then turned down 
on the hoof to form clenches, thus fixing the shoe securely to the foot Great care must be taken that the 


nail does not pierce or touch the underlying sensitive structure Should this be done and remain unnoticed, 
suppuration will follow, with consequent lameness 

Wea<) of the Shoe On the average, horses should be shod every four weeks Some horses, however, 
will wear their shoes out m fourteen days, when the shoes must be renewed. Others will carry their shoes 
six weeks, but in this case the shoes ought to be removed in twenty-eight days, the hoof reduced to normal 
length and the shoes re-made and applied again. 

Heavy Dt aught Woik Provided that a horse is sound and m good condition, the weight which he can 
draw depends on the size and weight of the horse and the gradients along which he has to travel. 

In hilly counties, like Devon and Cornwall, very small carts are used and small loads are carried In 
city work, where the gradients are not too severe, an average load would be 28 cwts m wagons weighing 
24 cwts., making a total load of 52 cwts 

In clinker work the load would average 30 cwts , and the weight of the cart 20 cwts., making a total 
of 50 cwts. The distance travelled per day would average 12 miles 

Boat Eotse WmJc consists of the drawing of barges along the canal This is very heavy work, as the 
horse is constantly in the collar. The load carried in the canal boat averages 28 to 30 tons, and the distance 
travelled per day may range from 15 to 30 miles 

Speaking generally, the horse should be selected to suit the work required of him, and he must be 
matured, sound, and in fit condition 

The driver is a most important factor in the work of the horse To-day, on account of the great increase 
m mechanical transport, good horse drivers are scarce The horse of the good driver wears better, lasts 
longer, and is always in better condition than that of the bad driver 

The driver should not only be thoughtful, having the welfare of his horse always in mind, but should 
also possess some nerve and not be afraid of the animal he is driving, whatever fix they get into Many 
a timid horse has been rendered quite unworkable through the driver showing fear, and this fear is quickly 
conveyed to the horse, increasing its feeling of nervousness This leads sometimes to the horse running 
away and doing some material damage, and once a horse runs away, one is never quite sure of him again. 
I know that the problem to-day of securing useful, experienced horse-drivers is a difficult one In past 
years many of the drivers came from country districts as young men and those men made excellent 
drivers, their experience in horse-driving dating from a very early age. 

Before leaving the subject of work, the writer would like to say a word on vehicles. The vehicles used 
to-day seem to be heavier than necessary The lighter the vehicle commensurate with durability, the 
greater the load of material the horse can draw Where possible, four-wheeled vehicles should be used in 
preference to two-wheeled vehicles When working in a two-wheeled vehicle the horse has a heavy 
pressure on the back, and especially in downhill work This naturally puts an extra strain on legs and 
tendons, and should he slip, a still greater strain is placed on these parts in regaining his equilibrium 
with the consequent risk of sprained tendons With the four-wheeler, there is no weight on the horse's 
back, and, moreover, those vehicles are provided with brakes, which assist the horse to hold the load back 
when going downhill. The vehicles should be kept m thorough repair, with axles well greased and oiled 


In health the horse should have a good appetite, normal pulse, temperature and respiration. The 
normal pulse, which is really the impulse of the heart pumping the blood through the blood vessels, is 
thirty-four to thirty-eight beats per minute. The pulse is most easily taken by placing the fingers over the 
sub-maxillary artery, just inside the border of the lower jaw, or over the radial artery which lies just inside 
the forearm The temperature is taken by lifting the tail and placing a thermometer in the rectum, which 
is the most posterior part of the intestines The normal temperature is 101 Fahrenheit, 

The normal respirations when the horse is at rest are about eight to twelve per minute, and these can 
easily be counted by observing the rise and fall of the horse's flank 

Every experienced horse-keeper should be able to take pulse and temperature and note respiration, 
and by knowing what these should be in health, he is at once in a position to say when the horse is " off 
colour," and to call in the necessary professional advice. 


The following are some of the most common ailments of horses 

Colic This ailment is the most common, and is recognised by the animal showing signs of abdominal 
pain, inteimittent or constant The horse becomes very restless, getting up and down, kicks at the 
abdomen with the hind feet, and looks round to his flank The attack of colic may be due to indigestion 
with flatulence, or to stoppage of the intestines, when it should soon respond to treatment "When the 
colic, however, is due to ruptured stomach or twist of the intestines, the trouble is quite incurable, and 
death will ensue in 24. hours or less. 

Colic is caused by over-feeding, irregular feeding, feeding with bad food, and irregular watering of 

The fatal cases of colic are more prevalent when the horse is doing extraordinarily hard work or working 
exceptionally long hours This is easily explained, because under these conditions the horse has long 
fasts, and when he conies into the stable, dead tired and hungry, he is given an extra large feed, or he may 
bolt his food ravenously, with the same result. 

To eliminate attacks of colic, watering and feeding must be carried out regularly, and with care 

Sore Throat This is an inflammatory condition of the throat tissues It may be of a simple nature, 
due to draught in the stables or from exposure to very cold winds This form, as a rule, soon responds 
to treatment. On the other hand, the sore throat may be of a contagious or an infectious nature, when 
recovery is rather prolonged. Both conditions are recognised by a throaty cough, but the contagious 
form is accompanied by a yellowish discharge from both nostrils and a persistent high temperature and 
pulse. The horse allectcd with the contagious form of sore throat should be immediately isolated from 
the others, as this is a disease which spreads quickly It will be found most prevalent in young horses, 
newly purchased, these horses being infected, as already mentioned, in the dealers' stables before purchase 

Strangles A contagious disease also prevalent in young horses This disease can be easily recognised 
by a swelling of the lymphatic glands inside the angle of the ]aw As a rule, abscess formation takes place, 
and recovery is rapid when this abscess matures and bursts, or is lanced. Isolation of affected animals 
is here also of great importance 

Pneumonia and Pleunsy These diseases may occur singly or together. They may be due to simple 
chill or be of microbial origin, as m sore throat. Whatever the cause, this is a very serious complaint, 
and the horse can only be saved by the most careful nursing and treatment Complete isolation, in a roomy, 
well-ventilated loose box, free from draughts, is absolutely essential 

Cough and Gold. The first is really a symptom of the second, which is a simple sub-acute inflammation 
of the lining membrane of throat or lungs, due to exposure to a draught or inclement weather The com- 
plaint, as a rule, soon responds to treatment, but care must be taken that the animal does not get a further 
chill, as it may lead to some trouble much more serious 

Influenza. This is a very serious disease of microbial origin, which is generally brought to the stable 
by the newly purchased young horse The disease is characterised by high pulse, and temperature, 
increased respirations and great nervous prostration Several organs of the body may be affected, usually 
the throat, lungs, heart, and sometimes the liver and bowels. It is a very infectious disease, and quickly 
spreads from animal to animal. Becovery is very protracted, even in the most favourable cases Should 
the disease be of a virulent nature, mortality from pneumonia and heart failure is very high The affected 
animal should be at once isolated in the loose box, and given the greatest care 

Rheumatism, This is a disease which is not uncommon in the horse As a rule, horses affected are 
housed in a damp stable. 'Rheumatism may be of an acute form, giving a rise in the animal's temperature 
and affecting the heart. This form of the disease is, however, rare The more common form, which is 
sub-acute, attacks principally the muscles, tendons, ligaments and bones. 

Eheumatism is easily recognisable by the irregularity of the symptoms. The animal may at one time 
show lameness from rheumatism, and a few hours later the symptoms have entirely disappeared, to recur 
again at intervals. One limb may be affected one day, and another the next. The horse should be housed 
m a dry stable, should always have a dry, comfortable bed, and the legs should on no account be washed. 

Sprains. A sprain is an inflammatory condition of some tissue, due to violent usage. Sprains usually 
occur in ligaments or tendons. Ligaments are the structures which hold the bones together, tendons are 
the ropes which join the muscles to the bones, and by contraction of the muscles, move the bones. Sprains 


usually occur below the knee m the fore-leg, in the hock, or below it m the hind limb, but they may 
also occur m other parts shoulders, loins, etc Sprain of tendons or ligaments is one oi the most common 
ailments in heavy draught and boat horses, and is recognised by the animal showing lameness in the aJleoted 
limb. In the primary stage, the parts affected show heat and swelling. When the sprain becomes chronic, 
the heat disappears, but the thickening of the tissue remains Sprain, as has abeady been said, is caused 
by an extra strain put on the part, and results often from slipping in the street or oven in the si/able. The 
animal suffering from a sprain must be completely rested until the part has recovered if put back to work 
too soon, the result is a chronic sprain from which the animal will not recover 

Diseases of Bone and Gaitilage When horses are put to very hard work or woik on hard town paving 
at an early age, the concussion from the foot coming to the ground induces disease, of the bones and 

Ring Bone is an inflammatory disease of the bones in the foot, in which the bono becomes enlarged, 
and, when present, this enlargement can be easily felt with the fingers, at the top of the front part oi the- 
hoof. In young horses, there is always lameness present during the acute inflammatory of the disease 1 . 
Lameness may disappear with treatment, leaving the horse with a blemish, but workable, or it may 
continue , this depends on whether the joint is affected. 

Side Bone This is an inflammatory disease affecting the lateral cartilages. These lateral cartilages 
are two in number, one placed on either side of the foot They can be felt under the skin above tho hoot 
and they also extend down inside the hoof itself As the inflammatory process continues, these eurtil.igoB 
are gradually turned into bone In good, wide, feet lameness is not often produced 

Both Ring Bone and Side Bone constitute an unsoundness m the horse, and no young horse sufiering 
from either disease should ever be purchased for the stud 

Lamimtis This is an inflammatory disease of the sensitive structures underlying the hoof or horny 
capsules It usually occurs in the front feet, and the horse becomes very lame from the pi ensure of tho 
increased amount of blood in the foot. The cause may be due to chill, but more often to over-feeding, 
feeding on unsuitable foodstuffs, or to overwork This disease usually responds to treatment Tit 
some cases, however, deformity of the feet results, this rendering the animal unsuitable for town work, 
although still useful for work on the land 

loot Lameness may be caused by a nail, picked up by the sole or frog when the horse is sit. 
work, which pierces the horny part of the foot, injuring the sensitive structure underneath, with a con- 
sequent formation of matter in the foot, or the shoemg-smith, when fastening tho shoo on, may drive 
the nail out of its proper course, and so injure the sensitive underlying structure. When this ImppenM, 
lameness may appear at once or very soon after In either case, withdrawal of the nail, and treatment, UH 
a rule, soon effect a cure, but should the nail be left in for some time, or penetrate to the bono or joint , tho 
condition becomes much more serious, and sometimes fatal, the horse succumbing to septic poisoning. 

Grease Thi& is a disease of the glands of the skin in pastern and fetlock joints, and occurs in both 
fore and hind limbs It is a gradually progressive disease, which commences with a Blight, evil-smelling, 
watery discharge With treatment, the progress of the disease may be retarded, but in time it spreads 
around these joints, thickening the skin and forming nodular tumours, which render tho horse's legs MO 
unsightly that it becomes impossible to work him on the public highway This disease has a dietetic origin, 
and develops in young horses when they have been fed for some time in town on a highly nutritious diet,. 
It does not often affect young horses on the farm, where the diet is, as a rule, not so highly nutritious. Mud 
and wet hasten the disease Horses with thick, hairy legs, are more predisposed to it than horses with flue 
bone and little hair on the legs 

horfeT Crests ~~ SJloulders md Backs Tliese f mi a common cause of trouble m heavy draught and boat 

Sore crests occur on the top of the neck where the collar rests, and are usually due to badly fitlme 
collars or those out of repair and not sufficiently padded 

The heavy draught horse working in a cart is more subject to sore shoulders and back than the horao 
working in a wagon. This is due to the weight on the horse's back and the swaying action of the cart 

vv lil 1.6 li}, j_Q.Oul011 

Boat horses are very subject to sore shoulders. 


These sores take a long time to heal up. Prevention is better than cure Collars and saddles therefore 
should fit well, should be kept well padded, in a good state of repair, and thoroughly dry and clean 

Young horses are very liable to sore shoulders, because the shoulder skin is not yet hardened with 
work. A solution of salt or alum applied to the shoulders, hastens this hardening process 

Eczema. This disease is not common in a well-cared-for stud It is caused by neglect in grooming, 
or by unsuitable feeding. The hair falls out and the skin assumes a dry scaly appearance. Treatment 
of the skin, with good grooming and feeding, will soon cure this trouble. 

Mange This disease is duo to a parasite which burrows under the skin, causing great irritation. 
The parts affected are the head, neck and body The hair falls out, showing skin covered with scaly 
material This is a serious disease in a stud of horses, as the horse affected is, by order of the Ministry 
of Agriculture, prohibited from working on a public highway. The parasites soon pass from one animal 
to another, and the greatest care must be taken in isolating the affected animal and carrying out thorough 
disinfecting measures in the stable Tlie woodwork of the stable, cleaning utensils and harness must be 
thoroughly treated with some parasiticide. The treatment of mange is a tedious one, and it may take 
weeks to make a complete cure 

Leg Mange This disease is also duo to a somewhat similar parasite, but the parasite lives on the skin 
of the legs It causes intense irritation, making the animal stamp and kick Not only does the horse 
suffer, but shoes are twisted and broken, and this means an economic loss The best method of treating 
this disease is by the construction of a leg bath. This bath is filled with a solution of disinfectant, and the 
horse stands in it two or three times a week, thus killing the parasites. 

The Gave of Sicl ttoises 

Loose Box Good musing and attention are of primary importance in the tieatment of disease As a 
rule, the first procedure is to place the sick animal in a well-ventilated and well-lighted loose box, as already 
described In affections of the eyes or nervous system, the loose box should be darkened and the animal 
kept as quiet as possible. It is most essential that the loose box, although well ventilated, should be free 
from draught The temperature of the box should be cool, but not positively cold The box must be kept 
perfectly clean, dry, and sweet with some disinfectant powder 

Rugs, etc The warmth of the patient must be kept up by the use of hood rugs, and bandages on the 
legs According to the weather, the clothing should be increased or decreased A second set of rugs should 
be available, as the patient may break out into an excessive perspiration, wetting the clothing, which must 
then be changed immediately. Bandages which are made of flannel should be wrapped loosely round the 
lower extremities of the legs. If too tight, they retard the circulation 

Grooming When grooming the sick animal, only part of the body should be exposed at one time. 
[Further chills are thua avoided. 

Water Drinking water should be kept in the box at all times, and should be changed frequently, to 
ensure freshness 

Food The appetite of the sick horse is very often capricious and small Small feeds should therefore 
be given, and if the tood is not soon cleared, it should be removed and replaced by a fresh feed later 
on Mangers, buckets and cleaning utensils must be kept scrupulously clean The sick-horse attendant 
should be thoroughly experienced and attentive, and should be most observant, quickly noticing any change 
of symptoms which the sick patient may develop. 



Definition By street cleansing is meant broadly the removal of mud, dust, manure and refuse from, 
the surface of streets, and the operations incidental thereto In certain cases, the service extends to foot- 
paths, alleys, courts and steps 

Composition of Sheet Refuse 'The matter deposited on the streets varies, both in kind and m (juantity, 
according to circumstances It comprises, inter alia 

Dust arising from, the attrition of the road surface , 

Horse droppings, though with the growth of motor transport the streets arc becoming more and 
more free from this material ; 

The pulverised residue of granite chippmgs, shingle, sand, and other material spread by the Local 
Authority to counteract slippery road surfaces ; 

Paper, straw, and other matter falling from passing vehicles, or -" ''*'- " >pt out of tdiopH ; 

Tram and bus tickets, cigarette and sweet wrappings, fruit skit cast aside by a 

careless public 

Each town will have its peculiarities For instance . in Rochdale, cotton, both in its raw state, fallen 
from the bale in transit by road, and in the form of " fluff," escaping from the mill during the iirst stages of 
manufacture, may often be seen in the streets, in spite of efforts to prevent its dissemination Also, mud 
from unadopted and unpaved streets and back passages is carried by the wheels of vehicles and tlio Hlioca 
of pedestrians and deposited on the paved streets. 

Street Cleansing, a Maintenance and Public Health Serotoe. The significance of street cleansing as a 
maintenance service, * e , the maintenance of the streets m such a condition as to make poBSible tlio safe and 
convenient passage of vehicles, animals and pedestrians, is fairly obvious Its significance as a public health 
service may not be immediately apparent, but is more readily understood when wo compare tlio Blato 
of our streets to-day with that which existed in former times Maeaulay in his " Uiatory of England " 
gives an illuminating description of the condition of London streets some two hundred and iifty yearn 
ago. He says . J J 

"? Sl m f * fashlonable P arts of tne capital could be placed before us, aucli as they then wero 
we should be disgusted by their squalid appearance, and poisoned by their noisome atmosphere. Jn 
Covent Garden a filthy and noisy market was held close to the dwellings of the great. Emit, women 
screamed, carters fought , callage stalks and rotten apples accumulated in heaps at the threshold of tlio 
Countess of Berkshire and of the Bishop of Durham. 

" The centre of Lincoln's Inn Fields was an open space where the rabble congregated every evening 
within a few yards of Cardigan House and Winchester House, to hear mountebanks harangue, to see 
bears dance, and to set dogs at oxen. Rullish was shot m every part of the area 
nf w , ^ A S(iuare as a nxptatofar dl the offal and cinders, for all the dead cats and dead fogs 
of Westminster An impudent squatter settled himself there, and built a shed for rubbish under tie 

Ts Ztl]^ ^^ Sal n ^ "} ^ ^ &st ma ^ ates of ^ *^ ^vo banquets and baUB It 
was not till these nuisances had lasted through a whole generation and till much had been written 


about them, that the inhabitants applied to Parliament for permission to put up rails, and to plant 

" When such was the state of the region inhabited by the most luxurious portion of society we 
may easily believe that the great body of the population suffered what would now be considered as 
insupportable grievances The pavement was detestable, all foreigners cried shame upon it The 
drainage was so bad that m rainy weather the gutters soon became torrents Several facetious poets 
have commented on the fury with which these black rivulets roared down Snow Hill and Ludgate Hill, 
bearing to Fleet Ditch a vast tribute of animal and vegetable filth from the stalls of butchers and 
greengrocers. This flood was profusely thrown to right and left by coaches and carts To keep as 
fai from the carriage road as possible was therefore the wish of every pedestrian The mild and timid 
gave the wall The bold and athletic took it 

" When the evening closed in, the difficulty and danger of walking about London became serious 
indeed The gairel windows were opened, and pails weie emptied, with little regard to those who 
were passing below Falls, bruises, and broken bones were of constant occurrence For, till the last 
year of the reign of Charles the Second, most of the streets were left m profound darkness " 

We have certainly progressed since those days ' Our streets are not now regarded to the same extent 
as the natural dumping ground for refuse and filth of all kinds, but progress has been gradual 

Supplementing the improvement (voluntary or enforced) of the habits of the people and the better 
street surfaces with which we are familiar, organised street cleansing is now an accepted duty of the Local 
Authority. Not the least of the blessings resiilting from this service are the improved amenities afforded 
to dwellers m crowded areas, whose houses border the street. In such cases, effective street cleansing 
lightens the task of home cleaning, safeguards the health of the children whose principal playing space is 
in the street, and makes for greater atmospheric purity in districts where breathing space is all too 

Streets, therefore, must be cleansed for reasons of personal comfort, cleanliness and health, as well as 
foi the convenience and safety of pedestrians and traffic, 

Law A Local Authority is empowered or required, as the case may be, to cleanse the streets of its 
district, by virtue of Section 4.2 of the PuUic Health Act, 1875, which also deals with the removal of house 
refuse and the cleansing of privies, cesspools, etc. 

Section 4.4. of the same Act empowers a Local Authority who do not themselves undertake or contract 
for the cleansing of footways and pavements (i,e , footpaths) adjoining any premises, to make bye-laws 
imposing the duty of such cleansing, at such intervals as they think fit, on the occupier of any such 

" An urban authority may also make bye-laws for the prevention of nuisances arising from snow filth 
dust ashes and rubbish. . ." This power is extended by Section 26 of the Public Health Acts Amend- 
ment Act, 1890, to include the making of bye-laws for preventing the dropping or spilling on streets of 
offensive or noxious matter or liquid from receptacles or vehicles, and for compelling the cleansing of any 
place whereon such matter or liquid shall have been dropped or spilt. 

Bye-laws made m this connection by the Rochdale Corporation in 1912 include the following . 

2 The occupier of any premises fronting, adjoining or abutting on any street shall, as soon as con- 
veniently may be after the cessation of any fall of snow, remove or cause to be removed from the foot- 
ways and pavements adjoining such premises all snow fallen or accumulated on such footways and 
pavements in such a manner and with such precautions as will prevent any undue accumulation in any 
channel or carriageway or upon any paved crossing 

3 Every person who shall remove any snow from any premises shall deposit the same in such a 
manner and with such precautions as to prevent any undue accumulation thereof in any channel or 
carriageway or upon any paved crossing. 

If in the process of such removal, any snow be deposited upon any footway or pavement, he shall 
forthwith remove such snow from such footway or pavement 

4 Every person who shall throw salt upon any snow fallen or accumulated on any footway or 



pavement shall forthwith, effectually remove from such footway or pavement the whole of the product 
resulting from the mixture of the salt with the snow 

5 The occupier of any premises who shall remove or cause to be removed any filth, dust, ashes, 01 
rubbish produced upon his premises shall not, m the process of removal, deposit such filth, dust, ashes, 
or rubbish, or cause 01 allow such filth, dust, ashes, or rubbish to be deposited upon any footway, pave- 
ment, or carriageway Provided that this bye-law shall not be deemed to apply in any case where an 
offence is committed against Section 98 of the Town's Improvement Clauses Act, 1847 

6 (a) Every person who shall remove any filth, dust, ashes or rubbish from any premises, or from 
any cart, carriage or other means of conveyance across or along any footway, pavement or carriage- 
way, shall use a suitable vessel or receptacle properly constructed and furnished with a sufficient covei- 
mg so as to prevent the escape of the contents thereof , and shall adopt such other precautions as 
may be necessary to prevent any such filth, dust, ashes, or rubbish from being slopped or spilled, or from 
falling in the process of removal upon such footway, pavement, or carriageway 

(&) Every person who shall convey any filth, dust, ashes, or rubbish through or along any street shall 
use a cart, carriage, or other means of conveyance, properly constructed and furnished with a sullicient 
covering so as to prevent the escape of the contents thereof 

(c) If in the process of such removal or conveyance as aforesaid any filth, dust, ashes, or rubbish 
be slopped or spilled, or fall upon any footway, pavement or carriageway, he shall forthwith remove such 
filth, dust, ashes, or rubbish from the place whereon the same may have been slopped or spilled or may 
have fallen, and shall immediately thereafter thoroughly sweep or otherwise thoroughly cleanse such 
place Provided that this bye-law shall not be deemed to apply in any case where an offence IH com- 
mitted against Section 98 of the Town's Improvement Clauses Act, 1847 

16 Every person who shall offend against any of the foregoing bye-laws shall be liable for every such 
offence to a penalty of five pounds, and in the case of a continuing offence to a further penalty of 
forty shillings for each day after written notice of the offence from the Council 

Provided nevertheless, that the justices or court before whom any complaint may be marie or any 
proceedings may be taken in respect of any such offence may, if they think fit, adjudge the payment 
as a penalty of any sum less than the full amount of the penalty imposed by this bye-law 

Certain bye-laws " for the good rule and government of boroughs " made pursuant to Section 23 of the 
Municipal Corporations Act, 1882, have a bearing on the cleanliness of streets, as witness these extracts 
from bye-laws made in that behalf by the Rochdale Corporation in 1914 

3 No person shall for the purpose of advertising throw about or deposit in any street or public 
place any bill, placard, or other paper. 

4 No person shall (i) sweep or otherwise remove from any shop, house or other premises into any 
stieet any waste paper, hay, straw, shavings, or other refuse, or being a pedlar, hawker, newsvendor 
or other street trader throw down and leave in any street any waste paper, hay, straw, shavings or 
other refuse , (n) throw down and leave in any street any bill, placard or other paper which shall have 
been torn off or removed from any bill-posting station 

5 No person shall in any street or public place throw or leave any orange peel, banana skin or 
other dangerous substance on any footway 

6 No persons shall throw, place or leave, any bottle or any broken glass or other sharp substance 
(not being road material) on or m any street or public place in such a position as to be likely to cause 
injury to passengers or damage to property 

8 (a) The owner of a vehicle shall not allow such vehicle to be used in a street for the purpose 
of carrying coal, coke, lime, mortar or building material, unless it be so constructed and kept in such 
repair that it will carry its load without the repeated dropping of any part or parts thereof 

(&) Every person loading a vehicle with coal, coke, lime, mortar or building material shall load it in 
_ such a manner as to prevent as far as possible the repeated dropping of any part or parts of the load. 

20 If any person offends against these bye-laws he shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding forty 
shillings and in the case of a second or subsequent conviction to a penalty not exceeding five pounds. 


Note that under Section 16 of the Local Government (England and Wales) Act, 1888 

1 A county council shall have the same power of making bye-laws in relation to their county, or 
to any specified part or parts thereof, as the council of a borough have of making bye-laws in relation 
to their borough under section twenty -three of the Municipal Corporations Act, 1882, and section one 
hundred and eighty-seven of the Public Health Act, 1875, shall apply to such bye-laws 

2 Provided that bye-laws made under the powers of this section shall not be of any force or effect 
within any borough 

Bye-laws applied for recently by the Bristol Corporation include the following, which, in some respects, 
is an improvement on others already quoted 

1 No person shall throw down or deposit and leave in any street or public place any newspaper 
or any paper bag, wrapping or sheet such as is likely to create or tend to create a litter in or to affect 
or tend to affect injuriously the amenities of the street or public place 

In most towns the law relating to the cleansing of footpaths (except of snow) appears to be unwritten. 
The Corporation usually cleanse pavements adjoining public buildings, municipal property and vacant lands, 
but the remainder is left to the occupiers of the adjoining properties, except that the orderly men and 
sweeping gangs remove any large pieces of paper or other littei as they proceed afong their appointed streets 
In 1910, out of twenty-nine of the larger English and Scottish cities and towns, it was found that in only 
eleven of such towns did the Corporation carry out the work of footpath cleansing 

The duty of regularly cleansing footpaths could be imposed on the occupiers of premises adjoining such 
footpaths by bye-laws made under Section 44. of the Public Health Act, 1875, but the writer is not aware 
of any such bye-law The Corporation of Swansea proposed to make such a bye-law in 1921, but for 
some reason it was not approved. 

In London the cleansing (including after a fall of snow) of the footways of streets which are repairable 
by the inhabitants at large is placed upon the sanitary authority by Section 29 of the Metropolitan Manage- 
ment Act, 1855. 

In the case of streets not repairable by the inhabitants at large, the duty of cleansing footways after a 
fall of snow is placed on the occupier of the adjoining premises by the Metropolitan Boroughs (General) 

Section 45 of the Public Health Act, 1875, empowers any urban authority to provide, in proper and 
convenient situations, receptacles for the temporary deposit and collection of dust, ashes and rubbish , 
they may also provide fit buildings and places for the deposit of any matter collected by them under 
Section 42. 

This section appears to cover the provision in streets of orderly bins and litter baskets for the temporary 
deposit of street refuse, but not of orderly bins for the storage of sand, grit, or shingle, so the deficiency 
is remedied by : 

Section 13, Public Health Act, 1925 : 

(1) The local authority may provide and maintain in or under any street, orderly bins or other 
receptacles, of such dimensions and in such position as the local authority may from time to time 
determine, for the collection and temporary deposit of street refuse and waste paper, or the storage of 
sand, cinders, grit or shingle. 

(2) Nothing in this section shall be taken as empowering the local authority to hinder the reason- 
able use of the street by the public or any person entitled to use the same, or as empowering the local 
authority to exercise their powers under this section in such a way as to create a nuisance to any 
adjacent owner or occupier. 

This latter Act is an adoptive one (so far as relates to our subject) ; the Kochdale Corporation have 
not adopted it, but have a similar power under the Bochdale Corporation Act, 1925, 
Section 27 of the Public Health Acts Amendment Act, 1890, reads 

(1) Where any court, or where any passage leading to the back of several buildings in separate 
occupations, and not being a highway repairable by the inhabitants at large, is not regularly and 


effectually swept and kept clean and free from, rubbish or other accumulation to the satisfaction of the 
urban authority, the urban authority may, if they think fit, cause to be swept and cleaned such court 
or passage. 

(2) The expenses thereby incurred shall be apportioned between the occupiers of the buildings 
situated in the court or to the back of which the passage leads in such shares as may be determined 
by the surveyor of the urban authority, or (in case of dispute) by a court of summary jurisdiction, and 
in default of payment any share so apportioned may be recovered summarily from the occupier ow 
whom it is apportioned. 

Sh eet Littei The degree of cleanliness of the streets of a town has a marked effect on the impressior 
formed by visitors The unnecessary littering of streets betokens a lack of civic responsibility on tlu 
part of the offender It is both foolish and a breach of good manners, because every piece of paper oj 
other refuse dropped in the street has to be collected at the expense of the ratepayers, % e , the public, and 
until it is collected, is an offence to the eye, helping to spoil the amenities of the place for those who arc 
more sensitive and observant. 

Bye-laws are helpful only if they are vigorously enforced by the appropriate authority, and in this con 
nection it is interesting to note that the Home Secretary, in a recent case, before approving the making 
of a bye-law intended to prevent street litter, required an assurance that the Local Authority (Bnsto 
Corporation) would (a) make a continued effort to bring and keep the bye-law before the public notice 
and to educate public opinion in the matter , (5) make a liberal provision of receptacles m the streets in whic] 
the public must be encouraged to deposit waste paper , and (c) do everything to uphold the bye-law an< 
prevent it becoming a dead letter But all the existing bye-laws dealing with street litter fall short of tli 
maximum usefulness, in that they leave untouched the scattering in the streets of tram and bus tickets- 
one of the most prolific present-day sources of street litter. The Englishman is jealous of his liberty, eve 
of his liberty to be a nuisance to others, and does not like restrictions In Vienna, the authorities are no 
so diffident about hurting the feelings of the tram-ticket fiend There, we are told, the police have powe 
to collect an immediate fine of 2s from any person who litters the streets One imagines that the street 
of our towns would be practically free from preventable litter very soon after the adoption of such a rule 

Publicity In the absence of effective measures for the suppression of preventable litter by pedestrian! 
the active cleansing officer has to resort to publicity in varying forms and intensity In Rochdale, tli 
publicity takes the following forms : 

Instruction to schoolchildren by teachers the Education Secretary circularises all schools o 
this subject at the request of the Cleansing Director 

Slogans painted on Cleansing Department vehicles : " Don't litter the streets " 

Enamelled signs on wiie litter-baskets attached to tramway standards and lamp-posts. " Hoi 
to keep the town tidy Please deposit paper, tram-tickets, etc , m this basket " 

Notices painted on orderly handcarts " Don't litter the streets. Please deposit waste papo 
match boxes, etc , in here, or the wire baskets on standards " 

A specially designed device printed in colours, on the envelopes used by the Cleansing Departmen 
This device, which displays the departmental slogan (and a view of Eochdale's famous Town Ha 
to give it local colour), is also printed on adhesive stamps, which are attached, in suitable cases, 
correspondence and other documents emanating from the department. 

Artistically printed notices displayed in tramcars 

" Keep Rochdale tidy and be proud of it 
Don't drop your ticket in the street," 

Immediate personal appeal by members of the Cleansing Department staff, to persons seen to lit! 
the streets. 

Reference to the subject during lectures on " Public Cleansing " by the Cleansm* Director or 1 


Street Surfaces, Following the advent of the motor, the re-asserted supremacy of the road has 



to the assistance of the Cleansing Officer The laying of improved street surfaces, such as tar macadam, 
asphalt and concrete, has in recent years very greatly facilitated the work of street cleansing In the 
days of the old water-bound (or mud-bound) street, enormous quantities of mud in winter, and dust in summer, 
had to be removed from the street surfaces at heavy total costs 

Water-bound macadam requires a big expenditure if it is to be kept clean, and if the surface is of soft 
stone, or uneven and full of potholes, it becomes an impossibility to maintain it clean Such streets have 
to be swept with hand-brooms, as horse-drawn or machine brushes draw out the mud binding, with con- 
sequent quick breaking up of the surface Happily, this type of street is fast disappearing in towns It 
is being replaced by more stable and impervious materials 

The smoother and more impervious the street surface, the more sanitary it becomes, since it is more 
easily maintained in a state of cleanliness. Graded according to hygienic merit, street surfaces may be 
arranged as follows . 

1. Asphalt 

2. Tar macadam, with closely sealed surfaces. 

3. Wood paving. 

4. Granite setts. 

5. Water-bound macadam. 

Closely associated with its sanitary merit is the amount of labour required to cleanse a street surface ; 
and the efficiency for this purpose of the various kinds of surface follows generally the same grading, sub] ect 
to the proviso that the labour required for cleansing a given area of every kind of street surface increases, 
as the condition of the surface deteriorates Thus, an asphalt street m poor condition will require more 
labour than a wood-paved street in good condition 

It should not be overlooked, however, that on the smoother surfaces, such as asphalt and concrete, 
every particle of dirt IH apparent, so that, if they are to look well, such surfaces require more frequent and 
thorough cleansing than, say, sett paving, which hides much refuse in its crevices In certain situations, 
too, the work of cleansing smooth-surfaced streets is increased by the fact that grit or shingle, put down 
to counteract slippermoss, becomes crushed by traffic and must soon be removed 

Wood-block paving occupies a position midway between asphalt and granite setts, generally calling for 
more cleansing than the former and less than the latter. This form of paving is being replaced to an 
increasing extent by more modern and impervious forms of paving, but it is worth while here to say that 
wood blocks used for this purpose might be either hard woods of the Jarrah type or soft creosoted deals. 
From a cleansing and sanitary point of view, the hard woods are good, if properly seasoned and well shrunk 
before being laid, but failure to observe this condition has caused much trouble, through the blocks becom- 
ing twisted, loosened and rocked from their foundations m course of time by the continued wear of traffic 

Good dry deal can bo made almost impervious to moisture by forcing into the planks before cutting a 
saturating quantity of creosote under pressure After a time, however, continual heavy traffic causes a 
crushing of the top crust, and the opening fibres permit dung and other refuse to be ground in, with consequent 
deterioration of its hygienic properties. 

According to Mr. T. P. Francis, City Surveyor of Bangor, " wood-block paving has in some quarters 
been condemned, in consequence of an attributed liability for the dust, occasioned by wear, to irritate the 
eyes and lungs It should only be used on wide, sun-dried streets ; it absorbs liquids and manures and, at 
times, gives off a disagreeable smell in narrow streets " 

Water-bound macadam occupies the lowest place in the scale of cleansable street surfaces, for reasons 
already explained 

For their satisfactory cleansing, street surfaces, of whatever kind, must be kept in a good state of repair ; 
the breaking open of streets for work on mains and sewers greatly increases the difficulties of cleansing. 

Local Oond^t^ons. The work of street cleansing in towns can be divided into the following classes . 

1. Gritting. 

2 Washing, swilling or flushing. 

3. Watering or sprinkling 


4 Sweeping, and removal and disposal of sweepings 

5 Gully cleansing, and removal and disposal of gully contents. 

6 Snow clearance. 

The exact manner in which the work is executed in different towns will vary according to their size, 
situation, climate, industry or class, road gradients, type and condition of road surfaces, preponderant type 
of transport character of the population and administration of the district The standard of street cleanli- 
ness maintained may he affected by the demands of the public , it may have to be modified for reasons of 
cost and further, it is dependent on the ability of the executive officer to give value for money Generally, 
the standard of cleanliness is rising , what would pass without notice a few years ago will now raise a storm 

of protests ,-,,. 1 1 

Whatever method we adopt or practise, it is our duty to cleanse the streets in the best possible manner, 
at the lowest possible cost, and with the least inconvenience, both to vehicular traffic and to pedestrians , 
and therefore the Cleansing Director must be always observant, and fully informed of modern developments, 
so that he may choose the methods best suited to his town and circumstances. 


Op&atwns and Methods The variety of local conditions, and therefore of methods, m different towns 
is so great as to make it hardly possible for any one officer to have experience of either all conditions or all 
methods Therefore, the preparation of such a chapter as this necessitates an examination and comparison of 
experiences and views from many quarters, and their consideration m the light of one's own experience and 
-judgment It is in this attitude that the writer has approached his task 

All the estimates of output and cost of work given in this chapter should be regarded merely as approxi- 
mations, the variations m circumstances alone being sufficient, in many cases, to render comparison at 
least misleading, if not impossible ; further, it has to be admitted that the accurate measurement of work 
done in street cleansing is a difficult matter, and reliable costing of the various processes a rare event 

Gutting Road-construction engineers have long sought a road surface which, while being sufficiently 
strong, durable and even for modern requirements, should be non-slippery under normal conditions, especially 
on gradients But practically all impervious road surfaces become slippery under certain conditions 
(especially when they are not perfectly clean), and are then unsafe for horses, to a less extent for motor 
vehicles, and in extreme cases for pedestrians Generally, the remedy is the spreading of granulated material 
of suitable hardness 

A heavy shower of ram usually precludes any need of sand or grit, but a very slight shower, a mere 
damping process, renders the surface greasy and difficult to all types of traffic Roads are usually m a 
dangerous condition immediately following a mist, which causes the surfaces, especially those paved with 
hard wood or asphalt, to become speedily coated with a slippery film, not sufficiently wet or substantial 
to be removed by a squeegee or brush Frost preceding, accompanying or following mist or Jog will cause 
sudden slippermess, while a week's continued hot sunny weather will give an almost glassy Rmoothimss to 
well-worn hard road surfaces which are subject to heavy traffic. 

The process known as " gritting " or " shingling " (or if sand be used, " sanding ") should be earned 
out as sparingly as is consistent with safe road conditions, for two reasons : 

1. Economy of material, labour and transport 

2 The grit is reduced ultimately to dust or mud, and, as such, becomes a nuisance and callh for 
further treatment 

The choice of material depends on several factors, viz , the type of road surface, the specific cause of 
slippermess and the availability (including cost) of various kinds of material suitable for the purpose 
Material used for gritting must . 

(a) Give a ready grip to the feet of horses. 

(6) Not crush too easily 

(c) Not be so hard as to damage the road surface 


Granite chippmga, of ^ or \ inch down, but without dust, are good Also good, but not quite so hard, 
is spar gravel of similar size both are clean in use The price per ton of these materials, in truck loads to 
user's station, will be in the region of granite chippmgs, 20s , spar gravel, 15s 

Sand, which must be dry, for effective spreading, and sharp, to serve its purpose, is the best material 
to use for the safety of pedestrians on slippery footpaths, slopes, steps and crossings, and will be shovel- 
spread by hand 

Grit may be shovel-spread by hand from carts or motors, or by means of special gritting machines, 
which may be either 

(a) Horse-drawn or trailer vehicles, specially constructed for the purpose , or 

(b) Special machines, such as the " Simplex," which, in use, is towed behind a horse-cart or motor 
lorry, the container or hopper of which is hand-fed from, the towing vehicle The relatively low cost 
of this machine (35 10s ) is one of its attractions 

The distribution of grit from a machine is by means of a revolving plate, on to which the grit is delivered 
by gravity at the required rate, and from which it is thrown by centrifugal force In the case of (a) the 
material is fed towards the distributor either by hand or by a wooden conveyor or brattice, chain-driven 
from one road wheel, while the distributor is similarly duven In both cases (a) and (&), the width of the 
cast or spread and the rate of feed are adjustable 

The quantity of grit required for a given area, and the cost of spieadmg, will vary according to circum- 
stances, but may be taken approximately as follows 

Hand Spiearl Simplex Machine Spread 

Per 1000 square yards 

Grit icqmrecl . . 75 cwt to 1 25 crvvts 5 cwt to 75 cwt 

Cost, including grit, labour and haulage Sd to I6d Qd to Sd 

Machine users claim as further advantages a more even distribution of the material, which probably 
accounts for the smaller quantity required, and greater speed In this latter connection, we must know 
that when gritting is necessary it is required at once. 

Advocates of hand spreading claim that a man spreading by hand can regulate his distribution of shingle 
to moot the varying requirements of different stretches or patches of road during one journey, e g , gradients 
or flats, exposed places or sheltered, wide places or narrow, smooth paving or rough, and when passing 
standing horses and vehicles, but hand-spreading, to be satisfactory, requires trained men, possessing the 
necessary dexterity and speed in the use of the shovel, and intelligence to gauge the varying requirements 
Further, they must be reliable and must spread evenly, as an irregular distribution is generally ineffective 

Whichever method is used, a motor lorry is more suitable than a horse as the hauling unit, being in 
less danger on the unshmgled portion of the road, which of necessity both must travel, and being speedier 
in transit between the depot and the point of operation. 

For immediate application at dangerous or important points at a distance from the cleansing depot, it 
is usual to store a quantity of suitable material, either in shingle bins or on private property by arrangement 
with the occupier Such material is spread as required, by the appropriate employees, or in some cases may 
be available for use by private carters using the particular road, 

Washing, Flushing, or Swilling Experts agree that the most thorough cleansing of street surfaces can 
be accomplished by washing such surfaces with water applied under pressure, either from, hand-hose con- 
nected to street hydrants or by special machines. But this method can only be applied extensively and 
regularly, if 

(a) The water supply of the town is ample, and not subject to curtailment in dry periods 
(6) The sewerage and sewage disposal systems are adequate to deal with the additional water and 
refuse resulting from this process 

(c) The road smfaces are sufficiently well made and maintained to withstand the searching effect 
of water so applied. 


The great advantage of this process, which, is known variously as washing, flushing or swilling, is that it 
effectively gets rid of all dust and slime, and of oil from motor vehicles , further, the need for gritting is 
greatly reduced In the summer it has a refreshingly cooling effect 

The work must be done at night, when the streets are free from traffic and people An important pre- 
liminary to this work is first of all to remove, by sweeping and picking up, all loose material If this plan 
were always adopted there would be little objection to street washing, but the custom does not appear to 
be prevalent Consequently a quantity of material which should be picked up is deposited in the sewers, 
to the annoyance of the officials responsible for their cleansing Any practice that wilfully removes the 
work from one department, to cause it to devolve upon another, is to be deprecated 

[By courtesy of Dennis Si others, Ltd., of GuildfonL 
Fit*. 119. "Dennis " street -washing and sprinkling machine, 

The BorougJi of Lambeth owns two of these llW-gallon combined street washing and watering 
machines and gully emptiers. 

Given the necessary pre-requisite of comparative freedom from loose refuse, the effect of street washing 
is substantially that of a heavy rainstorm, therefore it is not usual to wash streets which do not require 
the service more often than twice a week, except m periods of dry weather , the English climate usually 
obliges at least twice a week ' This means in effect that washing is done on important streets only. 

Of the two alternatives, hose-washing by hand is the more effective, but this calls for a sufficient number 
of hydrants at distances of not more than 100 to 200 yards apart A hose-gang of two men, with a reel 
barrow carrying three 50-feet lengths of hose and a stand-pipe, is capable of washing about 2500 square 
yards (about 250 yards of 30-feet road) per hour, at a cost of, say, Is to Is. 3d! per 1000 square yards for 
washing only The pressure at the end of a hose, varying from 40 to 90 Ib per square inch, will loosen most 
of the refuse adhering to the road Any caked mud or manure clinging to the surface m spite of the flushing 
must be removed by scrapers The cleansing must be thorough if it is to serve its purpose Immediately 
following the hose-gang there should be two men armed with brooms and squeegees to move slime to the 


channels and sweep it into the gullies They should also be provided with tools for opening gratings and 
letting off any choked gullies which they encounter 

"Where hose-washing is for any reason impracticable, recourse must be made to mechanical washing 
machines These usually carry one or two circular rose sprays or fish-tail jets, low in the front of the vehicle 
The vehicle may be provided with special side jets for washing channels, especially when the front ]ets are 
not controllable. A powerful pump is fitted, which forces the water through the ]ets Such machines 
may be petrol driven, or electrically piopelled A tramway flushing and watering car, of 2000 gallons 
capacity, is used in dry periods over the tramway routes at Kochdale It is generally admitted that 
mechanical washing machines do not work as efficiently as the hose and reel under manual labour, but the 
machines are being continually improved and rendered more economical in working. 

Sweeping Sweeping may be manual, or mechanical, or a combination of both 

Hand sweeping, which is mostly a daytime service, is usually practised in streets of secondary or less 
importance. It may be carried out either on the length system, otherwise known as the beat, or patrol 
system , or on the gang system ; or by a combination of both In the former, each man is assigned a section 
of street (or streets) the length of which is determined by its width, amount and kind of traffic, importance 
of the street and the nature of its surface. The condition of a lengthman's street or streets is a constant 
index of his efficiency. Under this system a fair output would be from f to 1 mile of 30-feet street per day, 
variable according to the amount of work 

Sweeping by the gang system is done, as its name implies, by gangs, usually consisting of from five to 
seven men, including a leading hand or working ganger All the gang except two, sweep transversely across 
the road, commencing in the middle, and pushing the refuse into the channels One or more of these sweepers 
should be provided with a scraper, fixed to the top of his brooms tail, with which to remove any caked refuse 
The remaining two sweepers follow on, sweeping along the channels, and forming the refuse into small heaps 
to be loaded into carts 

An approximate output for satisfactory sweeping would be one-twentieth of a mile per man per hour ; 
but by what is known as " picking," i e , sweeping the dirty places and missing the clean portions, twice 
this output could be achieved. 

Where the gang system is worked in conjunction with mechanical sweepers, the gang is reduced to not 
more than four sweepers, whose work consists of " rucking " or making into heaps, near the channels, the 
" trail " left by the machine , in. sweeping the channels, which the average machine sweeper cannot do, and 
crossings, ^ e , the paved ends of abutting streets; removing the more noticeable litter from footpaths and 
any refuse dropped on the carriageway since the passage of the sweeping machine, and opening any choked 
gully grates Machine sweepers are of two types (a) horse-drawn, and (&) self-propelled Both have 
rotary brushes so arranged as to sweep obliquely to the line of travel. As the brush revolves, the sweepings 
are pushed outwards towards the rear end of the brush, and deposited in a line at the side of the machine. 
The brush can be lifted off 01 lowered on to the road by means of a lever under the control of the driver 

It is generally admitted that horse-drawn sweeping machines impose such a strain on horses as to shorten 
materially their working life. 

A good mechanically operated sweeper will do the work of from ten to twelve men The machine starts 
with the off-side wheel just over the middle of the road, thus sweeping to a line on the near side It then 
returns, sweeping down the other Bide, and comes back over the first side, sweeping the line of dust still 
nearer the channel. The process is repeated until, when the machine has finished, two lines of sweepings 
lie on the street, one near each channel Two sweepers follow and form this into small heaps, which are 
afterwards picked up by the carts. By this method, a good petrol machine will sweep from | to 1 mile 
of 30-feet road per hour. 

Approximate costs of sweeping secondary roads by hand and machine are 

, square yards 

Hand sweeping and rucking . . Is- 3<2 

Picking up , . 3cL 

Machine sweeping . . 6dT 

Bucking by hand . .3d! 

Picking up ... , . , 3d, 

1 6 



A development of the sweeping machine is the combined sweeper and collector, a machine which not 
only sweeps the streets, but picks up the sweepings at the same time Where the stieet surfaces are suffi- 
ciently good to allow the machine to do its work well, this combination of operations is ideal in the hygienic 
aspect, eliminating the possible scattering of dust, with its consequent irritant effect on humans, and the 
contamination of food stuffs A diagonal road brush is set to sweep the refuse from the channel or curb 
to the centre of the road, directly opposite to the practice with non-collecting sweeping machines At 
the rear end of this broom there is a casing having an opening through which the sweepings are thrown 
This casing contains a series of rotors, or transfer brushes, which lift the refuse and deposit it through 
another opening at the top end of the casing into the body, which is capable of holding about 3 tons of 
refuse and of being tipped The reason for the alteration in the direction of sweep is that the greatest 
proportion of street refuse is found in or near the channel or gutter, and by sweeping this first, any smplus 
not immediately removed by the rotary brooms is left for the next traverse, when the amount of material 
will be considerably reduced and the rotors will be able to deal with it in an efficient manner 

As the depth of the channels varies considerably, even in the same town, it is essential that the utmost 
freedom should be allowed the road brush near the curb, and the designers of this machine have met the 
conditions by fixing the operation of collection on the of! side as being least subject to variations in the road 

The all-m cost of operating this outfit varies according to local conditions from Sd to Is 3d. per 1000 
square yards. 

ITor completeness, mention should be made of sweeping machines constructed for use over train routes, 
and towed during night time behind tramway tractive units, which may also be watering cars The 
system is falling out of favour, on account of its being limited to tramway routes, of its cumbcrsomeness 
and consequent inconvenience to night motor traffic 

The " Otdeily " System " Street Orderlies " (either boys or men) are allocated definite lengths of busy 
or important streets to keep clean during the day They are provided with brooms, squeegees for use in 
wet weather, bags for paper, and hand-carts or barrows in which to load their sweepings The orderly 
works up and down his length as circumstances require, but usually four or five times a day, collecting the 
miscellaneous litter which each day brings to his " beat " He empties his paper sack and hand-cart at 
some convenient dump or small depot, to be removed at suitable intervals by cart or motor to the appointed 
tip Alternatives to this procedure are the depositing of such sweepings in 

(a) Street orderly bins, sunk into the footpath and emptied at night. 

(6) Bins carried on a bin-truck or carrier Such trucks usually carry two bins, and may take the 
place of barrows or hand-carts These bins are emptied as often as necessary during the day into a 
visiting motor vehicle, which tours the district and relieves all orderlies of the collected matter. 

The orderly service in busy thoroughfares is usually a day-time adjunct of night cleansing, and about 
three orderlies per mile are required for 30 feet streets 

Collection of Sweepings Where the collection, picking up, or <c lifting " of sweepings is done manually, 
the horse-drawn cart is still the most-used vehicle By reason of the greatly reduced quantity of street 
refuse removable these days, motor vehicles have less advantage over horse-drawn vehicles than in mosb 
other occupations The horse can move continually, the driver is the picker up, and on the casual tips 
frequently used for the deposit of sweepings, the horse-cart is usually more manageable than a motor 

Disposal of Sweepings The disposal of the matter collected from the streets is especially dependent on 
local conditions In former days, street sweepings were easily disposable to gardeners and farmers, but 
with their smaller manure content, and the addition of oil and petrol from motor traffic,, they are now more 
difficult to get rid of Apart from such outlets as remain in that direction, the principal method is tipping 
or dumping According to circumstances, the scavenging carts may tip their contents either on suitable 
tips, or failing this, at a depot,-for subsequent removal to the ultimate tip by road vehicles, aerial ropeway, 
canal barge or railway, as the case may be 

Spnnlehng and Watering Incidental to sweeping in dry weather, is the process of sprinkling, i e,, the 
spraying of water, under slight pressure only, on the street surfaces to be swept, the object being to damp 
the dust and so prevent its dissemination while sweeping and lifting are m progress. 


For hand or horse-broom sweeping, the operation is performed by a watering machine, ^ e , a, vehicle 
either horse-drawn or self-propelled, carrying a tank of suitable capacity (varying from 350 to 2000 gallons), 
and fitted with a sprinkling device controlled by the driver 

All modem self-propelled sweepers are equipped with water tanks and sprinkling devices, and sprinkle 
as they sweep The performance of both operations by one unit at the same time has its advantages 
Under modern conditions, i e , of fast-moving traffic and less street refuse, there is a distinct tendency in 
dry weather for such refuse to be wafted to the channels, so that sprinkling (and sweeping) on the crown of 
the road becomes less of a necessity, and this is especially applicable to asphaltic surfaces, which are free 
from joints or interstices which tend to hold the refuse , instead it is found useful to " water " the channels 
and the adjacent strip of street surface The term " watering " implies the use of more water to a given 
area, i e its application under rather more pressure than mere " sprinkling " 

Small hand-drawn water cartb are available for sprinkling m or near the channels, and m certain circum- 
stances may be very useful in connection with street orderly work. 

In very hot weather watering may proceed quite independently of sweeping, for the purposes of pre- 
venting the dissemination of dust, counteracting the softening and lifting of pitch grout and tar binding, 
and in making town conditions more tolerable for the general public 

As an emeigoncy measure, for the sprinkling of places where dust becomes a nuisance dmmg the day 
following a change in the weather, and when it is difficult to obtain hired horses for drawing the water vans, 
one Cleansing Director has provided his length-men with laige watering cans, which they stoie in convenient 
places and use as required 

In coastal towns, sea water may provide an alternative to fresh water for street wateiing On account 
of the affinity of salt for moisture, streets watered with salt watei lemam damp for a much longer time, 
and one authority states that one watering with sea water is as effective as thiee waterings with fiesh water, 
so that if sea water can be procured and laid on the road at any cost less than thiee times the fiesh water 
cost, it is preferable. However, it must be applied carefully, as it damages varnish, e y , of vehicles and shop 

The management should devote some attention to the care of water-carrying vehicles, particularly at 
the close of the watering season. The intermittent application of water upon the iion tanks, together 
with the action set up by the use of disinfectants, speedily cause a rust to collect in the pipes, iron fittings 
and tanks It is therefore advisable to scrape thoroughly the exposed portions of the tank, etc , and to 
give the surfaces thus cleaned a coat of good lead paint, they can then be put by until required for early 
spring painting. All repays should be taken m hand during winter months, it being usual to overhaul a 
few at one time, HO as to retain as many as possible for snow purposes, etc 

The intonoi should bo scraped, cleansed and treated with bitumastic or other snnilai preparation 
The pipes should bo painted on the outside and freed from rust, corrosion and scale on the inside 
Such precautions taken in time materially lengthen the life of the vans and fittings 

Gully Cleansing. It is one of the duties of the cleansing department to make general arrangements for 
tho regular removal of all refuse from gullies, together with an efficient system of flushing, to keep them clean 
and properly trapped Gullies are receptacles placed at convenient intervals in the channels of streets to 
permit a ready escape of the surface water into the sewers They may be constructed of bricks, rendered 
in cement on the surface, of glazed baked earthenware, or of cast iron, and aie so made that the means of 
outlet into the sewer is brought near the top, thus providing a deep receptacle for the settling of any refuse 
matter that may be washed down and preventing such refuse from passing into the sewers 

It is this refuse that requires to be removed periodically, as in the first place it is likely to become offensive 
if allowed to remain long, and secondly, if not emptied it is likely to accumulate so as to stop the outlet, 
thereby preventing the passage of surface water into the sewer and causing the overflow of the gully. 
Immediately a gully is emptied it should be flushed thoroughly with clean water. This ensuies thorough 
trapping and forces into the sewer the stale water, which may have become so highly charged with gases 
as to become useless as a seal 

It must always be remembered that a water seal is only effective so long as it does not become logged with, 
gases. A given quantity of water can only' cariv a fixed measure of gas, consequently when the maximum 
quantity of gas has been absorbed, it will allow any fmther addviion that may be thrust upon it to pass 




through It thus becomes imperative at all times to flush the gullies thoroughly, to ensure renewing of the 
water seal This also becomes an urgent necessity in very diy weather, as the heat of the atmosphere 
combined with the heat of the sewers tends to dry up the water rapidly, thus causing a direct opening 
between the street and sewers, whereby offensive smells arise, causing serious trouble to the health of the 
people, more especially to the children who make the stieets their playground 

A gully is protected on the top by means of an iron grid, placed so as to peimit of a ready flow of water 

and at the same time prevent any large 

SECTION OF GULLY ai tides of refuse from passing into it. 

Care should be taken that the bais of 
the grid be kept free from all aecumiila- 

HINGED GRID * lon f fi^h, so as to permit of a free 

flow of surface water in times of flood 
A street gully should be so con- 

CAST IRON J-^ \ I J^J. structed as to meet the following re- 

FRAME/X ^^ fl ^~~ qmrements 

(a) It should be strong, simple and 
able to be cleaned easily, with smooth 
sides and bottom. 

(&) It should possess a dee]) water 

(c) It should be of sufficient capacity 
to servo the requirements of the road 
surface in which it is placed. 

(d) The outlet should bo made so 
that it is in no danger of being damaged 
by heavy traffic passing over it. 

(e) It should be so constructed as 
not to be easily choked by the washing 
down of ordinary road litter. 

Where- tlirao arc not sufficient gul- 
lies to warrant the employment of a 
mechanical gully ompUer, or where 
the gullies arc so small as to make ib 

impracticable, the work has to bo done 

'SEDIMENT " * by hand, the, method being to lift out 

the sludge by means of a Hcoop attached 
to a long handle, and deposit it either 
(a) direct into a vehicle, (&)mto buckets 

^ , which are emptied into tho vehicle or 

(c) on t/lio nl/root surface, to be picked 

FlG - 12 - up and put into the vehicle later. 

' Methods (a) and (&) arc prefarabla to 

(c), but where (c) obtains, the place where the gully contents have been put to await picking up should 
be swilled and brushed afterwards 

The vehicles used for the removal of gully contents are either tumbler carts, or, if an ordinary scavenging 
cart is used, it should be lined inside with sheet iron or steel, and the tail door properly fitted to prevent 
the escape of the semi-liquid contents. 

A water cart should follow to flush the gully and re-seal it with clean water. An approximate cost for 
the complete operations of hand-emptying, lifting and carting away of contents, flushing the gully and 
swilling and sweeping the surrounds, is from 9<Z to Is per gully per emptying. 

During recent years several makes of mechanical vehicles of all types, steam, petrol and electrically 


operated, have been developed for gully emptying, -with considerable success These machines withdraw 
the contents fiom the gully by suction , in the case of the petrol and electrically operated vehicles, a vacuum 
is created in the sludge tank by a high-speed rotary air exhauster In the case of the steam-operated 
vehicles, the vacuum is created in the mud tank or, better still, in a special vacuum, dome, by means of a 
steam ejector The preference lies with the steam vehicles, as the vacuum is obtainable more quickly, 
and it is available foi use instantly upon the arrival of the machine at the gully The mechanical gully 
emptiers are provided with tanks for cairying fresh water for flushing and le-sealing the gullies after empty- 
ing The cost of machine emptying of gullies varies from 5d to 8d per gully, according to circumstances 

Naturally, the frequency of emptying will affect both the cost per gully and in total With the reduction 
in the quantity of refuse produced in the streets, gullies do not now require to be emptied as often as 
formerly Once a month may bo a quite reasonable interval, but it depends on the circumstances A 
gully at the bottom of a steep hill will silt up more quickly than the average, 

Where the gully contents are small in quantity, they may be deposited at the local tip, provided that they 
ai e covered with street sweepings, screened refuse dust, or other less offensive material Where there is a 
large quantity of this material, a good plan is to deposit it at the depot in a special tank or pit, so constructed 
that most of the water drains away. At convenient intervals the solid matter or sludge is removed, either 
by hand or by gravity, according to the construction of the pit or tank, and is taken to the tip. 


Effects of Weather on, Street Cleansing The routine work of street cleansing is always subject to 
emergency calls by reason of sudden weather changes and storms Typical cases aie 

(a) Gritting, in the circumstances already explained. 

(&) The clearance of channels, gullies and grates choked with debus washed down during a 

(c) Watering, necessitated by diy wind or sudden heat This liability necessitates provision for a 
rapid change-over Depots and sub-depots must be near the work, and preferably m the centie of the 
districts they serve, Sub-depots may be merely lock-up tool sheds containing orderly barrows or 
trucks, blushes, shovels, squeegees, scrapers, gully tools, paper sacks and a supply of salt, sand and 

Rapid changes of climatic conditions also call for experience on the part of officials and workers 

Tools and Implements, 

(a) Biooms. 'There is no tool of such importance to the scavenger as a good broom For the bristles, 
pure Bahia bass is preferable to, but more expensive than African bass The latter is stiff and brittle, it 
soon breaks, and does not sweep as clean as does Bahia, which is more elastic The life of a broom varies 
accoiding to the way it is used, the weather (a broom wears away quicker in wet weather than in dry) and 
the type of road surface, but under average conditions should last about a month. For machine brooms 
a mixture of selected Bahia and African bass is found to be the most suitable If the machine is in regular 
use, a refill will last from 4. to 6 days or from 65 to 140 brush miles, accoiding to circumstances. 

(6) Squeegees. A good squeegee, which is an extremely useful tool for use on footpaths and smooth 
carriageway surfaces in wet weather, should clean the surface and leave it almost dry Correct thick- 
ness and elasticity of the rubber govern its effectiveness A composition rubber containing about 15% 
of pure rubber is suitable, its thickness varying from | inch down, according to the length of the frame, 
which may be from 18 inches to 3 feet The rubber overlaps the ends of the frame about 1 inch, for channel- 
cleaning purposes. The weight of the frame governs the amount of rubber piotrudmg, as it must always 
be somewhat rigid and resistant to do effective work. 

(c) latter Baskets Strong, well-made baskets, about 17 inches deep of 14-gauge wire, f-inch diamond 
mesh on |-mch frames, heavily galvanised, and suitable ioi attaching to tramway standards and lamp posts, 


cost about 10s each in lots of tkiee dozen 01 more Enamelled plates containing appiopnate wording for 
attaching thereto cost extra, fiom about 3d to 2s each 

Employees The scattered location of the stieet cleaners and the difficulty of measuring then output 
accurately make supervision difficult, so that efficiency is rather to be sought fiom dependable and con- 
scientious workeis carefully trained and fairly treated Modern conditions demand a bettoi type of 
employee than we have grown to connect with scavenging A higher standard of street cleanliness and 
the use of mechanical appliances call for more intelligent workeis , while modern traffic conditions iule 
out the employment of old or disabled men who are no longer useful on other work Tn this latlei con- 
nection the following figures, showing the traffic census foi one week on tlnce streets in Leicestoi in 1925, 
will suppoit the contention that in busy places, the street cleaner needs to be young, observant, and agile 

Motor velucles and traileis 

Horse-drawn vehicles 

Tramcars, cycles, cattle, handcarts, barrows, etc 













Organisation Method and sound organisation are vital to success in street cleansing Speaking broadly, 
the cleansing official must accept his local conditions as he finds them, and must shape his system to suit 

It is necessaiy first to classify all the stieets which have to be cleaned in three or four grades, according 
to their importance from the cleansing view-point, eg 

(a) Shopping centre, business streets, steps and main traffic routes daily cleansing and continuous 
orderly work 

(6) Business and warehouse back streets, suburban business streets ' daily cleansing. 

(c) Same as (&), but less used cleansing on alternate days. 

(d) Suburban residential stieets, by-stieets weekly or twice-weekly sweeping 

Having determined from observation the frequency and kind of service required for each grade, it will 
then be necessary to decide whether any portion 6f the work is to be done at night. Against night work 
we have the well-known difficulty of insufficient light for either good work or proper supervision, disturb 
ance of light sleepers is another, but minor, objection On the other hand, tiailic conditions are such as to 
make it difficult, and in some cases impossible, to attempt thorough cleansing of busy streets in the day- 
time A compromise is frequently resorted to, eg, for main thoroughfares machine sweeping and the 
collection of sweepings or, alternatively, flushing or swilling will be clone at night or in the oai ly morning, 
and be supplemented by orderly service during the day while for less-used streets daytime swwpjng service 
will suffice An advantage of machine sweeping at night is that a machine can have frequent attention 
during the day, with little interference to its night work Where night work is done, it. may bo possible to 
work one machine (sweeper or gully emptier) both day and night, provided there is sufficient work for it. 

The giade (a) and (6) streets will probably require tidying on Sunday morning as a result of litter dropped 
by the Saturday night crowds This work usually occupies a number of orderlies and length-men for about, 
three hours. 

According to the size of the town it will be necessary to split up the area into districts and sub-districts 
for cleansing purposes, with inspectors, foremen and gangers in charge of the various sections aa circum- 
stances may require 

Statistics If the street-cleansing SGI vice is to be efficiently controlled and reliable data are to be avail- 
able foi the preparation of periodical reports, an accurate system of returns and costing must be at the 
service of the controlling officer The observations contained in Chapters ITI and IV, as to the need for 
such a system for controlling the collection and disposal of house and trade refuse holds good for street 
cleansing In this connection, the Ministry of Health Conference on Costing realised the difficulty of 
finding suitable units by which to express the cost of street cleansing 



(a) Foi sweeping and watering 10,000 square yards (Aiea multiplied by times cleansed) 
(&) For gully cleansing, 1,000 gullies (Number of gullies multiplied by times of emptying ) 
(c) In the case of snow removal they failed to discovei a suitable unit beyond the net cost in terms 
of lates in the pound, because of the variability in the volume of woik undei taken from time to time 

The allocation of time, materials, transport and oveihead charges will follow the lines suggested in the 
Conference Report, 01 in Chapter III For the purpose of recoidmg the amount of woik done, it will be 
necessaiy to prepare and keep up to date an alphabetical list of all the stieets and places which the depart- 
ment has to cleanse. This record .should give, m addition to the name of the street or place, its locality , 
situation (from and to) , length , average width, 01 actual width by sections, both for camageways and 
footpaths , area , type of paving ; classification for cleansing , number and types of gullies, littei baskets and 
orderly bins , and notes as to any special circumstances Such a record implies the accurate measurement 
of all the streets conceined 

Daily recoids must be devised which will give the area of street and number of gullies cleansed, the 
important point being that such returns must iefer to woik actually done , they must not be vague estimates, 
nor meie repetitions of quantities originally planned for periodical execution, but the actual performance 
of which is dependent on the honesty or capacity of the scavengei, or the vigilance of his supervisor 

It is a striking common taiy on the lack of adequate data kept by Local Authonties in connection with 
stieet cleansing that, in the return published by the Ministry of Health summarising the cost letuins of 
County Boroughs for the year 1925-G, no figures relating to the selected units were included The only 
figures printed weie , total net expenditure, expenditure per 1000 of population, net cost equivalent rate 
in , and expenditure for new plant out of revenue 

Interesting featiues of this return aie 

Expendikuo por 1000 of population 
Net cost equivalent rate an 




a d 6, d s d 
273 16 52 16 125 6 
1184d 251d B56d 

Obviously the greatest caution should, be exercised in making comparisons of cost between towns, 
because of the tremendous variation m conditions. 

Snow Clearance, Snow clearance, being a relatively infrequent requirement (peihaps thrice a year), is 
a thing apart fiom the daily routine of street cleansing, but the great inconvenience which a fall of snow 
causes to pedestrians and vehicular traffic, demands that the streets shall be cleared as speedily as is practic- 
able, and consistent with a reasonable return, m terms of work done, for the expenditure incurred 

Such a desideratum necessitates the preparation of a comprehensive scheme, the mam features of which 
are here indicated : 

1 Division of area into districts and sub-districts for snow-clearance purposes, fixing of head- 
quarters for, and appointment of supervisors (inspectors and foremen with sufficient clerical assistance) 
to take charge of such districts and sub-districts. 

2 Arrangement for the calling up of supervisors in the event of a fall of snow at night, where 
street-cleansing operations are not usually earned on at night. It is usually possible to arrange for 
the police to give help in this connection 

3. Provision of means of communication between, and transit for, supervisors, making possible 
the rapid notification and satisfaction of particular needs as they arise, and the reportmgof progresSj 
changing weather conditions, etc 

4 Classification of streels for priori I y of liealmcnt, and preparation on cards of short lists of such 
streets, to be handed by the supeivisois to their vanous teams and gangs 

5 Preparation of lists of suitable places foi tipping snow, and of instructions as to such tipping. 


6 Rules for guidance of supervisees as to the diversion of transport and labom from oilier employ- 
ment, e g , refuse collection and the engagement of additional transport and labom 

7 During September in each year, permission should be sought anew for the tipping of snow 

(a) On land, from the ownei or agent 

(5) In sewers, from the borough surveyor or other appropriate officer 
(c) In rivers, from the river commissioners 
Also, during September, and in addition after every snowfall . 

(i) The scheme in force should be reviewed, and, if necessary, amended in the light of any 
developments of new roads, streets, or traffic routes, and of experience gamed during previous 

(11) Stocks of salt, tools, and equipment should be examined, and brought up to the approved 
standards of quantity and condition 

8 Where there is a bye-law imposing on occupiers the duty of removing snow from the footpaths 
adjoining their premises, a notice should be advertised in the local press, early in November, lommdmg 
such occupiers of the duty, and emphasising the need for keeping clear the channels in front of 
their premises 

A fall of snow 3 inches deep, on streets 36 feet wide (including footpaths) is equal to 1 cubic yaid of 
snow per yard run of street Taking a two-wheeled cait to hold about 2| cubic yards, such a fall would 
give 700 cart-loads of snow per mile of street, or foi every 50 miles of street controlled by the Local Authority, 
35,000 loads Assuming that with adequate fllleis and facilities of near and rapid discharge of loads each 
cait could lemove twelve loads per day, each mile of street would piovide sufficient snow to employ 08 carts 
a whole day. 

From these figures it is apparent that it would be impossible to lift and cart the snow from all the streets 
of a borough or district with that promptitude which the average layman seems to expect In the first 
place, sufficient men and vehicles could not be obtained, and even if they could, the expense would be 

It therefore becomes necessary to resort to some more workable process, and this is found in the spread- 
ing of salt, which melts the snow One ton of soiled white salt, obtainable for about 80s pei ton in bulk 
at user's station, will effectively treat about 15,000 square yards of surface covered with snow 3 mches 
deep The spreading of salt follows the same lines as the spreading of shingle, grit and sand deaciibed 
previously In some towns, objections are made to the use of salt, in that its application to snow creates 
& freezing mixture which is dangerous to the health of the people, particularly to those ill-shod or underfed ; 
but if the operations are perfoimed rapidly, this condition is only temporary, and the brief discomfoit is 
preferable to that of allowing the snow to lie about the streets for many days The statement that salt 
damages horses' feet is not tine It will cause a horse with cracked heels to go lame, bub ibis does good, 
causing the owner to rest the animal, while the salt assists in cleaning and hardening the wound. It 
will never make a sound hoise go lame, or in any way affect it detrimentally, 

In the event of a snowfall occumng outside the ordinary working hours, the supervisors whould come, 
on duty as soon as the snow begins to fall It is for the senior supervisor to use his discretion when to call 
the gangers or the men and transport A premature call means needless expenditure for men's time, etc, 
If an early cessation and thaw seem likely, little need be done except to prepare for sweeping away tho 
melting snow , but if a continuance appears probable, with no indication of thaw, it will be well to summon 
duvers and attendants for salt-spreading, which may be commenced while the snow is still falling, pro- 
vided that motor traffic is likely soon to be running and so work up the snow and salt Subject to this 
proviso, the salting schedule should be worked to with all possible speed 

If, before salting is done, the snow reaches a depth of say six inches or more, it may bo considered 
advisable, especially on flat stieets, to remove the bulk of the snow by snowploughs before salting, so as 
to reduce the amount of slush 

After giving the salt reasonable time to act, the gangs of men, each in charge of a responsible ganger, 
may now be sent out with snow shovels, scrapers and brooms to clear the footways and channels. Gullies 


should receive special attention, to see that the grids are kept quite clear and open The footpaths adjoin- 
ing public buildings and vacant plots (or where the Local Authority undertake the duty, the footpaths of all 
busy streets) will also require eaily attention. The sweeping-machine brooms are now brought into use 
as soon as piacticablo, to assist in cleaung the centre of the roads, all the water vans being biought into 
service likewise As far as is practicable, the snow should be arranged in ordeily sections along the breasts 
of the road, as long and flat as the quantity to be dealt with will permit The laige area thus exposed to the 
atmosphere assists the melting process, whereas the formation of big heaps retards it and consolidates the 
snow The channels should be kept thoroughly clear f 01 diamage At varying intervals, crossings should 
be made, and the sections, although long, should have cross cuttings made at distances of about 30 feet 
apart, to assist drainage These sections should be neither unsightly nor cause any nuisance, and having 
been treated with salt should, under normal conditions, melt away 

The complete melting process being somewhat slow for town requirements, the removal of the snow 
is assisted by the flushers and water carts Water is applied freely, and soon the whole is worked into a 
liquid state and passed down the gullies and other sewer entrances It is usual to have a laige staff of 
men with squeegees and booms to help bieak up any heaps of snow and mix well with water; this enables 
the flushers to get over a much gieater area than they otherwise would 

The method ]ust described, however, is not suitable for all circumstances For instance, in a nariow and 
flat but much-used street the splashing of pedestrians and shop fronts by motors running through the snow- 
brine during the busy hours would not long be tolerated, although if the snow ceased to fall so that salting 
could be performed in the early hours, allowing the streets to be cleaned by 9 or 10 a m , little inconvenience 
would be caused. It is all a question of circumstances Wheie the melting and flushing process is not 
adequate, resort must be had to removal of the snow by carts, in which case the snow should be shovelled 
well to the roadsides and formed into heaps in readiness for loading The distance snow has to be trans- 
ported is usually small, a condition which favomvs the use of " horse, cart and man " as the mode of con- 
veyance, The carter is available for loading, and two extra shovelmen will make up a useful team. 
Wherever practicable, it should be ai ranged for a second cart to be loaded while the first one goes to tip 
its load The loads of snow may bo tipped on vacant land, into docks or rivers, 01 through manholes into 

There are occasions when jt is advisable to spread a mixture of rough grit and salt, e, g , when a severe 
frost after rain or thaw has covered street surfaces with sheer ice, then the grit provides immediately a 
gup for horses, until the salt Las had time to do its work. 

A word as to the effects of motor traffic on snow will not be out of place If the temperature is above 
freezing point, with a decided tendency to thaw, the action of motor wheels helps matenally to break down 
the snow to a liquid state. On the other hand, with a temperature at or below freezing point, the effect 
is to consolidate the snow, giving a dangerously slippery surface, and retarding its liquefaction 

During every fall and clearance of snow a detailed log should be kept recording in chronological oider 
Commencement, cessation and depth of fall, and all climatic variations, attendance of supervisors, calling 
of men, turning out of vehicles, performance of procosscs, reports of progress, complaints from public, 
observations of supervisors and all relevant happenings, concluding with a statement of number of men, 
vehicles and tools employed (casuals and hired vehicles being stated separately), quantity of salt, etc., used, 
cost of operations, and suggestions for future guidance Such a record is of the greatest possible value in 
reviewing the scheme, as suggested in paragraph 7 (1). 


TIPPING or dumping crude household refuse is the most primitive of all methods of disposal. The 
practice is still continued m many places, particularly in small urban and rural districts, where the amount 
of refuse to be dealt with does not justify the cost of erecting a mechanical plant 

Removal and Tipping of Dust j 'torn House Refuse In large cities, it is generally considered that the best 
way of dealing with house refuse is to extract the fine dust content by passing the crude refuse through 
screens, usually of f-mch mesh ; the dust extracted by a screen of this mesh amounting to approximately 
45% of the whole. The refuse, after passing through these screens, is usually passed forward by means of 
travelling belts, from which articles of commercial value are removed by belt attendants 

The dust extracted from house refuse can be tipped without risk of nuisance, and is, in fact, used 
frequently as a covering material on tips where house refuse or street sweepings are deposited in a crude 

The City of Bradford disposes of nearly all its house refuse by tipping, and has, the writer understands, 
more than forty tips, most of which are disused quarries These tips are situated m the city and so 
facilitate easy collection and disposal 

The Bradford method is to tip m layers 3 feet deep, each layer being covered by street sweepings, or 
other suitable material This process continues until the required level is reached, when tho surface of 
the tip is either turfed or seeded down with grass seed The ground is afterwards used as sports fields, etc. 

Precautions to be Observed at Refuse Tips The tipping of refuse on land is likely to create nuisance 
unless very strict precautions are taken, and in July 1922 the Ministry of Health issued a statement of 
suggested precautions to be observed in the use of tips. A copy of these precautions follows : 

2Qth July, 1922. 

" 1 Every person who forms a deposit of filth, dust, ashes or rubbish, ol such a nature as is likely to 
give rise to nuisance, exceeding * cubic yards must, in addition to the observance of any other 
requirements which are applicable, comply with the following rules : 

(a) The to be made in layers. 
(&) No layer to exceed * feet in depth 

(c) Each layer to be covered, on all surfaces exposed to the air, with at least nine inches of 
earth or other suitable substance , provided that during the formation of any layer not more than 

* square yards may be left uncovered at any one time. 

(d) No refuse to be left uncovered for more than 72 hours from the time of deposit. 

(e) Sufficient screens or other suitable apparatus to be provided, where necessary, to prevent 
any paper or other debris from being blown by the wind away from the place of deposit. 

2. Every person who deposits any filth, dust, ashes or rubbish likely to cause a nuisance if deposited 
in water must, so far as practicable, avoid its being deposited in water. 

* Ipjgures should be inserted to meet local conditions. The writer considers that a depth of 8 feet for each layer, and 
not more than. 100 square yards to be left -uncovered at any time, would be reasonable. 


TIPS 243 

3 Every person who deposits any filth, dust, ashes or rubbish, must take all reasonable precautions 
to prevent the breaking out of fires and the breeding of flies and vermin on or in such deposit. 

4 If the material deposited at any one time consists entirely or mainly of fish, animal or other 
organic refuse, the person making such deposit must forthwith cover it with earth or other equally 
suitable substance at least 2 feet in depth 

5 Every person who deposits any filth, dust, ashes or rubbish must take all practicable steps to 
secure that tins or other vessels or loose debris likely to give rise to nuisance are not deposited in an 
exposed condition on or about the place of deposit. 

6 Sufficient and competent labour must be provided in connection with the deposit to enable 
the necessary measures to be taken for the prevention of nuisance. 

7 So far as practicable, each layer of refuse which has been laid and covered with soil must be 
allowed to settle before the next layer is added 

8. Wherever practicable, the person making the deposit must avoid raising the surface of the tip 
above the general level of the adjoining ground 

9 All refuse must bo disposed of with such dispatch and be so protected during transit as to avoid 
risk of nuisance." 

Site of Tips, In looking for suitable tips, the Ministry of Health's suggested precautions should be borne 
in mind The following points must also be considered . 

(1) The distance of the proposed tip from the collecting district 

(2) Prom where the covering material is to come. 

(3) The close proximity of houses, buildings, etc 

_. , D r mjjiimv Loose Cham for Moving Bumper 

T.pp Bumper fflj^ ^ ^ as Tlp f///s up 

To be fixed in 
Firm Ground 

}?io. 121. Sketch of tipping bumper for uso on. tips, showing method of anchoring bumper. 
Two chains and anchors to each bumper. 

It is not wise to tip crude house refuse in water, nor on to land where there is a likelihood of water 
coming into contact with the tipped material, as, sooner or later there may be trouble owing to the 
pollution of a water-course. 

A tip that is not seen by the public will not as a rule cause trouble " If the eye does not see, the nose 
does not smell," or, in other words, if the public know there is a likelihood of any smell arising from a tip, 
they imagine it is much worse than it actually is 

It is well to consider the prevailing wind in the summer tune generally south-weston account of the 
trouble that is caused by paper and dust being blown about 

Roadways. The road to a tip needs constant attention, and should be excavated 10 feet wide, then 
filled m with ashes not less than 9 inches deep. An ash road must be kept well up in the centre, so that 
no water can lie on it. The ruts or wheel tracks must be kept filled in, as they form 

In some cases it will be found necessary to put down a sleeper road similar to that advised on the top 
of a tip, but without the cross pieces 

A sleeper track can be made with 10-inch sleepers put end to end and fastened together with iron 
dogs, the sleepers being so placed that the wagon wheels will run down the centre of each sleeper. 


Surface of Tips The top of a tip needs constant attention, as it will bink in places These cavities 
must be filled up m order to keep the tip as level as possible 

Bumpers These are pieces of -wood or iron girders usually 9 by 9 inches and 3 feet longer than the 
width of vehicles to be tipped, and are needed so that the vehicles do not get too near to the edge of the 
tip, which is always loose 

The bumpers should be chained to land anchors or posts, placed well back from the edge of the tip. 
There should be a hook at one end of the chain, and large links or rings at intervals so that the bumper 
may be moved as required, without the land anchors being taken up as the tip is extended (See Fig. 121.) 

Tipping Platform It is often necessary to put down a sleeper track so that the vehicles can get to 
the edge of the tip old wooden railway sleepers are very useful for this purpose. In putting this track 
down, it is advisable to place two or three sleepers at right angles to the face of the tip, then place others 
across these, so as to make a good platform for the vehicles to tip oft 

In the case of heavy transport, such as electric vehicles, or steam wagons, it is advisable to use larger 
timbers underneath the sleepers, say 6x8 inches, and of such length that the whole of the vehicle is on 
them when tipping 

Coveting of Tips The dust screened from house refuse, flue dust, or clinker, does very well for 
this purpose Soil is the best, but will be found to be very expensive. 

In some districts it may be possible to obtain excavations from sewers, foundation material, etc 

Road sweepings are generally easily obtained, and make good covering, but care has to be taken that 
the paper found in all street sweepings is eithei covered, or burnt 

When a tip has been covered with soil or sweepings it should be seeded down with grass seeds 

Tip Fiies Great care has to be taken to prevent fire on tips. The following are a few of the ways that 
a tip may be fired 

By children 

By the tipping of hot clinker. 

By spontaneous combustion, which is caused by minute putrefactive organisms giving rise to 
fermentation which raises the temperature to ignition point 

If the fire has just commenced, the refuse should be raked out and covered with earth, flue dust or sand 
to exclude the air No refuse should be tipped on that portion of the tip which has fired, until all signs of 
fire have disappeared Fire that has once obtained a good hold over a large area of a refuse lip is extremely 
difficult to extinguish, and tip fires will often continue to burn for many yeais, although no further refuse 
be deposited If possible, tipping should be discontinued entirely, on the fired tip, and any exposed refuse 
should be covered Fire cracks which appear on the surface of the tip should be kept filled with sand, 
and pressed. It may be necessary for measures to be taken to prevent the lire from .spreading to 
adjoining property, in which case, a trench should be cut down to the solid ground and filled with sand. 
The trench should be at least 1 yard wide, and must be continued along the whole length of the tip. 

Prevention of Nuisances The paper nuisance on a tip may be overcome by Greeting 2-inch mesh wire 
netting around the tip, to a height of 8 feet, the top of the wire being turned in towards the tip. 

It is advisable to burn all paper, but care must be taken not to fire the surface of the tip, and in this 
connection, a small portable incinerator is worthy of consideration. 

Rats. The Ministry of Agriculture conduct an annual Eat Week, which is usually held in November. 
During this week, many Local Authorities endeavour to obtain the co-operation of householders, shop- 
keepers, proprietors of business premises, etc , in a combined effort to rid their property of vermin. Many 
proprietary rat poisons are on the market, but care must be exercised in their purchase. 

The following two recipes were recommended for use in a circular which was issued in Birmingham 
in connection with the National Eat Week : 

(a) Barium carbonate (commercial) . 6 ozs. 

Meal (Cereal) . . . . .16 

Dripping . 4 " } 

Salt foz. 

TIPS 245 

This will make 1000 baits, the size of a hazel nut. 

(6) Barium carbonate (commercial) ... .... 4 ozs. 

Biscuit or oatmeal .......... 4 

Oil of aniseed .......... 5 drops. 

The rat is an extremely wily customer, and quickly detects the scent of human hands Neither the 
ingredients nor the finished baits should, therefore, be handled with uncovered hands. 

The above recipes have been proved effective for use at depots, workshops, etc , but the most efficient 
method employed in connection with tips has been in the use of chlorine gas While the latter method has 
been extremely successful, it is essential that the use of the gas should be m the hands of a person who is 
qualified to use it, as otherwise the method is dangerous. Chlorine gas is not, under any circumstances, 
suitable for use in buildings, as it has been found that the gas does not escape readily from inside the 
buildings, and therefore causes inconvenience to persons employed therein. When used in the open, 
however, the gas escapes quickly 

Flies. Starting m the month of April, when the fly commences to lay its eggs, the surface of refuse tips 
should be sprayed with an emulsion of the following ingredients 

Paraffin 2^ gallons. 

Soft soap 2 Ib 

Water 5 gallons. 

Spraying should be continued throughout the summer, as frequently as possible, but in any case, not 
less than once per week. 

Agriculture. House refuse covered with road sweepings or soil is often used for reclaiming low-lying 
]and For the first year or so the crops are earlier, on account of the fermentation causing heat. 

Screened dust from house refuse forms a manure which on analysis is as good as stable manure, but the 
action of the two materials on land is very different. The stable manure contains more organic matter 
and produces a large amount of humus-forming matter, which enriches the soil Fine dust contains a 
smaller percentage of organic matter, and the action of the dust is rather of aeration than of fertilisation 
of the soil, and for this purpose is especially beneficial to clay land. The dust makes the land easier to 
work, and results later in better drainage and therefore better crops. 

When crude house refuse is put on land, it has the same effect as fine dust Although the house refuse 
contains as a rule more organic matter, it also contains tins, and unless these are ploughed in deeply, they 
will cause a good deal of trouble in working the land, hoeing, etc. It is found that most tins, such as 
tomato and fruit tins, will rust away m twelve months, but galvanised tins and earthenware must' be 
picked out. 

In a previous chapter, information was given about the use of dust as a carrier for excreta, and manure 
from slaughter-houses, etc This makes a very good fertiliser, and is largely used by market gardeners for 
growing crops of the brassica family. 

Pulverised House Refuse. The action of this material is the same as crude house refuse, but it is 
much more easily spread on to the land, and the trouble of tins, etc , is avoided The best results 
from the use of house refuse and dust will be found in the crops of cabbages and mangolds. 

Site of Boat Tips (1) The conditions with regard to water troubles and proximity to houses and roads 
are the same with boat tips as cart tips. 

(2) The prevailing wind must be considered with regard to the unloading, because if the wind is 
blowing off the tip on to the boat, it makes it bad for the unloaders, the wind blowing the dust into 
their eyes 

(3) The distance from the water's edge to the faces of the tip is a very important point, on account of 
the cost of unloading. 

Building on Refuse Tips. The law relating to the erection of buildings on land which has been 
used as a refuse tip, is contained in Section 25 of the Public Health Acts Amendment Act, 1890, which 
reads as follows : 


" It shall not be lawful to erect a new building on any ground which, has been filled up with any 
matter impregnated with feecal, animal or vegetable matter, or upon which any such matter has been 
deposited, unless and until such matter shall have been properly removed by excavation or otherwise, 
or shall have been rendered or become innocuous " 

When tipping house refuse, etc , the bye-laws in force in each local district must also be observed. 

Decomposition of Tipped Refuse Organic matter exposed to the air undergoes decomposition, which 
takes place most rapidly in the presence of moisture and at a slightly elevated temperature This 
biochemical change is known as fermentation It is now generally accepted that fermentation cannot 
occur without the presence of certain living organisms or of chemical substances derived from these 
organisms , for example, certain bacteria and fungi The bacterium feeds 011 its own particular food, 
and produces certain decomposition products, these latter as a rule characterising the particular form of 
fermentation. For instance, in house refuse one form of fermentation which goes on is known as 
putrefactive fermentation. A further form of fermentation occurs through the influence of such ferments 
as the moulds. 

Fermentation can be accelerated or retarded by altering certain physical conditions, such as tempera- 
ture, or can be altogether arrested by certain bodies known as antiseptics or antiferments 

The term bacteria covers a group of minute plant growths malignant and benign which are very 
widely distributed m nature. 

Generally speaking, they can attack and feed on any matter containing caibon or nitrogen, resulting 
in very complex chemical and physical changes in the substance attacked ; hence such putrescible matter 
as house refuse forms a highly satisfactory ground for the activities of certain classes of bacteria The 
classes of bacteria most likely to be found m house refuse are putrefactive and pathogenic It is with the 
former class alone we need concern ourselves. The putrefactive bacteria may be regarded as Nature's 
minute scavengers, as apparently their function is to break down the highly complex organic matter into 
much simpler substances, which process is accompanied by a considerable rise in temperature. This is 
used to advantage in the Beccan process in Italy, where house refuse is fermented in huge cells with the 
object of reducing the putrescible organic matter. 



ACCOMMODATION for stoiago of lefuse at pienuses, 55 
Accountancy, 18 
Aocumulatoi, electnc, 201 
- hydzaulio, 101 
Acts of Parliament 

Birmingham Corporation (Consolidation), 1883, 10 

--- 1903, 10, 11 

--- 1914, 9 

__ 1922 9 



Mumcr ' 
Public I 

(England and Wales), 1888, 227 
" ~ J - ~ 1882,220 

i - " 

1925, 227 
Acts Amendment, 1890, 7, 227, 245 

1907 12 

-- (London), 1891,' 12 
Acts relating to 

Boiler examinations and boiler fittings, 140 
Cleanliness of streets, 226 
Cleansing of ashpits, earth-closets, cesspools, etc , 2 

- of court property, 227 

- of streets, 1, 225 

Conversion of closet accommodation, 10 
Erection of buildings on tips, 245 
Penalty for obstruction, 2, 7 

- in lespeot of nuisances, 4 

- on neglect of Local Authority to remove refuse, 
etc , 2 

Power of entry of Local Authority, 6 

- of Local Authority to enforce provision of privy 
accommodation, 5 

-- of Local Authority to impose duty of cleansing on 

occupiei, 3 

of Local Authority to make bye-laws, 3, 8, 226, 227 
--- to provide buildings and tips, 4 
--- to provide orderly bms, 227 
--- to provide receptacles for deposit of rub- 

bish, 4 

Provision of dustbins, 9 
Public necessaries, 5 
Recovery and sale of material, 2 
Removal of house refuse, 1 

- of manure from mews, stables, etc., 17 

- of trade refuse, 11, 12 
Serving of notices, 6, 10 
Watering of streets, 2 

" Adamson " ring joints, 187 

Aerial ropeway, 95 

Air, weight of, 127 

Albuminoids, 177 

Amperes rule, 159 t 

Analyses of fertilisers and feeding meals, 184 , 

Applied mechanics, 113 

Ashpit, definition, 5 

Ashpits, cleansing of, 2 
Ashplaces, const: uction of, 8 
Asphalt, 90, 192 
Atmospheric pollution, 109 
Atom, definition, 125 
Atomic weights, 126 

BABOOOK and Wilcos boilers, 138 
Bacteria, 246 

Balancei sots, five-wire, 170, 205 
Baling plants, hydraulic, 99 

mechanical, 104 

Balloon boilers, 136 
Barging of refuse, 76 
Battenea, 201 

capacities of lead plate, 203 

of Edison, 204 

chemical action of, 201 

hints on charging, 206 

methods of charging, 204 

Belt conveyors, 91 

Belts, picking, 108 

Benzene process of fat extraction, 178 

Boiler attendants, duties of, 143 

fittings, 137, 140 

Boilers and boiler plant, 136 
Boilers, Balloon, 136 

care of, 140 

character of fuel for, 139 

choice of, 139 

Cornish, 137 

~ coriosion of, 143, 174 

' covering of, 142 

Cylindrical, 136 

examination of, 140 

grooving of, 143 

- Haystack, 136 

- incrustation of, 143 

Lancashire, 137 

Wagon, 136 

,.--*-- of, 139,145 

I > 139, 173 

Water-tube, 138 

working pressures of, 139 

Bonding, brick, 189, 193 
Bones, treatment of, 182 
Boosting, 205 

Bourdon pressure gauge, 146 
Bncks, building, 189, 194 
British Thermal Unit, 122 
Building construction, 193 

. materials used in, 187 

Buildings, power of Local Authority to erect, 4 
Bye-laws, Birmingham Corporation, 1921, 10 
Bristol Corporation, 227 




Bye-laws, Eoclidale Corporation, 1912, 225 
1914, 226 


for imposing duty of cleansing on occupiers, 3 
power of Local Authority to make, 3, 8, 10, 225, 226, 

regarding carriage through streets of offensive matter, 

etc, 8 
to facilitate collection of refuse, 10 

CALORIFIC value of fuels, 127 

Carbon, burning of, 130 

Cement, 187 

Cesspools, cleansing of, 2 * 

cost of cleansing, 3, 70 

definition, 2 

frequency of cleansing, 2 

legal decision, 3 

vehicles for emptying, 70 

Charging panels, 206 

Charts Boiler feed-water, 149 

kept under " Continuous " system, 66 

Chlorophyll, 181 

Cleansing, frequency of, 2 

Clinker crashing, screening and storage, 90 

transportation, 81 

uses of, 90 

Chnkermg, mechanical devices for, 81 
Closet accommodation, conversion of, 10 
Colloidal treatment of boiler feed-water, 174 
Colour and temperature table, 131 
Combustion, 125 

changes during, 129 

of volatile substances, 129 

oxidation of hydrocarbons, 131 

temperature of, 128 

Commutator, 172 

undercutting of, 208 

Compound, definition, 125 

Concrete work, 187 

Control panels, 206 

Controllers, electric vehicle, 208 

Conveyors, belt, 91 

Corbelling, 194 

Cornish boilers, 137 

Costing system, 25 

Costs public cleansing, 25, 41, 45, 54, 239 

Court property, cleansing of, 227 

Cutting machines, meat, 180 

DAMP courses, 189, 194 

protection of electrical apparatus from, 167 

Davidson Grit Collector, 111 

Digester treatment of organic waste, 177 

Digestion coefficient, 215 

Diseases of horses, 220 

Doors, types of, 195 

Drain pipes, 192 

Drainage, essentials of, 197 

of land, 197 

of roofs, 197 

of stables, 212 

Drains, stable, 198, 212 

surface and soil water, 198 

testing of, 200 

ventilation of, 198 

Draught, 132 

artificial, 133, 155 

balanced, 134 

calculation of, 132 

comparison of natural and mechanical, 134 

Draught, ejector, 134 

forced, 133 

gauge, 132, 155 

induced, 134 

mechanical, advantages of, 135 

natural, 132, 155 

Dulong's formula, 127 
Dustbin hire scheme, 57 

sheds, 57 

Dustbins, construction of, 56 

means for obtaining installation of, 57 

position of, at premises, 58 

provision of, 9 

EARTH closets, cleansing of, 2 

, definition, 2 

Electric fittings, 171 

mams, 167 

motors, 167, 207 

radiators and cookers, 04. 

starting gear, 168, 169 

tipping gear, 209 

vehicles, 61, 201 

charging of, 170, 204 

winng system, 171 

Electricity, cost of generating, 166 

distributing panels, 166 

system, 167 

generation of, 159, 163, 205 

illumination by, 172 

maintenance of plant, 172 

protective devices, 168 

switchboards, 165 

switch-gear, 168 

theory of, 158 

units of, 161, 163 

voltage supply, 171 

Electro-magnetic generators, 1 59 
Electrolytes, 202 
Elements, union of, 126 
Energy, transformation of, IK) 
Engines, steam, 164 
Entry, power of, 6 
Equalising charges, 206 
Explosives, 56 

FANS, forced and induced draught, 155 
Pats, 177 

clarifying tanks for, 180 

extraction of, 178, 180 

sale of, 181 

Fertilisers and feeding meals, 176 

analyses of, 184 

grinding of, 183 

screening of, 183 

Plies, tip, 244 
Fish oil, uses of, 182 

treatment of, ] 81 

Fittings, electno, 171 

stable, 212 

Five-wire balancers, 170, 205 

Meming's right-hand rule, 160 

Plies, 245 

Floors, types of, 195 

Flues, boiler, 163 

Force, definition, 113 

lines of, 114, 159 

moments of, 115 

Free fatty acids, 177 
Friction, 117 



Fuction, laws of, 118 
Fuels, calorific value of, 127 

theoretical evaporative power of, 128 

Fume pipes, 180 
Fuses, 168, 171, 209 
Fusible plug, 142 

GARBAGE, utilisation of, 109 
Gaiden lefuse, 17 
Gas fires and cookeis, 64 
Gases, offensive, 179 
Gauge, draught, 132, 155 

pressure, 141, 145 

temperatuie, 151 

water, 141 

Generation of electricity, 159, 163, 205 

Glass, 192 

Gravity, centre of, 115 

Grinding of fertilisers, 1 83 

Gnt Collector, Davidson, 111 

Gritting of streets, 230 

Grooming of horses, 217 

Gullies, cleansing of, 235 


room, 213 

Haystack boiler, 136 
Heat, 119 

effects of, 120 

latent, 122 

mechanical equivalent of, 123 

natuie of, 119 

sensible, 122 

sources of, 122 

unit of, 122 

Hollenth tabulating machines, 28 
Hoppers, refuse storage, 85 
Horse attendants, 218 

harness, 218 

management, 210 

traction, 61 

Horses, care of, 211, 223 

class to avoid, 210 

clipping and singeing, 218 

diseases of, 220 

feeding of, 213, 217 

grooming of, 217 

process of digestion, 21 C 

purchase of, 210 

shoeing of, 219 

trial of new, 210 

watering of, 213, 217 

Humus, 177 

TT- 1 - ' -I--, 1 ' - plants, 99 

1 1 . , Kidisation of, 131 

ILLTJMINATION, intensity of, 172 
Ingesta, 181 

Instruments, scientific, 144 
Intensifies hydraulic, 102 
Iron and steel, uses of, 189 
Iwel dry rendering process, 179 

JETS, steam, 133 

LAABS process, 186 

Laboratory control, value of, 184 

Lancashire boilers, 137 

Law. See Acts and Bye-laws. 

Lea recorder, 148 

Lead, uses of, 189 

Legal decisions re duties of occupiers, 8 

re powers of Local Authority, 3, 5, 7 

ie trade refuse, 13 

Lighting, electric, 171 

of stables, 211 

Litter baskets, 237 
Loose box, 212 

MAGNETIC flux, 159 

separators, 96 

" Rapid " patent, 97 

Magnetism, 158 

Maintenance of olectucal plant, 172 

Manure, analyses of, 184 

from mews and stables, etc , 17 

manufacture of artificial, 176 

Materials, building, 187 
Matter, definition, 113, 125 

properties of, 113 

Mechanics, applied, 113 

Molteis, 180 

Metals, magnetic separation of feirous, 96 

-e i of use tips, 242 

Ministry o r 

Molecule, definition, 125 
Mortal, 188 
Motion, laws of, 116 
Motois, electuc, 167, 207 


Notices, serving of, 6,10 

Nuisances, Acts and Bye-laws for prevention of, 3, 4 

Nutritive ratio of horse diet, 215 

OBSTRUCTION of Local Authority, 2 

to execution of Act, 7 

Occupiers, power of Local Authority to impose duty of 

cleansing on, 3 
Offal, treatment of, 181, 182 
Offensive gases from manure plant, 179 

mattei, carriage thiough streets of, 8 

Ohm's law, 162 
Orderly bins, provision of, 227 
Organic waste, utilisation of, 177 
Oigamsation of refuse collection, 72 
of street cleansing, 237 

PAINTS, 192 

Panels, control and charging, 206 

- distributing, 166 

Penalty fo~ ~v j -- i4 -i -~ "v^cution of Act, 7 

i , | \ , f 2 

in respect of nuisances, 4 

on neglect of Local Authority to remove refuse, etc., 2 

Petrol vehicles, 62 

Phosphorus, 176 

Plant, clinker crushing, screening and storage, 90 

construction of disposal, 80 

( i .1 ''.' 

, i 172 
j, 104 
. n, 84 
Plug, fusible, 142 
Poisons, rat, 244 
Pollution, atmospheric, 109 
Potassium, 177 
Power of entry of Local Authority, 6 

of Local Authority regarding transport of offensive 

matter, 8 



Power of Local Authority to erect buildings, etc , 4 

to impose duties on occupiers, 3, 8 

to provide receptacles for refuse storage, 4 

to undertake cleansing of certain types of 

conveniences only, 4 
Presses, baling, 99 
Pressure gauges, 141, 145 
Privies, cleansing of, 2 

definition, 2 

Public cleansing costs, 25, 41, 45, 54 
Public necessaries, 5 
Publicity, 55, 68, 228 
Pulverisation of refuse, 77 
Pulvensei , action of, 78 
Gannow, 78 


RAT poisons, 244 

Rats, 244 

Recorders, boiler feed water, 148 

C0 2 and temperature, 151, 154 

Refuse, composition of street, 224 

decomposition of, 246 

garden, 17 

recovery of materials from, 108 

tipping of, 242 

trade, 11 

~ * definition, 12, 15, 16 

legal decisions re,, 13 

variation in output, 64, 67 

weight of, 63 

yield of, 66 

Refuse collection, 54 

accommodation for storage at piemise&, 55 

. " Block load " system, 65, 72 

, carrying capacity of vehicles, 63 

" Continuous " system, 65, 73 

frequency of, 2, 60 

. ] aw relating to, 1 

. methods of transport, 60 

organisation of, 72 

rate of loading, 59 

storage and loading, 54 

unit of work, 66 

waiting time, 58 

Refuse disposal, 76 

barging to sea, 76 

clinker, crushing, screening and stoiagc, 90 

construction of plant, 80 

conveyance and storage, 85 

hoppers, 85 

incineration, 79 

mechanical clinkermg devices, 81 

pulverisation, 77 

screening, 86, 91 

stoking, 81, 163 

. tipping, 242 

, utilisation of salvaged matenal, 79 

Woodall-Duckham plant, 84 

Roofs, covering of, 191 

drainage of, 197 

types of, 196 

Ropeway, aerial, 95 
Rotary convertei, 206 
Rural Authorities, 1 

SAFETY valves, 140 
Salvage, 108 
Sapomfication value, 177 

Scientific instiuments, 144 
Scrap baling, 99 
Screening of fcrtihseis, 183 

of refuse, 86 

Screens, concentric cylindrical, 88 

" Gannow " patent, 88 

" Hummer," 89 

Rotary, 87 

Shoeing forge, 213 

of horses, 219 

Sifters, cinder, 68 
Slates, 191, 196 
Slime, 180 
Smoke, cause of, 131 

changes duung combustion, 129 

prevention of, 129, 131 

Snow removal, 239 

Soils, bearing powers of, 193 

Stable bedding, 217 

doors, 211 

fittings, 212 

Stables, construction of, 211 

drainage of, 212 

lighting of, 211 

ventilation of, 211 

Statistics, refuse collection, 35 
disposal, 41 

Ministry of Health Ropoit, 45 

street cleansing, 238 

Steam engines, 164 
-- formation of, 123 

- jets, 133 

- latent heat of, 124 

- pressure gauge, 141, 145 

- raising, 163 

- wagons, 63 

Steel, manufacture of, 190 
Sterilisation of feeding meals, 180 
Stoking, 81, 163 
Storage accommodation at premises, 55 

- of fertilisers, 183 

- of fodder, 213 
Street cleansing, 224 

-- collection of swoopmgs, 234 

, -- disposal of swoopmgs, 234 
-- ,- .,|V,-u, , 238 

- . ,1 Jli'i 
-- gullies, 235 

- , - , i a -vy relating to, 2, 224 
--- littoi, 228 

- , - methods of, 230 
-- oidorly system, 234 

- . - , organisation of, 237 
-- snow clearance, 239 
-- sprinkling, 234 
-- sweeping, 233 
-- tools and implomonl ", 237 
-- typos ol Miil.u'i >, 22t* 

washing, flushing and swilling, 231 

Switchboards, 165 
Switch-gear, 168 

TEMPERATURE and colour table, 131 

- gauge, 151 

- recorder, 151 

- scales, 121 

Timber, varieties and uses of, 190 
Tipping gears, 209 
Tips, refuse, 242 
-- bumpers for, 244 



Tips, refuse, covering of, 244 

fires on, 244 

law lelatmg to erection of buildings on, 245 

Ministry of Health's suggested precautions i e, 242 

paper nuisance on, 244 

power of Local Authority to provide, 4 

roadways to, 243 

__ ffl te of, 243, 245 

tipping platform, 244 

Titre, 177 

Tiade refuse, definition, 12, 15, 16 

. law i elating to, 11 

legal decisions re, 13 

lemoval of, 11 

unsatisfactory legal position te,, 

Transport, methods of, 60 

of clinker, 81 

Traps, foul gas, 198 

Tm bine centrifugal fat extractor, ISO 

UNIT, British thermal, 122 

of work, 116, 163 

basis, value of fortihseis on, 184 

Units of electricity, 161, 163 

Urban Authorities, 1 

Utilisation of salvaged material, 79, 108 

VACUUM Pan system, 178 

Valve, blow-down, 141 

feed check, 141 

main stop, 142 

Valves, safety, 140 

Vegetable refuse, utilisation of, 109 

Vehicles, capacity of, 63 

cleanliness of, 64 

electuc, 61, 201 

horse-diawn, 61 

petrol, 62 

steam, 63 

Voltage for lighting purp 
Voltmeter, cell testing, 2( 

WASHIKG of streets, 231 
Water, boilei feed, 173 

, treatment of, 174 

evaporation of, 145 

. . recorders, 139, 148 

gauge, 141 

supply for stables, 211 

tube boilers, 138 

Watering of horses, 213, 217 

of streets, law relating to, 2 

Windows, types of, 196 
Woodall-Duckham plant, 84 
Work, unit of, 116, 163 




N2Z749 '* 

First Every 













GULLY EMPTYING. 300 gullies emptied and resealed with GLEAN WATER in an 8-hour 

day Cost 3|d per gully 

STREET SPRINKLING up to 60 ft wide Immediate control. 
STREET WASHING, the only way of producing really clean streets 
CHANNEL DAMPING prevents refuse and dust from blowing about the streets. 
GUTTER WASHING for quick removal of dirt and rubbish 
SEWER FLUSHING through special 1 2-111 ch pipe and quick discharge valve. 
GULLY DISINFECTING by injecting a measured dose of disinfectant into each gully 

after cleaning. 
THAWING FROZEN GULLIES AND PIPES. Steam and hot water jet instantly 

available which is invaluable in cold weather. 


JOHN FOWLER & <. (LEEDS) LTD., Engineers, LEEDS 





AU-Steel Hand Baler 

IVES great power and makes a good, compact 
le. Platen is part of Press and auto- 
matically balances to back of Press, leaving the 
top completely exposed for filling. 

Three to four fillings of average waste paper are sufficient 

to make a compact Bale, the Press being operated by handle 

until density of material requires more leverage The ratchet 

levers are then brought into operation and give the required 


This Waste Baling Press is simple in its construction and is 

operated with perfect ease 

The Bale being wired under pressure does not necessitate 

wrappermg for transport, though a special machine is made 

for wrappermg if required 





The Baling of Paper and Rags is a commercial proposition 
when using S. & G Presses 

Size of Bale Weight of Bale. 



112 to MO 

S. SP C. One-Fill Power Baler 

and wear. The Press is of all-metal construction, designed for hard wear, and 
is easily operated The pressure is direct and increases in proportion to the density 
of the bale, the press stopping automatically when the desired size of bale is made. 
During the process of wrappering or wiring, the pressure is held on the material 
by our powerful noiseless free-wheel brake All our Vertical Presses are supplied 
with sliding lid and PATENTED END RELEASE which allows bale, however 
hard pressed, to be easily removed from the box 

Power of Motor Total Height or Press Filling Space Minimum Si/e of Bale Weight of Bale 

No 2 
No 3 


Ft Ins 
9 3 



Ft Ft Pt Ins 
3X2X1 9 

2 to 3 
2 to 3 

Illustration of One-Fill Power 

Mimlmum HP and Labour Large Filling Capacity, Powerful and Quick in action, Patented End 


Fire Risks, and Saving of Transit Costs P/ ease re / cr to pases 1Q5-107. 



Head Office SP Works Baling Press Specialists STALYBRIDGE 

Telephone 209 STALYBRIDGE 




S. Sf C. Standard 
Scrap Metal Baler 





,,f wwgutoi PH^UW. AUTOMATIC 

Pxos, on Ham ^ ^ ^ 


ot Motor 


V Ash 

Ins Dm, 


11 V M 

Jus l-t 
C X .1 


Sue ol Bxlu 

IS x 12 x 1" 01 


10 to dO 







High Wycombe 




Leicester (3) 




Manchester (2) 


Morecambe (2) 


Nelson, Newark 


Oswestry [Lyme 

Perth, Preston (2) 


Rhyl, Royton 





Stockton- on-Tees 







West Bromwich 





Maintenance and 
Working Costs much 
lower than Hydraulic 

Output 2 to 4 Tons 

per Day 

Operated by 

Unskilled Labour 

All Leading Salvage 

Plant Makers Instal 

Our Presses 

The size of Press to be used de- 
pends on the quantity of Tins 
collected As a bads of con sidera- 
tion, the Standard is suitable for 
towns up to 40,000 population, 
and the Super above that number 
although Stan- 





Barnes (2) 



Blackpool (2) 

Bolton (2) 







Chesterfield (2) 











Doncaster (2) 






Govan (2) 







dard Presses are 
i.i use In many 
towns with 
populations of 


of Motor 



F &L 

Jna Dia. 

Mooi Space 

Size of Bale 



VI Jus 1't 
B 0X35 


18XlSXl2orO 00 to 100 


on Bam 


Please refer to pages 105-107. 



Head Office Sf Works Baling Press specialists STALYBRIDGE 


Telephone 209 STALYBRIDGE 

Baling Press Specialists 








General View of Refuse Salvage Plant (Borough of Chesterfield) 





Combined Salvage and Burning. Many existing installations brought 
up-to-date and their disposal capacities substantially increased by the addition" of 
suitable Salvage Plant. 

Refuse Handling, Screening 
and Sorting Plant. Successful 

plants in all parts of the country. Crude 
refuse handled by Telpher and Grab, or 
Conveyors of band or plate type. Separation 
by large-diameter Rotary Screens com- 
bined with magnetic separators. Picking 
Belts for sorting. Conveyors and Elevators 
for dust and cinders. 
Garbage Separators for 
clean cinders. 

Balers and Slab 
Making Plant. 

Tin and Paper Balers 
(mechanical or hydraulic) 

One of three Screening and Complete Slab Ma tin o- 
Sorting Units, Brookdale F 7 Making 

Road Salvage Plant (City of ilan tS provided to SUlt 

Birmingham) cus tomers' requirements Arrangement of Steel-cased 

- 1 ' Incinerator 

Clinker Handling, Crushing, Elevating and Screening Plant (City of Glasgow) 

Clinker Handling, Crushing, Elevating and Screening 

Telpher and Grabs. Overhead Runways. Light-gauge Railways. Roll Crushers. 
Elevators. Magnetic Separators. Rotary Screens and Storage Hoppers. 

Incinerators. From |- cwt. per hour capacity, natural or 
forced Draught for burning of Crude Refuse and Tailings, Refuse from Hospitals and 
for industrial purposes. 

General. Structural Steelwork, Plate Woik, Buildings, Chimneys (brick and 
steel) provided in conjunction with the foregoing. 

Refuse Power Works (City of Glasgow) 





*jj Nl 

?^A&gf&WA?^^W#!iM&^ 5 



This is the work done by the NINE GULLY EMPTIERS in the 
service of the Sheffield Corporation Mechanical Gully Emptying 
is no longer a novelty, it is the usual routine in the up-to date town. 


1 Requires two men only to operate 
2. Costs 4/6 a day for fuel. 
3 Creates a working vacuum in 10-15 seconds 

4, Has a self-discharging sludge tank, 

5, Is silent in operation and efficient in action, 


Full particulars and prices from 









of good quality 
makes admirable 
paving material 
when used in the 
construction of 



See page 9Q 


The Limmer & Trinidad Lake Asphalt Co. Ltd. 

34 Victoria Street, WESTMINSTER, LONDON, S.W.I. 


The separation and sale of Bones from Household 
Refuse represents a profitable source of income 

to Municipal Authorities. (See page 182). 
We purchase the bones recovered by the most 
modern Salvage Plants in this Country. A Special 
Representative is available to call and 
discuss the subject on request, 
and to negotiate 



Gateshead: 3,000 first year's saving 

Sutton Coldfield: 29% reduction over previous system 

Hull: 9|d. per ton less than horses and vans 

These are but three instances of Fordson 
economy in Municipal Service, all three 
authorities using the old model tractor. 

Now the new Foidson is obtainable with 
its additional power, magneto ignition, 
new carburettor, improved transmission, 
and other new features. A new tractor, 
ahead of the old model yet retaining 

all its adaptability to every class of 
municipal service, both on haulage and 
as a stationary power unit, and per- 
forming them more efficiently and m 
less time. 

Ask the nearest Fordson Dealer for full 
details of the tractor and equipment 
suitable for your particular job. 




^W pn ppp^t^TrH^i wf w&n 


The Exide-Ironclad battery is different 
from any other type It is of unique 
design and has all the characteristics 
necessary to make it the best battery 
for vehicle work 


Corporations or Firms which have thoroughly tested 
electric vehicles equipped with Exide-Ironclad 
batteries all report that these vehicles provide by 
far the best and cheapest method of short 
run delivery. 

The electric vehicle is ideal for Refuse Collection 
It is silent" in operation, has no reciprocating 
parts and there is no gear-changing to be done 
The heart of the electric -vehicle is a storage 
battery, so that il is of the utmost importance to 
ha\e a battcrj- that is both reliable and efficient 

There ib an Exide-Ironclad 
battery for every make of 
electnc vehicle, and it is A 
fact that a vehicle equipped 
with an Exide-Ironclad bat- 
tery will liavcl more miles 
at a faster speed for less 

Write jOJ full f>irl cu trs '0 

W'jfr'i ard Head O/ ; ~(.L 

Itlc-nbonf J'oncileton )St 

Lotion 0,/ic and Li'urt D<.{>, 

Telephone Victoria 6308 





Izal kills germs. Izal is the most efficient disinfect- 
ant known to science. A solution of Izal as low as 
1 in 1000 will kill typhoid germs outright in a few 
minutes. Employ Izal freely, encourage its use in 
garbage cans and sewers, etc., and the risk of disease 
will be materially reduced* 

Izal has the largest sale of any disinfectant to Public 
Health Authorities throughout the world. These 
bodies buy by test only. Names and brands are 
not considered, efficiency proved by analysis is the 
sole criterion their choice is Izal. 




2] Ton Refuse Collection Electric Vehicle, equipped with 300 A.M. Edison Battery 







Telephone : Paddington 5120 

Telegrams : Edibatt, Edge, London 

^ .won u u 

Tipp^g Wag ctpd a district, the v sh rt 



to Municipalities means 



in the disposal and treatment of 


FROM the raw materials are obtained highest possible yields of Tallows, high-grade sterilized Animal and Poultry 
Feeding-stuffs having exceptional protein value, and valuable Fertilisers 

TREATMENT of the materials is performed in a still more simplified manner than has hitherto been possible, 
minimising handling, operations, and working costs No treatment, such as crushing or cutting of raw materials 
prior to rendering, is necessary 

THE elimination of any prior treatment of raw materials means added cleanliness, while fumes from the treatment 
are absolutely controlled and efficiently disposed of. Absolute sanitation and freedom from nuisance is guaranteed. 
MAXIMUM profit is assured, as working costs are minimised, while the yields and values of the products obtained 
are the highest possible As a means of reducing Municipal charges, the " Iwel-Laabs " Process stands supreme 
THE " Iwel " Dry Rendering Plant, of which the " Iwel-Laabs " is an important development, has been employed by the 
BIRMINGHAM CORPORATION with great profit and benefit for years past, and among other Towns and Cities 


Pioneers of Dry Rendering and Contractors to 
H.M. Government, Municipalities, and Leading Private Works 




Solves Refuse Co 

P r o b I e m s 

Two Garner 2} Tonners, from a fleet of 43 supplied to Slepney Borough 
Council These can be used either as Refuse Collectors or Road Sprinklers, 
both bodies being detachable and interchangeable Chassis fitted with 
hydraulic end-tipping gear Note the low losid line 

N efficient refuse collection system demands 
/"% exceptional qualities in the vehicles 
employed. The Garner organisation has a 
thorough experience of the requirements to 
be met. All Garner vehicles are designed tc 
the most advanced standards, with strong 
chassis, powerful engines to withstand con* 
stant stopping and starting, and haul heavj 
loads with ease, and bodies specially plan- 
ned by experts for the purpose intended 
Finest tested materials, and infinite care ir 
construction result in long life, freedom fronr 
trouble, and lowest possible operating costs 
The Garner Works, situated in the heart oJ 
the Commercial Vehicle industry, are fullj 
equipped to effect quick deliveries of orders 
of any magnitude. Write to-day for ful 



Suppliers to Leading Municipalities. 
Contractors to the War Office. 

Manufacturers : 



Telegrams : " Garnabus, Phone, Birmingham " Telephone Acocks Groen 612 (3 lines) 

London " Sentinel House, Southampton Row, W.C. 1 

Telephone Museum 8340. 

London Service - Wells Street, Gray's Inn Road, W.C.I 
Northern Representative - Mr. T. D. Bracken, 360 Plymouth Grove, Manchester 

Telephone Rusholme 2733 

Southern Representative - Mr. V. R. West, 12 Christchurch Road, Winchester 


Goods Chassis : 30/35 Cwt. Standard. 21 Ton Standard. 2 Ton Forward Drive. 
Low Loading 20-Seater Passenger Vehicles 










Also Makers of 






(Proprietor : J W Parkinson) 


Union Street : Ancoats : Manchester 

Telegraphic Address : 
Galvaniser, Manchester 

Telephone : 
2581 Central 


Commercial Motor Vehicles 

Upwards of 100 

Public Authorities 

now operate 
Municipal Harriers. 


Fhe " CYR" tu o-ton law 
load tefiiv tipper lias a body 
capacity of seven cubic yards. 

Public Servicei 

N the many and varied branches of Municipal 

activity, progressive authorities throughout 

the world are effecting great economies by the 
use of Karrier Commercial Motor Vehicles. 

Your own individual requirements can be met 
by a comprehensive range of models which in- 
cludes Road Sweepers, Street Washers, Water 
Wagons, Gully Emptiers and 
Refuse Tippers, particulars of 
which will gladly be furnished 
on application. 


The undoubted merits of the "RSC" Sweeper and Collector have 
firmly established it as the most efficient and up-to-date means of 
street cleansing 

Have no regrets, 

follow the lead of discriminating 

buyers in every part of the world and 














Magnet Works Lombard Street < Birmingham 








As supplied to Westminster and Sheffield 

" Operation rapidly performed and devoid of dust or nuisance." 

Ministry of Health's Report 



As supplied to Liverpool 



For four years now the fleet of Garrett 
electric refuse collecting vehicles used by 
the Glasgow Corporation has been giving 
every satisfaction. 

The Tudor batteries with which these vehicles 
are fitted, not only passed all stipulated tests 
with ease more than four years ago, but since 
have proved their worth in every way 

Every Tudor battery is built to stand up to its 
work and still to have reserve power left even 
after the most exhaustive day's run 

Where the strains of constant stopping and start- 
ing with a heavy load are imposed, the ideal 
traction battery is the Tudor. 

Batteries for Vehicle Traction, Lighting 
and Starting, Power Station, and Wireless 


Advt of The Tudor Accumulator Co Ltd , 2, Norfolk Street, Strand, W C.2 


MC, 190 



1 ho name ol \\ & F. Archer on a broom is a guarantee of 
\\eai J \ci\ texture supplied, from the softest material 
to the extra stiff 

Brettenham Brush Works, Upper Edmonton, London, N. 18 



























Patent Dustless Covers on Standard 6 cu yd. Electricar 
Low-Loader. Supplied to Mr. Jackson's 4th Repeat Order. 
Above : Opening of Doors by Foot. Below : Emptying Bin 

Head Office & Works 


London Office 



Offer your WasT:e Materials 



Trinity Street, BURY, Lancashire 

Buyers of Clean Waste Papers, Carpets, 
Bagging, Rags, Ropes and 

Galvanised Sanitary Dust Bins 




The City 

of Birmingham 


Dust Bins 



Sole Manufacturers 

of the Patent 

Rounded Bottom 

Dust Bins. 

We specially 

recommend the 

Birmingham Bin 
with Rounded 

Ludlow Brothers (1913) Ltd., Birmingham and Lye 

Electric Transport 

TAX 13 

15 Devonshire Street London, E.C.2 

'Phone (London) 
Cent 9975 

And Tyseley, Birmingham 

'Phono (Birmingham) 
Vic. 213 and 214 

G.V. Two Ton Low-loader 


JOHN SHAW & SONS (Salford) Ltd. 


(Private Branch Ex ) 

Telegrams : 
Prelum Manchester 

London Office : 
Norfolk House 
Laurence Pountney Hill 
Cannon Street 
London, E C. 4 

Telephone : 
7747 Mansion Mouse 


For compressing Light Scrap Iron, Meat and Enamelled Cans, etc , such as are collected from the refuse of 
large towns, which in bulk are of no value, but after being compressed become an article of value The Pi ess 
is most simple in design, Locking Arrangement for the hd is so simple that any unskilled man can work it. 

Specialists in the manufacture of Vehicles for 

the Cleansing Services 



Dust Vans 

Dust Carts 




Tumbler Carts 



Low Loading Dust Cart 

Refuse Collection, Street Cleansing, Cesspool Emptying 







Write for lists and speci- 
fications they will show 
you why you should 

The following 
Cities and Public 
Authorities employ 
" Halley " Vehicles 






Lanark County 

Milton U D C 



States Surveyor 

West Bromwich 
etc , etc. 

The truth of this statement is nowhere 
more clearly evident than in the design 
of vehicles which are to be employed in 
the Social Services of great cities. 

The accumulated knowledge of over twenty 
years' experience is embodied in our Special 
Purpose Municipal Vehicles. 

The appeal of the "Halley" to Corporations 
and Boroughs lies not only in their sturdmess 
and suitability for special purposes, but m their 
very low maintenance and running costs, which, 
combined with their exceptional durability, 
constitute a marked saving in expenditure 
throughout their long life. 

We manufacture a wide range of machines suitable for : 
Street Washing Gully and Cesspit Emptying 

Refuse Collection, etc , etc. 

We also supply Tower Waggons for Tramway and Electric 
Lighting requirements 

City of Birmingham fleet of Halley Vacuum Cesspit Emptiers 




The ideal vehicles 


For municipal work generally, and 
for refuse collection in particular, 
Ransome's " Orwell " Electric 
Vehicles have gained a high reputa- 
tion for reliability and economy 
Nearly 40 cleansing departments 
use them -t At Willesden, for ex- 
ample, where a fleet of 1 4 of these 
vehicles is employed, the total 
time lost in a year was but 1 1 % 
of the total working hours, repre- 
senting 99 89% efficiency for the 
twelve months "f Outstanding 
features are low running costs, 
efficient transmission, low cost of 
upkeep, easy operation. 



Detailed quotations on application 

Sims & Jef f eries 










your Costs and Improve 
your Health Statistics 

Write for Catalogue B. 3 

We specially recommend 
INCINERATORS for burning rough stuff 
in connection with " CONTROLLED 
TIPPING," also for the Rubbish re- 
maining from Salvage Operations 

The Incinerator 
Company Ltd. 

Walter House, Bedford Street 
Strand London W.C.2 

Telegraphic Address : Clinkers, Westrand, 
London Telephone; Gerrard 1840 



The most efficient, economical 

and sanitary Gully - Emptier 

on the market is the 





1,100 GALLON 



Operates on the vacuum system Two men only 
required for operating Complete emptying of 
gullies without hand stirring Suction pipe sus- 
pended from rotating jib and balanced. Universal 
joint on suction prolongs life of hose Hose pro- 
tected where chafing might occur Automatic valve 
prevents water reaching and damaging pump Air 
withdrawn from tank is burnt by exhaust from engine 
Spring-loaded union on air pipe to pump Excess 
of water is easily drawn off Level gauges fitted 
to front and rear compartments High tipping angle 
for emptying Whole rear of tank forms emptying 
door Compact and well-proportioned appearance. 

This 1 ,10Q-gal!on Dennis Gully-Emptier 
is a repeat order from the Borough of 

Municipalities using Dennis 
Gully-Emptiers include the 
following : 















For full particulars of any municipal 
vehicle, write to Dept " J.R ," 


Motor Lorry Manufacturers to H M, 
the King 









Telephone City 0244 

Annual Subscription 25/- 

Telegrams Benbrolish, Fleet, London 

Overseas 30/- 








The Gas World 

The Weekly 

Newspaper of the 

Gas Industry 

Coking Section in first issue 

of month. Industrial Gas 

Supplement in third issue 

in month 

more readers 

more exclusive 

more advertisers 

and better 

Subscription 28\- per <Annum 

Includes a copy of the 550 page "Gas World Year Book" 
published in December 

All Enquiries to : 

The Publisher, Bouverie House, 154 Fleet Street, London, E.C.4 





Ann.*.AAnM w w w WJt^&nW^ 

Collection, Treatment and 
Utilisation of Town Refuse" 



preparing for the examinations of 
the Institute of Public Cleansing 
and other professional Institutes which include 
Salvage and Cleansing work in their examinations, 
are invited to apply to the Hon. Secretary, 
* u Jas, Jackson" Study Circle, 
1 6 i Corporation St., Birmingham, 
for particulars and terms of 


the Correspondence 











Hopkinson's Patent 
Parallel Slide B low-off Valve 

Our Boiler Mountings and 
Valves are very widely used 
by leading Municipal and 
Public Authorities, and are 
installed at the following 



















Hopkinson's Pater 
Accessible Check Fe 




Hopkinson's Patent 





1269 (3 LINES) 


Hopkinson's Patent Full 

"Triad" Junction Valve PHONE LONDON: 34, NORFOLK STREET, STRAND, w c 2 cENTRAL*54i Parallel Slide Valve